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Fan AY. Gim Shek Ju赵金石. Chinese Medicine Culture 2016;1, 58-61

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337064256_Gim_Shek_Ju_A_Pioneer_in_Acupuncture_Chinese_Medicine_Education_in_the_United_States

Citation: Fan AY. Gim Shek Ju: A Pioneer in Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine Education in the United States. Journal of Chinese Medicine Culture 2016; 1:58-61.

 

Gim Shek Ju: A Pioneer in Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Education in the United States

Arthur Yin Fan

McLean Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC. Vienna, VA 22182, USA

KEYWORDS: acupuncture; Chinese medicine; United States; Education; history of medicine; Gim Shek Ju

Correspondence: Arthur Yin Fan; Tel: +1-(703) 499-4428; E-mail: ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

 

Several stories of pioneers establishing acupuncture and Chinese medicine (ACM) practices in the United States (U.S.) have been documented. However, the establishment of actual schools for acupuncture and Chinese medicine is one of the key signs that ACM has become an established profession. One of the first people who wanted to set-up a school for Chinese medicine in the United States was Dr. Tom Foo Yuen (谭富园, 89, Aug 7, 1858 – Jul 10, 1947) during the late 1800s in Los Angles, California. However, it was not until the time period of 1969-1970 that the first ACM school was established in the U.S. The school was called the Institute for Taoist Study in LA, with Dr. Gim Shek Ju as the only teacher.

Based on the recollection from some of his students, Dr. Gim Shek Ju (Gim, in short; 赵金石) was impressed by a group of Tai Chi students, most of them students at the University of California in Los Angles (UCLA).  At the urging of his friend’s Tai Chi students, he used acupuncture to treat these students and some of their relatives during a Chinese New Year celebration in Chinatown, LA  in 1969. It was after these acupuncture treatments that these students became interested in ACM and had their Tai Chi teacher, Master Marshall Hoo, a close friend of Gim, persuade Gim to teach them ACM. Gim broke the old Chinese tradition (that means only teaching to those within the family) and taught two classes of non-Asian students ACM during 1969 to 1970. These two classes of students became the key people in ACM development in the U.S., both in acupuncture or Chinese medicine legislation and professional development of Chinese medicine in the U.S. The classes taught by Gim were the origin of three professions: acupuncture and Chinese or Oriental medicine (for licensed acupuncturists, LAc or Oriental medicine doctors, OMD), medical acupuncture (for MD acupuncturists) and animal or veterinary acupuncture (for DVM acupuncturists) in the U.S.

Figure 1. Dr. Gim Shek Ju with a Shaolin Monk.

Dr. Ju arrived in the U.S. around the 1950s (Dr. Fan notes: based on personal research, he should arrive in 1957).  He did not settle in Chinatown, LA until the 1960s (around 1968).  He was still traveling back and forth to Hong Kong at that time because his own family was there.  He practice in LA was funded and organized by his third wife, Helen Robertson.  The clinic was in the apartment that they lived in. Helen was a veterinarian from Downey, CA and a former patient of Dr.Ju. She had suffered a debilitating trauma from a car accident that damaged her spine to the point that she could not stand up, but remained bent at a 90 degree angle.  After finding Dr. Ju via word of mouth, she was able to improve her condition.  Most of Dr.Ju’s patients were Caucasian, and not Chinese.  In fact, very few Chinese came to see him (the author notes: it is opposite to our “common sense”—many people believe Chinese medicine had its market because Chinese people, or say, Asian community uses it more).  Most of his patients were extremely ill, and suffering with debilitating pain.  Dr. Ju was able to treat patients with very little communication.  According to his daughter, Mamie Ju, Dr. Ju’s powers of intuition and understanding or hearing the body was probably daunting to many…even modern-day TCM practitioners.  But it was the “old” way, and in Mamie opinion, the right way to practice.  “Ancient TCM practitioners were most likely practicing Shamans, and I believe my father was a Shaman by birth”.  This is what made him very special. But it is difficult to explain this, even to other TCM practitioners.

Figure 2. Dr. Gim Shek Ju practice Tai Chi with a friend.

 

Figure 3. Dr. Tin Yau So in classroom of New England School of Acupuncture.

Dr.Ju and Dr. Tin Yau So (苏天佑) were colleagues at the Hong Kong College of Acupuncture; Dr. So was the founder. Dr.Ju strongly recommended Dr. So as the best teacher in ACM and let his students resume ACM under Dr. So; he flied with his student Steven Rosenblatt, as well as Steven’ s wife Kathleen, to Hong Kong to meet Dr. So, where these two American students actually studied there for one year in 1972. Per the invitation and handling of a visa by the National Acupuncture Association (founded by Dr.Ju’s students Bill Prensky, Steven Rosenblatt, etc.) , Dr. So arrived in LA in October,1973  as an acupuncturist in the UCLA acupuncture clinic.

Dr. So was one of the most influential individuals of the 20th century by formally bringing acupuncture education to the United States. He established the first acupuncture school in the U.S., the New England School of Acupuncture in Newton, Massachusetts in 1975 with the help of his (also Dr. Ju’s) students Steven Rosenblatt, Gene Bruno, Bill Prensky, etc. after overcoming great difficulties. To some extent, I could say that it was Dr. Gim Shek Ju who brought Dr. So to the U.S. that allowed him to become the father of Acupuncture and Chinese medicine education in the U.S.

Dr.Ju had a very thriving acupuncture practice treating patients inside his three bedroom apartment. He used one of the bedrooms as his main office and treatment room.  His living room was the waiting room.  There were people there from 8AM until after 5PM, but usually no later than 6PM. He often worked six days a week and was always busy doing something. He rarely rested.  He kept a very strict schedule.  He got up every morning before dawn and practiced Tai Chi. No-one knows when he learned Tai Chi.  Then he started his working day at 8AM.  He took a lunch break exactly at noon every day, and ate lunch in Chinatown with friends, probably his students too, and sometimes with his children on the weekends.  Dr.Ju was usually in bed by 8PM unless he had other things to do.  His students were not around regularly… or at least not on a regular basis.  Dr.Ju never really grasped the English language. His daughter often had to translate for patients who were trying to book appointments over the phone. Mamie often had to schedule appointments for him when he was out. His daughter…making trips to the herbal store to get formulas, and helping him in the room with some of the female patients.  Dr.Ju took many patients, the apartment was filled with people non-stop, and he accepted treatments outside of the clinic as well.  It was not unusual for his daughter to come home and find a limousine parked outside our apartment either waiting to pick up Dr.Ju or to drop him off. Dr. Ju never spoke about who his patients were.  He kept many of those things very, very private. He would not discuss many cases or anything in great detail.

His daughter remembers, when he was still involved with his American students, “I remember accompanying my father to UCLA where he gave a lecture about meridian/channel theory and how acupuncture worked.  Another thing my father did that was rather record-breaking at the time was perform anesthesia on a wisdom tooth patient using acupuncture.  I was maybe about 11 years-old at the time (1975) and I remember watching him do this on our old black and white television”.  It was all over the news in Los Angeles.

His daughter continued helping Dr.Ju with his practice on-and-off until age 14 (this was around 1978, when Gim was about 61 years-old).  At that time, Dr. Ju’s local practice had really slowed down.  He was traveling more than he was working at home.  He was invited to many places…particularly Mexico to perform acupuncture, and he had relationships with high officials and wealthy people there. He often stayed in Mexico for weeks at a time.

Dr. Ju died in Hong Kong in 1987, when he was 70 years old.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Ms. Mamie Ju providing her father’s stories and reviewing the draft.

Reference

Fan AY. The earliest acupuncture school of the United States incubated in a Tai Chi Center in Los Angeles. J Integr Med 2014. J Integr Med. 2014 Nov;12(6):524-8.

Fan AY. The legendary life of Dr. Gim Shek Ju, the founding father of the education of acupuncture and Chinese medicine in the United States. J Integr Med. 2016 May;14(3):159-64. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60260-1.

 

 

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via Distribution of licensed acupuncturists and educational institutions in the United States at the start of 2018  

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We have a new published article: there are 50 days free access online, if you like to read the detail, you may click the link:

https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1XydF3RTyQQ3iH

Abstract

This study was conducted to identify the approximate number and density of actively licensed acupuncturists, as well as the number of schools in acupuncture and oriental medicine (AOM) by January 1, 2018 in the United States (U.S.). We contacted the appropriate department governing acupuncturists, such as the Board of Acupuncture or Board of Medicine, etc. in each state and U.S. territories, to collect the data. We also conducted online license information searches in order to collect the most accurate numbers of licensed acupuncturists, especially for those states in which a board could not be reached. We found that the number of actively licensed acupuncturists as of January 1, 2018 in the U.S. was 37,886. The ten states with the largest number of acupuncturists (28,452 or 75.09% of the U.S. total), in order by total, included California, New York, Florida, Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Texas, New Jersey, Maryland and Massachusetts. The number of practitioners was greater than 1000 for each of these states. Among them, the largest three were California (12,135; 32.03%), New York (4438; 11.71%) and Florida (2705; 7.13%). These three states accounted for more than half of the overall total. The number of total licensed acupuncturists has increased 257% since 1998. The overall acupuncturist density in the U.S. – measured as number of acupuncturists per 100,000 – was 11.63 (total number of licensed acupuncturists: 37,886, divided by the total population: 325,719,178 at the start of 2018). There were 20 states with an acupuncturist density of more than 10 per 100,000 population. Hawaii (52.82) was the highest, followed by Oregon (34.88), Vermont (30.79), California (30.69) and then New Mexico (30.27). There were 62 active, accredited AOM schools which altogether offered 100 programs: 32 master degrees in Acupuncture, 53 master degrees in Oriental medicine, 13 postgraduate doctorate degrees and 2 entry-level doctorate degrees. Among these active accredited schools, institutions in the West and East Coast states comprised 77.42% of the national total. California, Florida, and New York represented 41.94%. There were 48 jurisdictions (47 States and the District of Columbia) with acupuncture practice laws in place. States without acupuncture laws included Alabama, Oklahoma and South Dakota. The data suggests that acupuncture profession has steadily grown in the United States.

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Distribution of licensed acupuncturists and educational institutions in the United States in early 2015   (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095496417300122)

Abstract

In recent decades, acupuncture has been used more widely and extensively in the United States (U.S.). However, there have been no national surveys or analyses reported in academic journals on the number of practicing or licensed acupuncturists. This study was conducted to identify the approximate number of licensed acupuncturists active in 2015. The Board of Acupuncture or Board of Medicine in each state or U.S. territory was contacted to collect data. Online license information searching was also performed in order to get accurate numbers of licensed acupuncturists for those states in which a board was unable to be contacted. The study found that the number of licensed acupuncturists in 2015 in the U.S. was 34,481. Of this, more than 50% were licensed in three states alone: California (32.39%), New York (11.89%) and Florida (7.06%). The number of licensed acupuncturists increased 23.30% and 52.09%, compared to the year 2009 (n = 27,965) and 2004 (n = 22,671), respectively; increasing about 1,266 per year. There were 62 and 10 accredited acupuncture institutions providing master and doctoral degrees, respectively. The West Coast comprised 51.39% of degree granting programs, while the East Coast comprised 29.17%; together the coastal states housed more than 80% of all programs, with the remainder sprinkled across the southern (9.72%), northern (8.33%), and the middle/central states (1.39%). Forty-four states and the District of Columbia regulated acupuncture practice by law at the time of data collection. Acupuncture continues to be a quickly growing profession in the U.S.

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Acupuncture: Safety [120]

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that acupuncture can be considered inherently safe in the hands of well-trained practitioners; however without proper training, acupuncture can lead to serious, sometimes life-threatening complications (as in the case of organ puncture and hepatitis transmission). Large-scale clinical trials of over 2 million acupuncture treatments found only 8.6% adverse events in which less than 1% reported as serious.[3,10] All of the reported infections and 68% of the serious adverse events occurred in village clinics or rural hospitals in China where clinical skill disparities exist between rural and urban hospital acupuncturists because rural acupuncturists rarely receive formal education in acupuncture medical colleges.[10] In the United States, ACCAOM accredited curriculum includes indications and contraindications for acupuncture point selection (single and combination), anatomy and needle insertion depth, as well as evidence-based clean needle technique practice, as necessary to protect the public.

Increased cost of care from Opioid Epidemic.

In contrast to acupuncture’s safety record, deaths related to opioid misuse have reached epidemic levels, the financial impact of the epidemic is at crisis levels, and incurred expenses rise from general pharmacological-care side effects, medical errors, and failed surgical procedures. In fact, two Oklahoma citizens die daily from opioid overdose according to the Center for Disease Control: 725 deaths in 2015, 777 in 2014, and 790 in 2013 which 12 is an increase from 662 deaths in 2010, and 127 deaths in 1999.113 Oklahoma, has the highest prevalence of prescription painkiller abuse in the country and more overdose deaths involve hydrocodone than methamphetamines, heroin, and cocaine combined.113 The national epidemic is costing public and private insurers more than $72 billion annually.13 Additionally 30% of patients with chronic pain conditions also suffer from clinical depression, and nearly 50% of patients who suffer from both anxiety and depression disorders have a co-morbid pain diagnosis, which shows the compounding concerns of opioid use for pain.13 The impact of the epidemic is far reaching, including but not limited to families, incarcerated persons, children, and disabled. See Appendix C, D, F.

 

Emergency room misuse.

The percentage of emergency department (ED) visits associated with pharmaceutical misuse or abuse increased 114% between 2004 and 2011. Opioid overuse not only increases ED visits but leads to increased avoidable services and costs that may actually harm beneficiaries. In fact, Medicaid recipients have a higher rate of ED visits and hospitalization for poisoning by opioids and related narcotics than individuals with other forms of insurance or the uninsured.13

 

Acupuncture Regulation Impact

Accepted method of care. Acupuncture is a standardized, licensed and regulated health care profession1 that conducts technical, master’s, and doctoral level training in U.S. Department of Education recognized accredited institutions.2 A Licensed Acupuncturist (or comparable state designated title) provides safe, low cost, and comparatively effective health care services.3,4 Forty seven states and the District of Columbia have developed licensure laws and regulation for acupuncturists. Alabama, Oklahoma, and South Dakota are without acupuncturist regulations. See Appendix B.

 

Recognized as a distinct occupation.

In 2016, a recommendation to establish a new code for this distinct occupation in 2018, “29-1291 Acupuncturists,” was made by the Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS) Standard Occupational Classification Policy Committee (SOCPC).1 Projected growth of the profession through 2024 is greater than average (13%), with 17,700 new job positions predicted.8 Since 2009, “Acupuncturists” have been recognized by the Bureau of Labor and Statistics’ O-Net Online as an emerging profession and assigned a Standard Occupational Code (SOC) of 29-1199.01 under “Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners, All Others.”7,8

 

Congressional Support.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) affirms the validity and promise of acupuncture by the 1997 NIH Consensus Conference, concluding that there is sufficient evidence to expand its use into conventional medicine, encouraging further studies of its physiology, and urging broader public access through insurance companies, federal and state health insurance programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, and other third party payers.67 For twenty years thereafter, rigorous scientific investigation of acupuncture continues through the NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine.68

 

Acupuncture efficacy.

An expanding body of evidence confirms that acupuncture stimulates the body’s natural healing abilities, promoting physical and emotional well-being.15,18 Through evidence review in 2003, the World Health Organization determined that acupuncture is an effective treatment for 28 named conditions and 79 potential conditions.78 See Appendix A.

 

Utilization.[120]

Acupuncture utilization is rapidly increasing in the United States. Nearly 100 primary and specialty physician practice guidelines recommend acupuncture as a non-pharmacological approach to patient care. An integral component of the “collaborative
model of care”, thousands of licensed acupuncturists are independently practicing acupuncture in hundreds of clinics, hospitals, universities, military and veterans’ care facilities. An increasing number of insurance companies are reimbursing for acupuncture, Medicaid in some states covers acupuncture for specific conditions, and the military has long utilized acupuncture for conditions from PTSD to brain injury. 61 See Appendix C, D, E, F.

 

Acupuncture for pain and mental health.[120]

Effective as a non-pharmacological approach to pain management and compounded by a holistic approach to comorbidity care, tens of thousands of licensed acupuncturists effectively treat patients with acute and chronic pain across the nation while now thousands of hospitals and clinics employ acupuncturists to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Acupuncture has recently been found to be as effective as counseling, and both more effective than usual care, for reducing symptoms of depression, a common co-morbid condition found in patients managing chronic pain.50 See Appendix D, E, F.

 

The opioid epidemic & auricular (ear) acupuncture.

To improve behavioral health program retention, reduce withdrawal symptoms, enhance recovery outcomes, and decrease costs, a standardized auricular (ear) acupuncture protocol has gained favor throughout the nation for use as an adjunctive treatment by a variety of health care and criminal justice workers within a variety of comprehensive programs.28,32,33,36,39,92,94 The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) has trained over 25,00029 professionals to use the NADA 5-point auricular acupuncture protocol to treat individuals of all ages recovering from substance use disorder, trauma, and other behavioral health issues.28 Over 628 licensed addiction treatment facilities utilize NADA30 and inclusion within comprehensive criminal justice programs has reduced inmate expense and re-incarceration rates for two decades.33,36,37,39,40,42,103 See Appendix D.

 

Emergency department savings.

Expanding acupuncture utilization in the ED provides a non-pharmacological option to citizens, reduces drug-seeking behavior, and can reduce costs. A clinically relevant “real-world” 2016 study published in the Journal of Emergency Medicine, finds acupuncture to be more effective than intravenous morphine in the ED, when individualized patient-centered plans are administered by licensed acupuncturists.55 Newly available preliminary statistical outcomes are available from Rhode Island’s state Medicaid Section 1115 Demonstration, a pilot designed to cut costs by reducing member emergency room visits; members with chronic pain receive acupuncture and other complementary services within a comprehensive pain management plan. Outcomes are demonstrating that on average per year, these members have: decreased ER visits by 61%, reduced opioid prescriptions by 86%, lowered prescription totals by 63%, and reduced annual costs per member by 27%. 90,92-94

 

Other cost benefits.

Overall savings resulting from acupuncture inclusion include decreased requirements for surgical procedures, shorter in-patient hospital stays, reduction in pharmacologic prescriptions, reduction of days lost at work, and reduction of necessary medical review appointments. See Appendix C, D, E, F.

 

Call for Inclusive Collaborative Action

Abusers of opioids have been found to have total health care costs eight times that of non-abusers, placing a significant economic and resource burden on providers and health systems. Dr. Shellie Keast, from the University of Oklahoma’s College of Pharmacy, which supports SoonerCare pharmacy operations, believes that the Medicaid agency is ideally positioned to leverage collaborative efforts with other state agencies in the development of documents and best practice guidelines for intrastate work.13 Appendix F. Oklahoma’s plan in 2012, Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse in Oklahoma, calls for lowering the states’ unintentional overdose deaths by 15% will aim for “action to ensure the proper and appropriate use of opioids to treat pain and improve patient’s quality of life while reducing the risk of abuse and diversion… through various partnerships…is imperative.”113 Governor Fallin emphasizes: “Immediate action must be taken in order to reverse this rapidly growing epidemic, which has become one of the most serious public health and safety threats to our state… a broad-based coordination between law enforcement, prevention and treatment providers, the Oklahoma Legislature, community organizations, tribes, and health care is required… It is unacceptable for any Oklahoman to lose their life to this preventable problem.”113

Appendix A: Physiological Effects of Acupuncture Attention through research has been focused upon the following modern theories to explore acupuncture’s effects upon the body:
· Stimulation of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
· Change in secretion of neurotransmitters and neurohormones
· Conduction of electromagnetic signals
· Activation of the body’s natural opioid secretion system
Most recently, twenty first century state-of-the-art technological advances allow observation of physiological effects of acupuncture. For example-
· fMRI scans detect reduction in pain sensation within the brain after acupuncture.19
· Ultrasound Color Doppler Imaging detects increased blood flow of peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries.20
· PET-CT study concludes acupuncture induces different levels of cerebral glucose metabolism in pain-related brain regions.21
· Demonstrated autonomic nerve function control and modulation of neurotransmitters in related brain regions are observed.22
· Blood panels measure immune system regulatory function, increased humoral/cellular immunity, and NK cell activity.23
· Synchrontron radiation based Dark Field Image method finds accumulation of miro-vessels in acupoints.24
· fMRI scans detect bilateral activation of insula and adjacent operculum; correlation to increased saliva production.25
· Synchrontron x-ray fluorescence analysis detects concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in and around acupuncture points.26
· Acupuncture’s role in triggering the release of adenosine, a neuromodulator with anti-nociceptive properties, is confirmed.14
· Tonometery, electrocardiogram, phtoplethysmogram, ultrasonography, and cardiographyconfirm acupuncture effects upon peripheral pulse amplitudes, wave, blood flow velocity, and sympathetic nerve activity.27
A 2013 study of acupuncture effect upon central autonomic regulation concludes: “Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response.”22

 

Appendix B: State Licensure and Regulation The National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) has provided more than 21,000 certificates for acupuncturists applying for licensure in 46 states and the District of Columbia since 1982.6 NCCAOM Diplomates have passed a set of certification examinations which assure that the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for safe and effective entry-level practice of acupuncture have been demonstrated. The NCCAOM is the only national organization in the United States whose certification programs are accredited for the purpose of qualifying candidates for state licensure status. The Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE)’s National Commission on Certifying Agencies (NCCA) recognizes the NCCAOM national certification programs in Acupuncture, Chinese Herbology, and Oriental Medicine as having achieved national accreditation by meeting the NCCA’s 21 standards.6 When providing services in health system and hospital facilities within the 45 regulated states, licensed acupuncturists are credentialed as “Licensed Independent Practitioners” (L.I.P.) to be in compliance with The Joint Commission quality assurance standard for healthcare system accreditation.5 The Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM) is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the accreditor for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) educational programs in the United States. ACAOM accredited institutions and programs are shaped by a rigorous peer review process. Over sixty institutions throughout the country have achieved the standards of educational excellence by meeting ACAOM’s accreditation requirements.2 The Oklahoma Board of Private Vocational Schools (OBPV) provides licensure and oversight of two acupuncture training schools.9 The existing grass-roots acupuncture education network may contribute to bridge-building collaborations necessary for acupuncturist workforce expansion within the fabric of Oklahoma’s existing infrastructures. Collaboration in the development of innovative tiered apprenticeship programs for life-long career advancement are in alignment with current workforce expansion plans. In addition, to accommodate evolving health care industry workforce requirements, stakeholders are exploring practice scope expansion solutions, such as competency based certifications. Oklahoma appears to be postured for incubating hybrid models that bridge life-long learners from beginner to entry-level and master clinician to doctoral research.

 

Appendix C: Acupuncture Utilization Examples Forty-seven states regulate the practice of acupuncture and over sixty colleges host accredited acupuncture programs. Hundreds of hospitals and health systems throughout the nation utilize licensed acupuncturist services. Some leading hospitals currently employing licensed acupuncturists include but are not limited to: Massachusetts General, Ohio’s UH MacDonald Women’s Hospital, Stanford Hospitals, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Los Angeles’ Cedar Sinai, Athen’s Regional Medical Center, Lutheran’s Medical Center, NYU Rusk, Beth Israel Medical Center, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Gouverneur Healthcare, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Mercy Hospital Chicago, Children’s Memorial Hospital Chicago, Chanadaigua VA Medical Center, University Medical Center of AZ, Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, Midwestern Regional Medical Center, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, University of Colorado Medical Center, University of New Mexico Hospitals, Cleveland Clinic for Integrative Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center (Continuum Center for Health and Healing), and Duke University Medical Center, George Washington University Hospital, Greenwich Hospital Integrative Medicine Program. Research Hospitals that offer licensed acupuncturists services include but are not limited to: John Hopkins, Ronald Regan Hospital – UCLA, Cleveland Clinic, San Francisco Medical Center, University of California, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Barnes Jewish St. Louis, and Henry Ford Hospital Detroit. An ever growing number of insurance plans throughout the nation include acupuncture as a member benefit102 and acupuncture meets, at minimum, five of the Essential Health Benefit (EHB) criteria and service categories of care: ambulatory patient services, maternity/infertility, mental health and substance use disorders services, rehabilitative services, preventative wellness, and chronic disease management. As a result of acupuncture being designated as an EHB, nearly 54 million Americans in six states (California,69 Alaska,70 Maryland,71 Massachusetts,97 New Mexico,72 Washington73) and four territories (American Samoa,74 Guam,75 North Mariana Island,76 Virgin Islands77) gained access to acupuncturists’ services in 2014. As of 2017, eight states provide acupuncture coverage through Medicaid (California,79 Maryland,86-88,99 Massachusetts,97 Minnesota,80 New Mexico,81 Ohio,82,83 Oregon84,85 and Rhode Island89,91); New Jersey’s Medicaid plan covers acupuncture anesthesia during surgery;108 and several states, such as Vermont,96 implement temporary innovative Medicaid pilot programs to examine outcomes and savings.90-93 Various programs within the United States Department of Defense medical community have long utilized acupuncturists’ services and provide introductory training for physicians.56 Acupuncturist services are recognized as important and “extremely effective” treatments for non-opioid pain management;57 post-traumatic stress disorder and resilience care;58 mild traumatic brain injury and related insomnia and headaches;59 traumatic brain injuries and psychological disorders,60 and for Gulf War Illness,62 in facilities across the country (e.g., Camp Pendleton, Ft. Hood, Ft. Bliss, Ft. Carson, Walter Reed Army Medical Center). Additionally, the military has provided these services to military families for stress management and post-traumatic stress disorder.61 The United States Department of Veterans Affairs has integrated acupuncture into a number of facilities while expanding outreach into the community; of 125 Veterans Affairs facilities, 58 offered acupuncture services to patients in 2011.34 The 2014 Veteran Choice Program provides acupuncture as a standalone procedure, or within a comprehensive plan, for treating veterans experiencing service-connected low back pain, PTSD, and more. The U.S. Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration identifies acupuncture as a complementary treatment for detoxification in comprehensive addiction treatment programs.31 A 2014 report for the National Association for Medicaid Directors recommends acupuncture as one part of a holistic approach to treating patients suffering from pain and co-morbidities such as substance use disorder (SUD) and behavioral health issues.13 The National Congress of American Indians issued resolution #SD-15-027 in 2015 requesting inclusion of licensed acupuncturist services within Indian Health Services and tribal health facilities. 16 To remove barriers to licensed acupuncturist services, equitable inclusion and expansion of coverage within all payer programs, including state and federally funded programs, is import to industry stakeholders for public health improvement.13,16,17,65,66

 

Appendix D: NADA and Substance Use Disorder – Utilization, Research & Cost-Saving Information Throughout the United States, comprehensive treatment settings utilizing the NADA protocol are multiple including but not limited to inpatient, outpatient, addiction treatment programs, mental health facilities, jails, prisons, criminal justice and parole, drug-court, prison psychiatric units, street outreach, homeless shelters, half-way houses, harm reduction, natural disaster emergency relief, HMOs, active-duty military programs, and veterans healthcare programs.28,29,33-37,39,64 Although studies now confirm high risk groups have poorer completion rates than non-risk groups, the high risk groups are proving more likely to complete treatment when participating in NADA treatment.32 NADA is used in the acute and chronic phases of substance use treatment and is increasingly integrated into dual diagnosis settings to help patients with substance use disorders with concurrent behavioral health conditions, psychiatric symptoms,32 and other comorbidities, including personality disorders.35 Report benefits from NADA include improvement in depression, anxiety, anger, sleep disturbances, impaired concentration, fatigue, and body aches/headaches as well as reduction in withdrawal symptoms and cravings.28,32,35-39 Referrals for comprehensive programs utilizing NADA typically include a variety of agencies, such as probation and parole, Drug-Court, Department of Social Services, Department of Motor Vehicles, Recovering Professionals Program, employee assistance program, and physician offices, to name a few.32,28,39 U.S. Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) identifies acupuncture as a complementary treatment for detoxification recognizing that it can be included as part of a comprehensive treatment program for addictions;31and, multiple studies support the adjunctive use of NADA for the treatment of nicotine, heroin, alcohol, and cocaine addiction.28,32,35-39 628 licensed addiction treatment programs30 included acupuncture as a therapeutic tool in 2012. Twenty-two states encourage utilization of the NADA protocol through regulation.28 A 2016 study of NADA within a substance abuse treatment program demonstrates long term savings to the state in NADA control group upon discharge: increased employment by 71% of those previously unemployed vs 35% in the control group, and long term abstinence from alcohol, drugs, and tobacco use.32 A study outcome produced expenditures in a non-NADA control group totaling $17,890.00 while NADA control group costs were $15,580.00, equating to a savings of $2,310.00 per patient,37 a savings of 1 million dollars to the state for every 433 participants. Prison and jail inmates are seven times more likely than individuals in the general population to have a SUD.13 Inmates medicated for violent behavior experienced improved behavior ratings and required fewer psycholeptic drugs than controls when receiving NADA three times weekly.36 A model comprehensive homeless and criminal justice incarceration diversion program in Oregon reports 11% recidivism, saving the state $25,000/year for every rehabilitated person.42 A Sacramento Drug Court Cost Study of a model program demonstrates cost-benefit through comprehensive programming with a 17% recidivism rate after two years for graduates compared to 67% in the non-participation control group, and a saving of $6,605 per graduate; ten year program lifetime savings is calculated as more than $20 million.64
Incorporating NADA treatment into Oklahoma’s existing drug-court diversion and rehabilitation programs may further reduce prison populations and drive down crime rates; for example, reducing Oklahoma drug court graduates’ re-incarceration rates by 50% could save the state 2 million dollars for every 100 additional rehabilitated persons. “The average annual cost of incarceration in the Oklahoma Department of Corrections is $19,000 per person, compared with the average annual per person cost for drug court participation of $5,000. Drug court graduate re-incarceration rates of 23.5% when compared with rates of those whom successfully complete standard probation, 38.2%, and released inmates, 54.3%, are further proof that Oklahoma Drug Courts work.”100 Oklahoma’s existing drug-court program has expanded to 73 of the 77 counties,100 increasing rural and underserved population
access throughout the state. However, Oklahoma incarcerates “a greater portion of its population than any state but one, and a greater portion of its women than anyone”118 and the building of three new prisons is being considered. Pregnant women and neonates are one of “three populations with unique risk in the context of the opioid epidemic.”65 NADA has proven to be safe during pregnancy.41 Although specific acupuncture points on the body are contraindicated during pregnancy, NADA has consistently proven safe and effective throughout term and post-partum. For more than 25 years, NADA was incorporated into the Maternal Substance Abuse Services Program, inspiring programming world-wide while continuing the legacy of the innovative award winning Lincoln Recovery Center39 pregnancy program, an award granted to the center in 1991 by the American Hospital Association.28 Between 2000 and 2009, the rate of newborns diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and dependent on narcotics nearly tripled and the number of mothers using or dependent upon drugs more than quadrupled, while costs associated with treating these infants increased by 35%. Medicaid was the primary payer for over 75% of these births.13 New studies on NADA efficacy suggest savings in neonatal intensive care units from shorter hospital stays and decreased withdrawal symptoms resulting in reduced costly interventions.44,45 The CDC reports that over $170 billion dollars annually is spent on treating diseases caused by smoking; 16 million Americans are currently living with a disease caused by smoking. When used in combination with educational programming, auricular acupuncture protocols (including NADA) have demonstrated marked effect upon reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and long-term measurable outcomes are comparable to that of pharmacological approaches at greatly reduced cost.109

 

Appendix E: Acupuncture, Chronic Pain Efficacy, and Cost-Saving Information 30% of patients with chronic pain conditions also suffer from clinical depression, and nearly 50% of patients who suffer from both anxiety and depression disorders have a comorbid pain diagnosis.13 A study published by the NIH in 2017 documents that “evidence on acupuncture compared with usual care and counseling compared with usual care shows that both treatments are associated with a statistically significant reduction in symptoms of depression in the short to medium term, with no reported serious adverse events related to treatment. Acupuncture is cost-effective compared with counseling or usual care alone, although the ranking of counseling and acupuncture depends on the relative costs of delivering these interventions.” 107 A 2017 study finds that acupuncture rewires the primary somatosensory cortex in patients experiencing carpel tunnel syndrome.18 The research supports previous findings recommending the use of acupuncture as a viable first-line long-term cost-effective approach, prior to consideration of costly surgical procedures. Over one-third of patients avoided surgery (arthroplasty of the knee) when acupuncture was added to the standard treatment protocol – generating a savings of $9,000 per patient.49 When incorporated into pre-surgical care, acupuncture has been found to reduce the amount of post-operative morphine consumption; post-operative pain is a strong predictor of subsequent chronic pain.46 Acupuncture is routinely used to reduce pain in cancer patients, as well as alleviate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.46,51-54 Cancer Treatment Centers of American (CTCA) employs acupuncturists in its five nationwide hospitals, providing acupuncture in an integrative setting.51 Dana Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard University has developed evidence-based acupuncture protocols to provide clinically relevant solutions for clinicians and cancer patients with pain, including: postoperative cancer pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome, opioid-induced constipation, opioid-induced pruritus, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, aromatase inhibitor-associated joint pain, and neck dissection-related pain and dysfunction.52-54 The National Cancer Institutes comprehensive cancer database (PDQ) statement on acupuncture indicates usage in a wide range of conditions: hot fashes, xerostomia (dry mouth), neuropathy, and cancer related-fatigue & pain management. A 2008 military study documents how replacing pharmacotherapy with acupuncture care for symptoms of pain can generate a $4,000 savings per patient to the Department of Defense – additional savings of $10,000-$18,000 per patient occur when procedures such as spinal fusion and laminectomy are successfully avoided.47

 

Appendix F: Medicaid and Acupuncture The 2014 Medicaid report articulates: “In addition to the financial implications of prescription drug abuse and overdose, chronic and severe social implications reverberate through Medicaid and social service programs as well in the areas of homelessness, domestic violence, unemployment, foster care, and others that can burden states for years in service and care needs.”13 “Medicaid is the largest health care safety net program and is responsible for the health care of 73 million Americans, including those with the most complex health care needs. The program covers 50 percent of all U.S. births, promotes children’s achievement of developmental milestones and school readiness and, enables adults to maintain good health in support of work readiness and job retention, and furthers the values, dignity, safety and integration of individuals who require long-term services and supports. States and the federal government jointly finance and operate Medicaid, making an effective federal-state partnership critical to success of the program.”114 “Because rates of prescription drug misuse and overdose are elevated in individuals that have co-occurring mental illness and/or have a history of substance abuse, access to and effective coordination of care is essential… Inclusion of other clinical and support specialists on the treatment team could also be considered and may be amenable to payer support, including case management and promotion of non-pharmacologic therapies such as acupuncture, massage, and health/wellness classes. Together these ancillary providers may help in shifting the focus away from prescribing opioids as a primary or exclusive means of pain relief… By incorporating recommendations across the six strategies, states can reasonably expect to bring about a reduction in prescription drug abuse and overdose, resulting in an overall reduction in healthcare expenses and an improvement in the health outcomes of Medicaid beneficiaries.”13 A Medicaid report in March 2017 articulates that “Medicaid must also be given statutory certainty around its ability to support holistic initiatives addressing the social determinants of health, which may cross federal programmatic and funding silos. These types of initiatives represent the next horizon for health care transformation, and with federal support, states may lead the way.”114 The Oklahoma Health Care Authority is a state government agency responsible for administering the Oklahoma’s Medicaid program known as “SoonerCare.”112 In 2015, approximately 17% of Oklahoma enrollees were categorized as disabled, aged, or blind; 61% of enrollees were children and more than half of children in Oklahoma were enrolled; average monthly enrollment was 820,000; and total Medicaid spending was $5.1 billion (including funding of $3.1 billion from federal government).111 The agency’s mission is to “responsibly purchase state and federally-funded health care in the most efficient and comprehensive manner possible; to analyze and recommend strategies for optimizing the accessibility and quality of health care; and, to cultivate relationships to improve the health outcomes of Oklahomans.”112 As of 2017, eight states provide acupuncture coverage through Medicaid (California,79 Maryland,86-88,99 Massachusetts,97 Minnesota,80 New Mexico,81 Ohio,82-83 Oregon84-85 and Rhode Island89,91); New Jersey’s Medicaid plan covers acupuncture anesthesia during surgery;108 and several states, such as Vermont,96 implement temporary innovative Medicaid pilot programs to examine outcomes and savings.90-93 Oklahoma appears to be poised to lead, saving lives by qualifying for supplemental Medicaid funding through 1115 demonstration pilots.90 Expanding upon current successful programming, replicable demonstrations utilizing licensed acupuncturists, with clearly-defined baseline measures, goals, and evaluation criteria in targeted sub-populations groups, have clear potential to propel Oklahoma into the lead for innovative emerging community-based collaborative approaches addressing the unique challenges that must be overcome to successfully combat the nation-wide opioid epidemic.

 

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119. Governor Fallin- 2017 Legislative Session goals http://altustimes.com/category/news This brief has been prepared by Rhonda K Bathurst, L. Ac., Brandy Valentine-Davis, L. Ac., and Tim Williams, Cert. Ac. with evidence base provided by the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM) and the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA). 9 August 2017.

120. Fan AY, Miller DW, Bolash B, Bauer M, McDonald J, Faggert S, He H, Li YM, Matecki A, Camardella L, Koppelman MH, Stone JA, Meade L, Pang J. Acupuncture’s Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence, Cost-Effectiveness, and Care Availability for Acupuncture as a Primary, Non-Pharmacologic Method for Pain Relief and Management—White Paper 2017. J Integr Med. 2017; 15(6): 411–425.

 

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via How many acupuncturists in the United states (US) in the early of 2015 ?

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J Integr Med. 2018 Jan;16(1):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2017.12.003. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Distribution of licensed acupuncturists and educational institutions in the United States in early 2015.

In recent decades, acupuncture has been used more widely and extensively in the United States (U.S.). However, there have been no national surveys or analyses reported in academic journals on the number of practicing or licensed acupuncturists. This study was conducted to identify the approximate number of licensed acupuncturists active in 2015. The Board of Acupuncture or Board of Medicine in each state or U.S. territory was contacted to collect data. Online license information searching was also performed in order to get accurate numbers of licensed acupuncturists for those states in which a board was unable to be contacted. The study found that the number of licensed acupuncturists in 2015 in the U.S. was 34,481. Of this, more than 50% were licensed in three states alone: California (32.39%), New York (11.89%) and Florida (7.06%). The number of licensed acupuncturists increased 23.30% and 52.09%, compared to the year 2009 (n = 27,965) and 2004 (n = 22,671), respectively; increasing about 1,266 per year. There were 62 and 10 accredited acupuncture institutions providing master and doctoral degrees, respectively. The West Coast comprised 51.39% of degree granting programs, while the East Coast comprised 29.17%; together the coastal states housed more than 80% of all programs, with the remainder sprinkled across the southern (9.72%), northern (8.33%), and the middle/central states (1.39%). Forty-four states and the District of Columbia regulated acupuncture practice by law at the time of data collection. Acupuncture continues to be a quickly growing profession in the U.S.

KEYWORDS:

Acupuncture educational institution; Acupuncture regulation; Acupuncturist; Oriental medicine; United States

PMID: 29397086  DOI:10.1016/j.joim.2017.12.003

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Acupuncture is good for changing American Opioids Epidemic, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ug3e0FzSRAI

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  针灸在美国被点赞 中药科研亟须提上日程

近日,第三届美国中医药大会在美国首都华盛顿举行,来自美中等国的300余名中医药专家参会。

中医在美国的发展现状如何?面临着什么样的机遇和挑战?带着这些问题,《经济参考报》记者采访了与会专家。

针灸发展形势良好执照医生约4.5万人

本次会议主办方是全美中医药学会与美国中医校友联合会,两个协会的会长均由曾就读于北京中医学院(现北京中医药大学)的田海河担任。

田海河对记者介绍说,自美国前总统尼克松访华把中医带回美国,至今已45年。目前,中医在美国有了长足发展,已有46个州和华盛顿特区完成了针灸立法,目前各类有执照的针灸医生约有4.5万人。

“这是一个很好的发展形势,但是学术水平良莠不齐,中医尚未进入医学主流体系。”他说,“就像美国人选择餐馆时还是以喜欢吃西餐为主,喜欢中餐的人虽有,但仍占不是占多数。要想怎么把中医带入美国主流社会,我们还有很多工作要做。”

田海河说,作为外来医学,中医在美国“还是经常会受到一定排挤和否定”,虽然临床、科研及发表的文章为针灸提供了一些有效果的证据,但证据还不是显得非常充足,“需要我们更有效地开展临床科研工作,提供更有说服力的证据,以此来说服民众、媒体、立法、保险公司等更进一步认可中医,接受针灸。”

他表示,针灸是个好东西,确有疗效,很多人都认识到它的价值,近期出现了一些其他行业想染指针灸,“我们的态度很明确,欢迎更多的人来做针灸,惠及民众。但一些其他行业人只接受了很少的训练,就提供针灸服务,还有人把针灸改成‘干针’,试图绕过法律和各行业的执业范围限制去做针灸,非但没效,更对病人造成安全隐患。所以,我们要抗争,并教育、帮助们民众找到一个合格的针灸师。”

“我们需要对民众的安全负责,对针灸的名誉负责,需要对我们中华民族文化保护。因为‘干针’本来就源自于针灸,他们把针灸改头换面,不认祖归宗了,反倒说跟中医无关,这是一种剽窃行为。”田海河说。

针灸临床研究正规范望入美主流医学体系

谈到美国中医药大会,田海河说,该会每年举办一次,今年是第三次,美国、中国以及其他一些国家的中医领军人物都来了,几乎所有以西人为主的全国性中医组织的主要负责人也来了,参会的还有美国食品和药物管理局及美国国家卫生研究院官员,美国针灸执照考试委员会、美国中医高校联合会及资格鉴定委员会等机构的主要负责人也都到场。

“这次大会的目的是要团结更多的华裔和非华裔针灸师,大家聚集到一起共同探讨如何抓住机会,面对挑战,并同时提升整体学术水平,引领美国中医药的正确发展方向。”他说。

会上,世界针灸学会联合会主席、中国针灸学会会长刘保延教授做了题为《针灸临床疗效研究的思考与实践》的主题报告。他指出,疗效是针灸发展的根本,虽然针灸临床研究论文在1992年以后快速增长,但过去一直没有形成系统的临床评价方法,缺乏高质量研究数据,为此中医学界制定了或正在制定针灸临床研究和技术操作等一系列规范,希望按照国际通行标准,“推动针灸堂堂正正进入主流医学体系”。

大会期间,全美中医药学会副会长、美国执照针灸师樊蓥做了题为《假针灸真是假的吗?》的学术报告,对一些结论认为针灸无效的论文的研究方法提出质疑。

樊蓥在接受记者采访时解释说,美国顶尖医学期刊《美国医学会杂志》近年来发表7篇针灸研究论文,最近的一次是今年6月发表两篇论文,其中刘保延负责的一项研究显示针灸治疗女性压力性尿失禁确实有效,而另6篇临床研究结果都是阴性(无效)结论,这可能与研究方法有关系。

樊蓥说,西医的临床研究要求随机、对照、双盲,对针灸而言,随机和对照没有问题,但双盲是有问题的,因为假针灸很难瞒过针灸师和病人,造成了所谓“真针灸不真、假针灸不假”的问题。

美国国家卫生研究院的夏月博士探讨了大数据对针灸科研的指导意义,希望美国和中国在中医科研方面加强对接。

中药尚处灰色地带科研亟须提上日程

田海河强调,中医不仅是针灸,还包括中药,但因为针灸首先进入美国,所以针灸在美国成了中医的代名词。目前,中药在美国未被列入药物范畴,只能归类为食品补充剂,不能宣传治疗效果,所以还处于灰色地带,这限制了中药在美国的广泛应用和发展,“要把中药发展提到日程上来,包括推动在州层面甚至联邦层面立法。当然,这需要一个漫长的过程。”

他举例说,包括麻黄在内,有几个中药因为安全性问题被美国食品和药物管理局禁用,“因此,有些人经常拿这些药说事,说中药不安全。我担心这类事件发生多了后,对在美国开展中药工作会有负面影响。所以,我们需要做一些科研,了解中药的毒副效应,保证民众的安全服用。如果只有针灸,而没有中药,不是一个完整的中医概念。”

会上,中国国家中医药管理局政策法规与监督司原司长、世界中医药学会联合会秘书长桑滨生解读了中国中医药立法及对海外的影响。桑滨生说,《中医药法》是中国中医药领域的一部综合性、基础性法律,不仅对中国中医药发展具有里程碑意义,而且对各国中医药和传统医学立法起到引领和借鉴作用。

美国药管局植物学评审组官员李静介绍了该机构有关植物新药的评审情况。她指出,截至去年年底,共有超过650种植物药物提出或通过“新药临床试验申请”,其中绝大多数处于二期临床试验阶段,但只有2种获准上市。如果把植物药物按全新成分的药物看待,这个通过率“还不错”。

另外,还有十多位中美知名针灸专家和科研教育领域的学者做了学术报告。大会主要赞助企业同仁堂也介绍了其国际化之路,表示已在纽约、旧金山和洛杉矶开设分店,要让更多美国人知道同仁堂这个品牌。记者 林小春

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新华社华盛顿11月20日电通讯:针灸在美迎来发展好时机  新华社记者郭一娜 林小春 胡友松

http://us.xinhuanet.com/2017-11/21/c_129746359.htm

莎伦又一次躺在熟悉的床位上,针灸师樊蓥轻、稳、准地在她肩部和颈部的重要穴位扎上了细细的针。莎伦的耳边响起了柔和温馨的轻音乐,她慢慢闭上眼,呼吸均匀,心情平和,享受着45分钟的美好时光。

樊蓥是美国弗吉尼亚州与华盛顿特区持照针灸师,他的诊所——美京中医院位于弗吉尼亚州梅克林小镇。300平方米左右的诊所内共有15个床位。身为一名职业律师的莎伦·希普勒已经忘了这是她第几十次来到诊所接受治疗。

喜欢运动的莎伦今年60岁,她与针灸的缘分始于3年前。当时她得了肌腱炎,西医告诉她最快也要几个月才能恢复。有朋友向她推荐了樊蓥,后者仔细查看了腿伤后告诉她:“两周来做一次治疗,3次后就能康复。”

西医的数个月康复和针灸的3次就好,这差距大得让莎伦有些不敢相信。面对莎伦的怀疑,樊蓥只是笑笑说,咱们试试看吧。

出乎莎伦意料,一个疗程下来,肌腱炎竟奇迹般康复,她矫健而轻盈的身姿很快又重现跑道。

“太神奇了!”她在接受新华记者采访时禁不住多次感叹。此后,莎伦对中医从信赖到依赖,身体稍有不适,首先想到的就是看中医。

律师工作压力大,导致莎伦睡眠不好。多次针灸后,她感觉睡眠明显改善;每次莎伦感觉有感冒前兆,或者美国将有流感,她就赶紧来找樊蓥。莎伦相信,针灸疗法帮她提高了免疫力。最近她肩部受伤,又是针灸让她免受了手术折磨。

如今,莎伦不仅是针灸的粉丝,更成了针灸的传播者。亲朋好友生病了,她会向大家推荐中医。85岁的老母亲经常背疼,她正力劝母亲尝试针灸疗法。

莎伦对中西医治疗差别感触很深。“樊蓥和他的助手对我十分耐心、细致,我感到很放松,恢复得也快。如果是去看西医,幸运的话,医生会给我10分钟,然后就开药,或安排更多检查。看到我肩痛或脚痛,西医会给我打止痛针。我可不喜欢打针和手术。所以,我会来针灸诊所。我虽不知道针灸原理,但我知道它有效。”

“美国的医疗体系有很大问题,”莎伦说,“不少人在寻找替代疗法。我坚信今后会有越来越多人看中医。”

正如莎伦所说,当前,美国阿片类止痛药物滥用与成瘾危机日益严重,在这方面针灸大有可为。

阿片类止痛药包括杜冷丁、吗啡等,镇痛作用强大,但有极强成瘾性。官方数据显示,每天平均有91名美国人死于过量服用阿片类药物,年均超过3万人。10月底,美国总统特朗普向阿片滥用现象宣战,称“阿片类药物滥用是美国历史乃至全世界范围内最严重的药物危机”。

严峻现实迫使西医接受非药物疗法。而在各种非药物疗法中,针灸以有效和廉价脱颖而出。中国数十年来持续进行的中医机理研究形成大量成果,此时成为有力佐证。美国国家科学、工程和医学学院7月发布题为《疼痛管理与阿片类药物流行》的报告指出,近几十年来针灸止痛已成为普遍做法,包括针灸在内的一些非药物干预手段是止痛的有力工具。

不少旅美针灸师预感,针灸在美国可能迎来了发展的好时机。目前,经过业内人士长达40多年的努力,美国50个州中有46个州以及华盛顿特区已立法让针灸行医合法化。而在这个过程中,樊蓥的诊所,从15年前的无人问津到如今每周稳定在150位左右病人。个中改变,反映了针灸在美国从举步维艰到逐步受到认可的历程。

正是看到针灸治疗的良好效果和较大的市场空间,美国一些理疗师也开始学习针灸,但这也带来了一些干扰。美国的针灸与东方医学硕士需要学习2000小时以上,而美国部分理疗师将针灸改成“干针”,只需学习50个学时就可行医,且未接受中医针灸的完整训练,更缺乏中医针灸处理多科疾病的全能知识和技能储备。所谓干针是指理疗师用针头对激痛点进行针刺的方法。

“美国国内一些理疗师的做法是在混淆视听,给针灸在美发展带来挑战。”谈起这些“干扰”,樊蓥皱起眉头。

目前,莎伦所参加的医疗保险覆盖针灸治疗,可报销80%。10月,美国参众两院议员同意在老年人与残疾人联邦医保的一个补充项目中包括针灸。如果该法案最终通过,相信将进一步推动针灸在美国的发展。

11月,多个美国中医针灸团体在学术期刊上正式发布《针灸应对阿片类药物危机白皮书2017》,樊蓥也是作者之一。这份白皮书被送交美国卫生与公众服务部,并得到积极回复。

也是在初冬,作为全美中医药学会(ATCMA)副会长的樊蓥参加了首次在美国国会举办的针灸推介会,向议员推荐和介绍针灸在止痛与治疗阿片类药物滥用与成瘾方面的作用。现场气氛热烈,40多人还尝试了耳针。“在国会和联邦政府层面,我们还将继续推动,为针灸在美迎来真正春天不懈努力。”樊蓥说。

+1

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http://news.xinhuanet.com/overseas/2017-09/27/c_1121734808.htm

如果说传统中医作为一个整体在美国还处境艰难,那么针灸的命运要好得多。经过业内人士长达40多年的努力,美国50个州中有46个州以及华盛顿特区已立法让针灸行医合法化。由于美国阿片类止痛药物滥用与成瘾危机日益严重,针灸在美国面临着大发展乃至被主流医学界所接受的良机。

一周前,美国35个州、华盛顿特区以及美属波多黎各的检察长联名发出公开信,呼吁美国健康保险计划联合会的1300个会员公司修改保险政策,将针灸等非药物止痛疗法纳入在内。此前,美国马里兰州、华盛顿州、阿拉斯加州等已将针灸纳入医疗保险体系。

美国针灸界26日发表一份21页的英文白皮书,列举一系列科研证据,表明针灸能作为一线疗法安全有效地治疗急性与慢性疼痛。

“针灸的春天也许来了,”在华盛顿特区从业的执照针灸师樊蓥对新华社记者说,“这次美国的阿片类药物危机,将让非药物疗法正式有了一席之地,包括针灸、整脊和医疗按摩,但也不能说没有春寒。”

自去年3月时任美国总统奥巴马提出止痛药物滥用问题,在新泽西州行医的执照针灸师李永明就意识到“这或许是一个针灸新时代的开始”。他第一个提出,美国正在开展“新鸦片战争”,这个说法在华人针灸师内部得到广泛认同。

“在各种非药物疗法中,针灸治疗疼痛效果最好,对替代阿片类止痛药最具特异性,所以这对针灸界无疑是个好消息和发展机遇,几十年不遇,为针灸进入主流医学提供了良机,”李永明说。

对于美国各州检察长的呼吁,他乐观地认为,美国保险公司照办的概率很大,一个原因是针灸成本不高,而“阿片类药物中毒急诊住院治疗平均每次9万多美元。够一个针灸师一年的工资。保险公司是要算成本的”。

全美中医药学会会长田海河强调,美国各州检察长的公开信只是一个提议,采纳与否不知道,但这确实可能意味着针灸在美国大发展的机遇即将来临,接下来的问题是怎么抓住机遇。

田海河说,目前美国有4.5万名针灸师,首先技术一定要过硬,能有本领去帮助病人止痛,使病人没有理由、没有借口去用止痛药,也就不会成瘾。“我们要有这个金刚钻,才能揽这个瓷器活。”

他还提醒,即使各州检察长的提议被接受,美国还有很多提供针灸治疗的私人诊所与个体医生并不在医疗保险体系内。保险体系内的一些医生也提供针灸服务,但称之为“干针”,认为这与中医无关。“干针”反而有可能抢先利用这个机遇,这是需要针灸师们解决的问题。

“如果针灸能被纳入医保范围内,这太好不过了。但这将是一个漫长的过程。结果不是等来的,需要我们提供科学证据,证明针灸止痛安全、有效,”田海河说。

对于各州检察长的提议,美国健康保险计划联合会通信与公共关系主管凯瑟琳·唐纳森告诉新华社记者,他们已在探索加强使用已被证明有效止痛的非药物疗法。

唐纳森说:“对于许多患者而言,诸如针灸、瑜伽和锻炼等疗法都是有效的一线疗法,但这视患者个体的不同情况而言,必要时再改而使用药物疗法。”

那么,美国学术界目前到底怎么看待针灸呢?

美国国家补充和综合健康中心官网在对针灸的介绍中指出,只要由有经验的、受过培训的针灸师施针,针消过毒,总体是安全的,但不当施针能引发严重副作用。一系列研究表明,针灸可能有助减轻腰痛、颈痛和骨关节炎疼痛,也有可能帮助减少紧张性头痛发生频率并预防偏头痛。

美国国家科学、工程和医学学院也于今年7月发布一份题为《疼痛管理与阿片类药物流行》的报告指出,近几十年来针灸止痛已成为普遍做法,包括针灸在内的一些非药物干预手段是止痛的有力工具。

2015年,美国医疗保健机构凯泽·珀默嫩特公司曾在6000多名会员慢性疼痛患者中开展问卷调查,结果发现,32%的患者接受了针灸治疗,47%的患者接受了整脊治疗,21%的患者说同时使用这两种疗法。

研究第一作者、凯泽·珀默嫩特公司健康研究中心的查尔斯·埃尔德对新华社记者说,针灸是帮助治疗慢性肌肉骨骼疼痛的一种重要手段,有越来越多的科学证据支持使用针灸止痛。因为慢性疼痛很难治疗,所以针灸治疗就显得很重要。

“通常我们使用的药物效果不佳或者副作用太大,所以医生和患者都期待替代疗法,”埃尔德说,“针灸的作用应该在我们的医保体系里继续增强,这将很有意义。比如,俄勒冈州现在要求医疗保险覆盖包括针灸在内的补充医学方法治疗背痛患者。我预计我们将来会看到更多这样的要求。”

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Today, White Paper version 2.0 was published online first at the Website of Journal of Integrative Medicine

Click to access S2095-4964(17)60378-9.pdf

Acupuncture’s Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence, Cost-Effectiveness, and Care Availability for Acupuncture as a Primary, Non-Pharmacologic Method for Pain Relief and Management, White Paper 2017

Abstract by Arthur Yin Fan

The title of White Paper is “Acupuncture’s Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence, Cost-Effectiveness, and Care Availability for Acupuncture as a Primary, Non-Pharmacologic Method for Pain Relief and Management, White Paper 2017”白皮书的题目是“针灸在解决阿片类药物危机中的作用:针灸作为一线非药物疗法治疗和控制疼痛的证据、花费和医疗服务的可行性”。

There were 6 organizations as the co-publishers-参加发表该白皮书的有6个合作单位:The American Society of Acupuncturists, ASA美国针灸师联合会 、The American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety, AAPAS美国执业针灸安全联盟 ,  The Acupuncture Now Foundation, ANF针灸立刻行动基金会,  The American TCM Association, ATCMA全美中医药学会 ,  The American TCM Society, ATCMS)美国中医针灸学会和全美华裔中医药总会 National Federation of TCM Organizations, NFTCMO 。

White paper  was drafted and edited based on a letter, which original authors were(白皮书起草是在一封信的基础上起步的,信的原文作者是): The Joint Acupuncture Opioid Task Force (Chair: Bonnie M. Abel Bolash, MAc, LAc. Member organizations: The Acupuncture Now Foundation (ANF) ,The American Society of Acupuncturists (ASA) ;组员: Matthew Bauer, LAc ;Bonnie Bolash, LAc ; Lindy Camardella, LAc; Mel Hopper Koppelman, MSc ;John McDonald, PhD, FAACMA ;Lindsay Meade, LAc ;David W Miller, MD, LAc .

The first (revising) author 白皮书修改稿第一作者: Arthur Yin Fan, CMD, PhD, LAc (ATCMA) ;Correspondent author通讯作者: David W Miller, MD, LAc 。Other authors参与白皮书的其他作者: Sarah Faggert, DAc, LAc; Hongjian He, CMD, LAc;Mel Hopper Koppelman, MSc; Yong Ming Li, MD, PhD, LAc ; Amy Matecki, MD, LAc*;David W Miller, MD, LAc; John Pang, MD** , etc . *Division Chief, Dept. of Medicine, Highland Hospital, Alameda Health System; **Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

Abstract

The United States is facing a national opioid epidemic, and medical systems are in need of non-pharmacologic strategies that can be employed to decrease the public’s opioid dependence. Acupuncture has emerged as a powerful, evidence based, safe, cost-effective, and available treatment modality suitable to meeting this need. Acupuncture has been shown to be effective for the management of numerous types of pain, and mechanisms of action for acupuncture have been described and are understandable from biomedical, physiologic perspectives. Further, acupuncture’s cost-effectiveness could dramatically decrease health care expenditures, both from the standpoint of treating acute pain and through avoiding the development of opioid addiction that requires costly care, destroys quality of life, and can lead to fatal overdose. Numerous federal regulatory agencies have advised or mandated that healthcare systems and providers offer non-pharmacologic treatment options, and acupuncture stands as the most evidence-based, immediately available choice to fulfil these calls. Acupuncture can safely, easily, and cost -effectively be incorporated into hospital settings as diverse as the emergency department, labor and delivery suites, and neonatal intensive care units to treat a variety of pain seen commonly in hospitals.

Acupuncture is already being successfully and meaningfully utilized by the Veterans Administration and various branches of the U.S. Military.

摘要

美国正处于整个国家的阿片类药物流行危机,医疗系统亟需非药物的疗法、用以治疗疼痛并减少公众对阿片类药物的依赖。针灸作为强有效的、循证的、安全的、具有成本效益的治疗方式,满足这一需求。众多针灸临床试验已经证明针灸对许多类型的疼痛治疗有效,针灸的作用机制已被阐明,并且可以从生物医学和生理学角度解释。同时,从治疗急性疼痛的角度来看,针灸的成本效益可能会大大降低医疗保健支出,并避免发生昂贵的阿片类药物成瘾、破坏生命质量、并导致致命的过量。许多联邦监管机构已经建议或强制医疗保健系统和提供者提供非药物治疗选项,而针灸是最具实证性的、并立即可以采用。针灸可以安全、便利、经济有效地纳入医院设置,如急诊部门、产房以及新生儿重症监护室等,用以治疗医院里普遍见到的各种疼痛。

退伍军人管理局和美国军方的各个部门已经成功地有针对性地采用针灸。

  1. Acupuncture is an effective, safe, and cost-effective treatment for numerous types of acute and chronic pain. Acupuncture should be recommended as a first line treatment for pain before opiates are prescribed, and may reduce opioid use.

针灸疗法安全有效、经济,治疗多种急慢性疼痛有效:理应作为疼痛的一线治疗,先于阿片类药物使用,针灸疗法可以显著减少阿片类药物用量(我们在以下各分项中归纳了众多证据)。

1.1 Effectiveness/Efficacy of acupuncture for different types of pain.

针灸疗法治疗多种疼痛有效。

1.2 Safety and feasibility of acupuncture for pain management.

针灸疗法治疗疼痛安全、易行。

1.3 Cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for pain management.

针灸疗法治疗疼痛可以减少支出。

1.4 Can adjunctive acupuncture treatment reduce the use of Opioid-like medications?

结合使用针灸疗法可以减少阿片的用量。 

  1. Acupuncture’s analgesic mechanisms have been extensively researched and acupuncture can increase the production and release of endogenous opioids in animals and humans.

针灸的镇痛机制已经有大量的研究,针灸增加动物和人类的内源性阿片肽并促其释放。

  1. Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain involving maladaptive neuroplasticity.

针灸治疗慢性疼痛涉及改善其病态的神经塑形。

  1. Acupuncture is a useful adjunctive therapy in opiate dependency and rehabilitation.

针灸是有益的治疗阿片依赖并促其康复的辅助疗法。

  1. Acupuncture has been recommended as a first line non-pharmacologic therapy by the

FDA, as well as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in coping with the opioid crisis. The Joint Commission has also mandated that hospitals provide non-pharmacologic pain treatment modalities.

针灸已被FDA、以及美国国家科学院、国家工程院和国家医科院三院应对阿片类药物危机联合委员会推荐为一线非药物疗法。医院考核联合委员会也已经把非药物治痛疗法列为医院必须包括的项目。

  1. Among most non-pharmacologic al managements for pain relief now available, acupuncture therapy is the most effective and specific for opioid abuse and overuse.

迄今为止,可用的非药物治疗疼痛的疗法,针灸疗法最为有效并对于阿片类药物滥用和过用使用针对性最强。 

  1. Acupuncture is widely available from qualified practitioners nationally.

美国有足够的合格的针灸师

Click to access S2095-4964(17)60378-9.pdf

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http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-09/27/c_136643493.htm

WASHINGTON, Sept. 26 (Xinhua) — In the wake of an opioid epidemic, acupuncturists in the United States issued a white paper on Tuesday, recommending acupuncture as a primary non-pharmacologic method for pain relief and management.

“The United States is facing a national opioid epidemic, and medical systems are in need of non-pharmacologic strategies that can be employed to decrease the public’s opioid dependence,” said the 21-page white paper.

Official figures showed that opioid overdoses kill 91 Americans every single day and more than half of those deaths involve prescription opioids.

Titled “Acupuncture’s Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic,” the white paper said “acupuncture has emerged as a powerful, evidence-based, safe, cost-effective, and available treatment modality suitable to meeting this need.”

Organizations that contributed to this paper included the American Society of Acupuncturists, the American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety, the Acupuncture Now Foundation, the American Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Association, and the American TCM Society and National Federation of TCM Organizations.

The white paper said acupuncture has been shown to be effective for treating various types of pain, with the strongest evidence emerging for back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, chronic headache, and osteoarthritis.

It said mechanisms of action for acupuncture have been extensively researched, which found the ancient Chinese practice increase the production and release of endogenous opioids in animals and humans.

“Acupuncture should be recommended as a first line treatment for pain before opiates are prescribed, and may reduce opioid use,” it wrote.

“Further, acupuncture’s cost-effectiveness could dramatically decrease health care expenditures, both from the standpoint of treating acute pain and through avoiding the development of opioid addiction that requires costly care, destroys quality of life, and can lead to fatal overdose.”

The white paper came about a week after the U.S. National Association of Attorneys General sent a letter to America’s Health Insurance Plans, asking its insurance company members to review their payment and coverage policies in order to promote alternatives to opioids such as acupuncture.

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Fan,Zheng,Yang-Evidence that dry needling the intention to practice acupuncture. JACM-2016 Last Version

Dry needling is a short form acupuncture, currently Physical Therapiests and other related professionals want to practice acupuncture under such a name with only 20-30 hours weekend training. This may cause big negative impact to public safety and acupuncture (both traditional and medical) profession.

We just published an article in a known SCI journal–Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (JACM),  which treated this article as a High Impact Article. Please read at(I also attached a copy of Manuscript):

Evidence That Dry Needling Is the Intent to Bypass Regulation to Practice Acupuncture in the United States
Arthur Yin Fan, Ling Zheng, Guanhu Yang  Read Now

Fan,Zheng,Yang-Evidence that dry needling the intention to practice acupuncture. JACM-2016 Last Version

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Article from: http://www.thebestschools.org/rankings/best-acupuncture-schools-us/

Acupuncture relieves pain, promotes healing and addresses a wide range of health problems for millions of people all over the world. Acupuncture, an important component of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is based on the idea of returning the body to a state of harmony or ideal functioning. Acupuncture rebalances the flow of energy (Qi) in the body. Acupuncture influences human energy through manipulating the meridians of the body, connected energetically with internal organs and systems.

The World Health Organization’s official report titled Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials, specifically listed 28 diseases, symptoms or conditions which acupuncture (through clinical trials) has proved to provide effective treatment. The US National Institutes of Health issued a consensus statement proposing acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention for complimentary medicine. The American Medical Association Journal of Internal Medicine concluded acupuncture effectively reduces chronic pain with few side effects.

Because of acupuncture’s increasing popularity, the number of acupuncture schools has grown over the years. The schools, also known as Traditional Chinese Medicine schools or Traditional Oriental Medicine schools, typically teach the fundamentals and related Western medical subjects.

With numerous institutions offering acupuncture programs, it’s not easy selecting a school. Prospective students may begin their search with schools which received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM).

The Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine as well as the American Association of Oriental Medicine established ACAOM in 1982 as a not-for-profit organization. The U.S. Department of Education recognizes ACAOM as a “specialized and professional” accrediting agency.

ACAOM has more than 50 schools and colleges with accreditation or candidacy status. All of the schools we selected for our list have received accreditation from ACAOM.

The Best Acupuncture Schools

Factors which influenced our choice of schools making this list as well as their relative order include the following:

  • Quality of faculty, not only as practitioners of acupuncture but also as researchers advancing the field
  • Comprehensiveness of the training program, including hands-on training
  • Internships
  • Success in training students who can lead the field
  • How long the school has been in existence and its reputation for excellence during that time
  • Doctoral program in acupuncture, not required but a plus for a school

The Best Acupuncture Schools in the United States

1Oregon College of Oriental Medicine

(Portland, Oregon)Oregon College of Medicine

Established in 1983, Oregon College of Oriental Medicine (OCOM) is one of the oldest Chinese medicine colleges in the nation. OCOM integrates classical theory with a modern practical approach to health and wellness. The college, known for research, has received research grants from the National Institutes of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The Research Department’s partners include the University of Arizona, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland State University, Legacy Health System and Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research.

Oregon College of Oriental Medicine offers a Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degrees.

Students receive a foundation in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, qi cultivation and therapeutic massage as well as a focus on the collaboration between Western biomedicine and Chinese medicine.

The college infuses the master’s and doctoral curricula with research literacy and appreciation.

The Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (MAOM) degree program includes coursework and training in the practice and theory of herbal medicine, acupuncture, nutrition, exercise, therapeutic massage and more. The program also includes courses in anatomy, physiology, community health and practitioner/patient dynamics.

Full-time students can earn their master’s degree in 36 months. Students complete 3,334.5 hours – 214.86 credits – for their degree, including 994.5 hours of clinical education.

Students receive clinical training at the college’s clinic and at off-campus centers. They also complete 32 hours of a Community Health Externship at Hooper Center, Project Quest and Old Town Clinic.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) program, a clinically focused postgraduate degree program which leads to a clinical doctorate degree, consists of 1,221 hours — 48.6 credits, including 670 clinical hours and 551 classroom hours. Designed for practitioners who want to earn the degree while maintaining a practice, the program features 20 intensive teaching modules over 24 months. Most modules occur Friday to Monday and include classroom content and clinical work. Between modules, students complete independent study assignments and homework, reading assignments, clinical case studies and more.

The Doctor of Acupuncture program includes two specializations – Aging Adults and Women’s Health. Students complete one year on each specialization.

Students also complete three 60-hour Clinical Selectives – externships, special clinical studies, writing skills development or supervision skills development, as well as a capstone project.

Oregon College of Oriental Medicine conducts research and treats patients at two Portland clinics and also operates an herbal medicinary, where master’s degree students get hands-on experience during their Herbal Practicum.

The Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degrees received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM).

Admission requirements: Applicants for the master’s degree program must complete three years – or 135 quarter credits/90 semester credits – at an accredited institution.

Doctoral program applicants must hold a master’s degree or diploma in acupuncture or Oriental medicine from an ACAOM-accredited college or school or the international equivalent. They also must have training in herbal medicine.

2Emperor’s College School of Traditional Oriental Medicine

(Santa Monica, California)EmperorsCollege

Emperor’s College School of Traditional Oriental Medicine, founded in 1983, is one of the oldest acupuncture schools in the United States. The college is known for having one of the most distinguished faculties among Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine schools in the nation, its robust veterans clinical outreach program, and for the comprehensiveness of its programs, offering in-depth study in every major acupuncture style. The school is unique in offering a “qi cultivation” component which includes all five major styles of tai chi and several qi gong forms.

The Emperor’s College teaching clinic, open to the public, offers a one-to-one intern-to-patient ratio and reports more than 15,000 patient visits a year.

The school has a robust civic engagement program. Los Angeles County issued Emperor’s College a special commendation for its work with the Los Angeles homeless veteran’s community. The 2015 Special Olympics World Games selected the college, its alumni, faculty, and Master’s and Doctoral students to be the sole provider of holistic wellness services to the over 7,000 athletes and coaches representing 165 nations from around the world.

The school’s alumni have gone on to practice in and perform advanced integrative research at western medical hospitals and clinics, open private practices around the world, write for important publications, and serve in senior administrative positions at Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine schools.

Emperor’s College School of Traditional Oriental Medicine offers Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree options. Both programs focus on preparing professional healthcare providers who can integrate Eastern and Western medical knowledge.

Students receive a foundation in the theory, history, diversity and philosophy of Oriental medicine as well as hands-on experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in various practice settings.

The four-year Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine (MTOM) degree program consists of 3,210 instructional hours or 970 hours of internship and 224 didactic units. Students can also take the program on a part-time basis and finish in up to eight years.

Emperor’s College School of Traditional Oriental Medicine offers its curriculum year-round with 11-week quarters.

The Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine degree program includes courses in acupuncture, biomedicine, Oriental medicine, Western nutrition and Chinese herbal medicine.

Students complete clinical training in an on-campus acupuncture clinic and training in Western medical center such as the Roy and Patricia Disney Family Cancer Center and the Venice Family Clinic, a Federally-qualified community health center.

The Master’s degree program provides concentrations such as Classical Acupuncture, Korean Acupuncture, Japanese Acupuncture and Nei Gong. Master’s degree students can also tailor the degree to their personal and professional goals through electives such as advanced herbal medicine, advanced tai chi, classical Chinese medicine and advanced qi gong.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) degree program offers a dual specialization in physical medicine and internal medicine.

The DAOM curriculum includes advanced training in all aspects of TCM/Oriental medicine and within two specialty areas, applicable biomedical science and advanced patient assessment, diagnosis and treatment.

The 1,250-hour curriculum consists of 600 hours of didactic instruction and 650 hours of advanced clinical rotations.
Designed for working acupuncturists, classes meet Thursday to Sunday once a month for 22 consecutive months.

Students complete clinical hours through internships, preceptorships and mentorships. During clinical hours, students incorporate community service with educational support to the master’s degree interns.

The program follows a cohort model; students receive instruction in reproductive medicine, cardiology, oncology, sports medicine, stroke rehabilitation and more.

Doctoral students also complete a capstone project.

The Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine degree program and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree program have received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM). The California Acupuncture Board also approved the college. Its master’s degree graduates can sit for the California Acupuncture Licensing Exam. Graduates can also sit for the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine exam.

Admission requirements: Emperor’s College prefers applicants hold a bachelor’s degree or at least an associate’s degree or have 60 semester units of general education from a regionally accredited degree-granting university or college. The college also allows applicants to earn educational requirements through assessments such as the American College Testing Proficiency Program, the U.S. Armed Forces Institute Program or College Advanced Placement.

Doctoral program applicants must hold a master’s degree or completed a master’s level program in Oriental medicine from an ACAOM-accredited or –candidate institution, or the foreign equivalent. Applicants also must hold current clinical license or credentials in their state, province or country of residence as well as current CPR/AED and first aid certification.

Emperor’s College School of Traditional Oriental Medicine may also grant acceptance to the DAOM program based on an applicant’s clinical practice and examinations.

3New England School of Acupuncture

(Newton, Massachusetts)new-england-school-of-acupuncture

New England School of Acupuncture (NESA), founded in 1975, was the first acupuncture school in the nation. NESA is part of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. NESA, known for its research program, is a National Institutes of Health-supported Developmental Center for Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The New England School of Acupuncture has received more than $5 million in grants.

The school offers two master’s degree programs with multiple track options.

Students can focus on acupuncture and earn a Master in Acupuncture (MAc) degree or combine acupuncture with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) for a Master’s in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (MAOM) degree.

Regardless of their chosen degree, all students complete a core curriculum in Chinese Acupuncture Styles. The program provides students with a foundation in Eastern and Western approaches to medicine and includes core courses in medical theory, diagnostic and treatment skills of traditional Chinese medicine.

Students can tailor the degree to their personal goals with several track options — Pain Management, Chinese Herbal Medicine, Japanese Acupuncture Styles or a combination. Students also can choose to complete a certificate program in pain management along with another track. NESA is a leader in Japanese acupuncture education in the United States.

The Pain Management track provides students with an understanding of Western and Eastern approaches to pain and allows students to earn dual master’s degrees from the New England School and Tufts University School of Medicine.

Master in Acupuncture students complete nine internship rotations for 630 clinical training hours and must perform 250 documented treatments and evaluate 50 patients.

Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine students complete 10 internship rotations for 720 clinical training hours and must perform 350 treatments, treat 50 patients and write 75 Chinese herbal prescriptions.

Students complete internships in the school’s Teaching Center and biomedical partner facilities in the Boston area. They also can choose from more than 60 assistantship sites.

Full-time students can complete the Chinese Acupuncture Styles program in 33 months, the Chinese Herbal Medicine program in 36 months, the dual program (Chinese Herbal Medicine and Japanese Acupuncture Styles) in 36 months and the Pain Management program in 33 months.

The Master’s degree in Acupuncture and the Master’s degree in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM). New England Schools of Acupuncture received authorization from the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education to grant master’s degrees in acupuncture, and acupuncture and oriental medicine.

Admission requirements: Applicants must hold a baccalaureate-level degree from an accredited institution.

4American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine

(San Francisco, California)American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ACTCM), founded in 1980, merged with the California Institute of Integral Studies, also based in San Francisco, in 2015. The college attracts students from all over the world. ACTCM has one of the largest TCM libraries in the United States.

Several faculty members have served in leadership roles for the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

ACTCM offers master and doctoral degrees in Traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture.

The college operates the Acupuncture & Herbal Clinic and provides presentations and lectures about Chinese medicine and the integration of Eastern and Western medicine.

The American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine offers two programs for those beginning careers in Chinese medicine – the Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Doctorate in Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine. Students who are licensed or already practice in the field can pursue a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree, while those seeking to bridge the gap between the master’s and doctoral programs can pursue the Transitional Doctorate.

Programs include instruction in acupuncture, herbal therapy, diet, massage, meditation and physical exercise.

Students intern at the college’s Acupuncture & Herbal Clinic, the Auricular Clinic and specialized clinical sites in the Bay area – including Lifelong Berkeley Primary Care, California Pacific Medical Center and the Center for Somatic Psychotherapy.

Students can also study abroad in China – two to six weeks at Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in Hangzhou or three months at Henan University.

The comprehensive Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine (MSTCM) degree program emphasizes hands-on clinical training as well as theories, medicinal uses of Chinese herbs, diagnostic skills and acupuncture technique. Full-time students can complete the program in 12 semesters over four years.

The First Professional Doctorate of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine degree incorporates the master’s curriculum with advanced training in integrative, patient-centered care and research literacy. The degree is designed for individuals who seek to enter the acupuncture and Chinese medical field at the doctoral level who do not have prior training in acupuncture and Chinese medicine. Students can complete the 192-unit program in four years.

The program includes clinical and didactic work in systems-based and integrative medicine and well as advanced study in auricular acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine oncology. The program also includes integrated medicine so graduates can collaborate with other healthcare providers. Students are conferred both the doctorate and a Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine concurrently at graduation.

Designed for licensed acupuncturists who want to focus on integrative medicine and specialize in pain management, the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) degree is open to those who have been practicing for more than 10 years or hold a master’s degree in oriental medicine. The program is designed for licensed acupuncturists who want to focus on integrative medicine, deepen their TCM skills and knowledge and specialize in TCM Pain Management or TCM Women’s Health.

Students can complete the 42.75-credit program in seven semesters with monthly classes from Friday to Monday. The program combines clinical and didactic hours for a total of 1,225 hours.

DAOM students also can take part in externships nationwide and in China. Students can apply their coursework toward the American Academy of Pain Management Credential. Students can complete the 21-unit transitional doctorate program in one year.

The Master in Traditional Chinese Medicine and the clinical Doctorate in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine hold accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM). The college also holds regional accreditation from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

Admission requirements: Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Doctorate in Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine program applicants must hold three years of undergraduate training. To apply to the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program, students must have graduated from an accredited program in Oriental Medicine or its foreign equivalent or have at least 10 years of documented experience, plus formal college training in Oriental medicine and acupuncture. Applicants to the Transitional Doctorate in Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine must hold a Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine from the American College of Traditional Chinese medicine.

5AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine

(Austin, Texas)The AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine

AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, founded in 1993 helps the community through partnerships with nonprofit organizations and through providing free and reduced-price treatments to people who cannot afford them. The school performs approximately 17,500 patient visits annually in its student and professional clinics. The school hosts the annual Southwest Symposium and offers continuing education opportunities. AOMA works with Western healthcare institutions, such as the Seton Healthcare Family.

AOMA offers Master and Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degrees.

The Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (MAcOM) program consists of 200 credits or 2,898 hours and includes the study of acupuncture studies, biomedical sciences, herbal studies and mind-body/Asian bodywork therapy. Through observation and internship, students spend more than 900 hours on patient contact.

Full-time students can complete the MAcOM program in about four years. The school also offers accelerated and part-time options.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) program follows a modular format and combines on-campus residencies with independent study and research. Students can complete the program in two years.

The 74-credits/1,260-hour program includes the study of pain and psychological phenomena; principles of functional and nutritional medicine; neurological, sensory and dermatological pain; and eco-psycho-social pain.

Students spend 252 hours in an externship and 408 hours in an internship.

AOMA offers a study-abroad program in China. The program, offered every two years pending enrollment, is a collaboration with the Chengdu University of Traditional Oriental Medicine.

The school holds accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, Texas State Board of Acupuncture Examiners, and the California Acupuncture Board. The Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine programs received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admission requirements: Master’s degree applicants must hold a bachelor’s degree, or its equivalent, from an accredited institution with a minimum 2.5 grade point average in the last 60 hours of study. The school may consider applicants who have completed 90 baccalaureate-level semester credits. Transfer students must have completed at least 60 semester credits with a minimum overall grade point average of 2.5.

Doctoral candidates must hold a master’s degree from an ACAOM-accredited program, demonstrated scholastic achievement by a minimum cumulative grade point average of 3.0 in their graduate program and hold a current license – or be eligible to obtain a license – to practice acupuncture in Texas.

6Bastyr University

(Kenmore, Washington)Baster University, Kenmore, Washington

Bastyr University, founded in 1978, enrolls about 1,200 students. The university, which also has a campus in San Diego, CA, offers programs in acupuncture, nutrition, herbal medicine, midwifery and more. Bastyr University includes the Department of Acupuncture & East Asian Medicine and the School of Naturopathic Medicine.

The university’s degree options include combined Bachelor/Master of Science in Acupuncture, combined Bachelor/Master of Science in Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine, Master of Science in Acupuncture, Master of Science in Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine degrees. Students also can complete a certificate in Chinese Herbal Medicine.

The university’s comprehensive approach to Oriental medicine and acupuncture prepares students to work with Western medicine practitioners. Graduates can integrate Western and Eastern paradigms of medicine. Bastyr University also conducts research in oncology and integrative neuroscience.

All students complete a minimum of 400 patient contacts and 44 preceptor hours observing and shadowing acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine practitioners.

Students can complete clinical hours at the university’s teaching clinic — Bastyr Center for Natural Health in Seattle, as well as at community care clinics which provide care to immigrant communities, low-income residents and seniors.

Students who completed at least two years at the undergraduate level can earn their bachelor’s degree along with their Master’s in Acupuncture or Master’s in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

The Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (MAOM) program includes the same classroom and clinical training as the Master’s in Acupuncture program as well as Chinese medical language and Chinese herbal medicine.

MAOM students complete 1,356 clinical training hours, while Master’s in Acupuncture students complete 828 hours. Master’s degree students can study abroad at one of Bastyr’s sister schools in Shanghai or Chengdu, China. Full-time students can complete the acupuncture program in about three years or the acupuncture and Oriental medicine program in about 3.5 years.

Master’s degree students can sit for the National Commission for the Certification of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine board exam.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) program allows students to deepen their understanding of Chinese medical classes and apply the treatment principles to clinical practice. The program integrates biomedical and Chinese medicine concepts with an emphasis on pain management.

The DAOM program consists of 1,218 hours didactic and clinical hours. Students complete their 650 clinical hours through hands-on internships, preceptors and clinical theory. Doctoral students also can choose to take part in a China externship. They also must complete a capstone project. Bastyr University offers the program in a weekend-intensive format over two years.

The university is a member of the Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and the American Association of Naturopathic Medical Colleges.

Bastyr University holds accreditation from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities.

The Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine program received accreditation from the Council on Naturopathic Medical Education. The Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine provides accreditation to the Master of Science in Acupuncture, Master of Science in Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine degree programs.

Admissions requirements: Applicants for the combined bachelor/master degree programs must hold 90 quarter credits with a minimum 2.75 grade point average and a grade “C” or better in all basic proficiency and science requirement classes.

Applicants for the master’s degree programs must hold a bachelor’s degree with a “C” or better in prerequisite course work and experience with acupuncture.

Doctoral applicants must hold a master’s degree or its equivalent from an accredited acupuncture school and be licensed in their home state or Washington state.

7Five Branches University

(Santa Cruz, California)Five Branches University

Five Branches University, founded in 1984, operates two campuses in California – in Santa Cruz and San Jose. The university provides programs related to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and integrative medicine. Five Braches University is known for its herbology department.

Designed for students interested in developing a practice focused on acupuncture – including licensed Western medical practitioners, the Master of Acupuncture (MAc) program includes academic and clinical training.

The university offers the master’s programs in English at both campuses. The three-year professional degree program consists of 2,256 hours and 119.25 units. Five Branches University offers the curriculum on a semester basis with clinical training during the summer term.

The MAc curriculum includes Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, herbology, acupuncture and clinical medicine; and Western medicine.

The MAc program prepares graduates to be primary healthcare providers with skills of four branches of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Tui Na massage, acupuncture, Chinese dietary medicine and energetics and the integrative components of Western medicine.

Students can complete clinical hours through externships at a variety of settings such as Highland Hospital in Oakland, Janus, Mental Health Client Action Network, a veteran’s clinic, a community clinic or a private practice.

Five Branches University also offers international externships at one of its five sister schools in Taiwan, China or Korea.

Master’s degree students also take part in a Career Development Fair to demonstrate their knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

The degree also fulfills requirements for the National Acupuncture Certification Exam.

Individuals who want to practice in California and are not licensed Western medical practitioners must complete the MTCM program, which includes Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture studies.

The Master in Traditional Chinese Medicine (MTCM) program includes coursework in the “five branches” of traditional Chinese medicine: Tui Na massage, herbology, acupuncture, Chinese dietary medicine and energetics. The program also incorporates Western medical studies, such as Western diagnosis and pharmaceuticals. MTCM students also can earn specialty certifications in Medical Qigong, Sports Medicine, Five Element Acupuncture and Tui Na Massage.

The dual-degree Doctor and Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine program, a four-year graduate professional degree program, consists of 3,435 hours and 195.5 units.

Students earn the doctoral degree and also receive the master’s degree needed to sit for licensing and certification exams. The university offers the program on a trimester basis in Chinese and English, but only the English program holds accreditation.

The program incorporates herbology, energetics, Chinese dietary medicine and acupuncture with components of Western medicine.

Students must perform at least 350 patient treatments during clinical training. Students can complete a portion of their clinical hours through externships in private practice or community clinic settings. The university also offers study abroad options at five sister schools in Taiwan, China and Korea.

Five Branches University also offers a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program, designed for licensed acupuncturists seeking to develop advanced skills in traditional Chinese medicine and earn a medical specialization. The university offers the 1,280-hour program at its San Jose campus in English and Chinese.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program consists of 582 didactic hours and 698 clinical hours.

Five Branches University offers the courses during monthly three to four day weekend intensives with a flexible clinical training schedule.

Students can complete the DAOM program in 24 months.

The doctoral program includes the Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective of a TCM practice.

Students can complete clinical training in the university’s health centers, community clinics and hospitals affiliated with its sister colleges in China.

Students also complete a capstone project.

Doctoral students can tailor the degree to their personal and professional goals through completing a specialization in Neuromuscular Medicine and Pain Management, Women’s Health and Endocrinology, Auricular Medicine or Cerebro-Cardiovascular Disease.

Upon completing the program, students can opt to attend an extra year of study – partially in China — to earn a Ph.D. from one of the university’s sister colleges: Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine or Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The university operates clinics in San Jose and Santa Cruz.

Five Branches University has received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.
Admission requirements: Master’s degree candidates must have completed 90 semester credits of general education from a regionally accredited institution with at least a 2.75 grade point average. Doctoral candidates must hold a master’s degree in Traditional Chinese Medicine or Oriental Medicine from an accredited program.

8Maryland University of Integrative Health

(Laurel, Maryland)Maryland University of Integrative Health

Founded in 1974 as an acupuncture clinic, the acupuncture school established in 1981. Maryland University of Integrative Health (MUHI) offers programs in acupuncture and Oriental medicine, health and wellness coaching, herbal medicine, nutrition and integrative health, health promotion, and Yoga Therapy.

The university offers degrees such as Master of Oriental Medicine, Master of Acupuncture, Doctor of Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture.

The university also offers integrative health consultations and treatment in its Natural Care Center.

Both the Master of Acupuncture and the Master of Oriental Medicine programs combine classroom teaching with clinical experience. The Oriental Medicine curriculum also integrates a concentration in the study of Chinese herbs.

Master’s degree students develop an understanding of the classical and theoretical foundations of acupuncture and Oriental medicine with a focus on the Eight Principle treatment strategies and the Constitutional Five Element Acupuncture tradition. Students also receive instruction in biomedicine from a holistic and integrative perspective.

The flexible, full-time format consists of two days each week with occasional intensives, online courses, and electives. Students complete 250 treatments in the Natural Care Center. Oriental Medicine students also complete 210 hours in the Chinese Herbs clinic.

Acupuncture students also can specialize in a clinical area such as women’s health or pain management or choose to deepen their understanding of Constitutional Five Element Acupuncture.

The Doctor of Acupuncture program provides students with a foundation in practice management as well as an understanding of the theoretical and classical foundations of Oriental medicine and acupuncture, and biomedicine from a holistic perspective.

The Doctor of Oriental Medicine degree program integrates the Doctor of Acupuncture curriculum with a concentration in Chinese herbs.

Both first-professional doctoral programs build on the competencies of the Master of Oriental Medicine program in addition to 28 doctoral-specific competencies, including systems-based medicine, research literacy and enhanced clinical training.

Students can enter with a bachelor’s degree and complete the doctorate in four years and four months. They also can earn their master’s degree while completing the doctorate program.

The hybrid programs include on-campus and online courses.

Students train at the on-campus clinic and off-campus community clinics. They also must pass a comprehensive exam, complete 310 treatments, and a research paper. Students in the Doctor of Oriental Medicine program also must complete 210 hours in the Chinese herb clinic.

The university also offers post-baccalaureate certificates in Chinese herbs and medical herbalism.

Maryland University of Integrative Health holds accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

The university’s Master of Acupuncture program and the Master of Oriental Medicine program have received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admissions requirements: All applicants must hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution.

9 Northwestern Health Sciences University

(Bloomington, Minnesota)Northwestern Health Sciences University

Northwestern Health Sciences University, a private, non-profit university, enrolls about 870 students. Founded in 1941 as Northwestern College of Chiropractic, the university added acupuncture, Oriental medicine and massage programs in 1999.

The university is home to two colleges – Chiropractic, and Health and Wellness. The university offers a host of degree and certificate options including human biology, acupuncture, Oriental medicine and therapeutic massage.

The school emphasizes clinical training, hands-on skill building as well as a foundation in Eastern tradition and modern science. The school provides one clinical faculty member for every three interns. The core faculty members are from China or studied with masters in China.

The Master of Acupuncture program includes training in cultural foundations of traditional Chinese medicine, point location, acupuncture treatment principles, Tui Na and biomedical clinical sciences.

Students also complete 150 hours of observation/assistantship and 525 hours of supervised clinical practice.

Students can complete the Master’s degree in Acupuncture program in eight trimesters.

The Master of Oriental Medicine program, similar to the acupuncture program, includes instruction in traditional Chinese herbal medicine and herbal dispensary management. The program includes a clinical herbal internship.

Students must complete 150 hours of observation/assistantship and 720 hours of supervised clinical practice.

Students can complete the Master’s degree in Oriental Medicine program in nine trimesters.

Students gain clinical training experience performing treatments on the public at one of the university’s clinical internship sites, such as Abbott Northeastern Hospital – Penny George Institute for Health and Healing, Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota, Woodwinds Hospital, Pathways Minneapolis, Salvation Army Harbor Light Natural Care Center, the Aliveness Project and, Cerenity Senior Care Center.

The Wolfe-Harris Center for Clinical Studies serves as the university’s complementary and alternative medicine clinical research division.

The university also offers an herbal medicine certificate.

Students can enroll in either master’s degree program in January or September.

Northwestern Health Sciences University holds accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission. Its Master in Acupuncture and Master in Oriental Medicine degree programs also received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM).

Admission requirements: Applicants must hold at least 60 semester credits from an accredited institution with a minimum 2.5 grade point average.

10Pacific College of Oriental Medicine-San Diego

(San Diego, California)Pacific College of Oriental Medicine San Diego

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine San Diego (PCOM-SD), founded in 1986, provides students training in an integrative medicine approach, learning from Eastern and Western medicine theories and practices. The college also has campuses in New York City and Chicago. The college has received research grants from the National Institutes of Health and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

Students receive training at the professional acupuncture clinic which includes an herbal dispensary. Students have the opportunity to gain experience through off-site externships, located at hospitals, clinics, and designated treatment sites. Students have opportunities to treat the general public during various health and wellness events. Students also have access to an extensive library of Oriental Medicine.

Pacific College students receive instruction in traditional Oriental medical theory and techniques, herbal medicine, Tui Na, and acupuncture points and meridians, as well as pharmacology, nutrition and anatomy.

Students also can enroll in the college’s massage programs and earn a massage license while pursuing a master’s or doctorate in acupuncture.

The Master of Science in Traditional Oriental Medicine (MSTOM) program combines Asian medicine with a foundation in Western medicine. The four-year program consists of 191.5 units and 3,510 credit hours of clinical practice and theory. Courses include: acupuncture points, anatomy and physiology, herbology, Eastern nutrition and auricular acupuncture.

Graduates can sit for the California, state licensure exams and national certification exams.

Pacific College also offers a doctoral completion program for alumni of its master’s degree programs to receive an entry-level Doctor of Acupuncture (DAc) or Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) degree.

Course topics include evidence-informed practice, collaborative care, systems-based medicine and advanced integrative diagnostics.

The Post-Graduate Doctor of Oriental Medicine and Acupuncture program consists of 1,257.5 hours and 63.5 credits over six semesters.

Students must complete 21 units of clinical courses.

Course topics include family medicine, application of Chinese classics and evidence-based medicine.

The college also offers a certificate in Chinese herbology, which students can complete in six semesters.

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine holds accreditation from the WASC Senior College and University Commission. The Master of Science in Traditional Oriental Medicine and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine programs received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admission requirements: Master’s degree applicants must hold an associate’s degree or at least 60 semester credits from an accredited institution. Doctoral program applicants must hold a master’s degree or completed a master’s-level program in Oriental medicine or acupuncture from an accredited institution, earned at least a 3.0 grade point average and hold an acupuncture license.

11American College of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine

(Houston, Texas)American College of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine

Founded in 1991, the American College of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine (ACAOM) offers master’s programs in acupuncture and Oriental medicine, integrative healthcare leadership and integrative wellness management, a doctorate in acupuncture and Oriental medicine as well as a certificate in Chinese herbal medicine. ACAOM integrates Western and Eastern medicine to provide students with a strong background in holistic medicine and natural health.

The college has six sister schools in Taiwan and China and collaborates with Houston Methodist Hospital Healthcare System. The college also operates a clinic, which treats about 1,000 patients each month.

The 163-semester-credit Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program consists of didactic courses and clinical training. Course topics include herbology, tai chi, Tui Na, biomedical sciences and integrated medicine studies.

Students can complete the program in four years. The college offers most courses in the evening, and clinical training during weekdays and Saturdays.

The 60-semester-credit Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program provides students with extensive knowledge in the classics of Oriental medicine and acupuncture.

The program features courses in herbal medicine, research methodology and acupuncture as well as specialized training in herbal medicine and acupuncture as it relates to gynecology.

Students take part in clinical internships and rotations as well as dissertation and research.

ACAOM offers the program in a modular format with courses one weekend per month.

Students can complete the program in two years.

The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges provides accreditation to the American College of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine. The Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine also provides accreditation to the college’s Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program.

Admissions requirements: Master’s degree applicants must hold a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent from an accredited college or university with an undergraduate grade point average of 2.5 or a 3.0 grade point average in the last 60 semester hours.

Doctoral applicants must hold a master’s degree in Oriental medicine or acupuncture from an accredited college with at least a 3.0 grade point average.

12Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine

(Ft. Lauderdale, Florida)Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine, Ft Lauderdale, Florida

Founded in 1994, the Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine (ATOM) offers a Master’s in Oriental Medicine program and a Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine as well as continuing education programs. ATOM’s clinically based curriculum provides students with a biomedical foundation they can apply to Oriental medical practice. Most of the instructors have backgrounds in both Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Most of the DAOM visiting, adjunct faculty have backgrounds in TCM and Western medicine. Most of them have senior positions with TCM educational institutions in China.

The Master in Oriental Medicine program includes Western and Eastern medicine topics such as internal diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, scalp acupuncture and Western pathology. The program consists of 3,232 hours and 183.47 credit hours. Offered on a trimester system, students can complete the program in about four years.

Students complete a clinical practicum.

The university offers day and evening classes three or four days each week with a flexible schedule for clinic internships.

Graduates can sit for the Florida licensure exam and the national certification exam.

Students can apply a portion of the master’s-level curriculum toward a bachelor’s degree in health sciences. The university confers both degrees at the completion of the four-year master’s degree program.

Designed for Oriental medicine professionals and acupuncturists, the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program includes training in advanced clinical intervention, advanced patient assessment, consultation skills and clinical supervision.

The professional doctoral program consists of 1,236 hours – 576 didactic hours and 660 clinical hours – over two years.

The curriculum includes courses in acupuncture, pediatrics and therapeutic manipulation as well as gastroenterology and neurology – from biomedical and TCM perspectives. Students also complete a capstone project.

The university offers monthly classes from Friday to Monday. The classes are in English.
Doctoral students attend a one-day training experience at the Miami Anatomical Research Center’s cadaver lab and complete an internship with doctors at the ATOM Student Clinic.

ATOM and the International Education College of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinses Medicine (IECSHUTCM) have an articulation agreement which provides students in ATOM’s DAOM program the opportunity to pursue the IECSHUTCM Ph.D. program in Traditional Chinses Medicine.

Students have the opportunity to complete an apprenticeship with healthcare professionals.

The university operates the ATOM Intern Clinic and has an affiliation with the Light of the World Clinic.

The Florida Commission for Independent Education has licensed Atlantic Institute of Oriental Medicine to confer degrees.

The institute’s professional Master of Oriental Medicine program and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program have received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admission requirements: Master’s degree applicants must hold at least 60 semester credits, including 19 hours in general education/liberal arts subjects. Doctoral program applicants must hold a master’s degree or have completed a master’s-level program in Oriental medicine from an accredited program.

13Pacific College of Oriental Medicine-New York

(New York, New York)Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York, New York

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine New York, provides students training in an integrative medicine approach, learning from Eastern and Western medicine theories and practices.

Students obtain training at the professional acupuncture clinic which has an herbal dispensary. Students can gain experience through off-site externships, located at hospitals, clinics, and designated treatment sites. The college also provides an extensive library of Oriental Medicine.

The Master of Science in Traditional Oriental Medicine (MSTOM) program combines Asian medicine with a foundation in Western medicine. The four-year program consists of 191.5 units and 3,510 credit hours of clinical practice and theory.

MSTOM program courses include: acupuncture points, anatomy and physiology, herbology, Eastern nutrition, and auricular acupuncture.

The Master in Acupuncture degree program focuses on acupuncture and Oriental medicine to achieve health and well-being. Students choose to focus on either traditional or classical Oriental medicine.

The three or four-year program consists of 172.5 units or 3,232.5 credit hours of theory and practice.

Courses include: anatomy and physiology, Tui Na hand and structural techniques, needle technique, and auricular acupuncture.
Graduates can sit for the New York state licensure exam and national certification exams.

The Master of Science in Traditional Oriental Medicine and the Master in Acupuncture programs received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admission requirements: Master’s degree applicants must hold an associate’s degree or at least 60 semester credits from an accredited institution.

14Tri-State College of Acupuncture

(New York, New York)tri-state-college-of-acupuncture-boost

Established in 1979, Tri-State College of Acupuncture integrates classical traditions and modern approaches in acupuncture training and provides continuing education for biomedical professionals and acupuncturists. The college offers Master of Science in Acupuncture and Master of Science in Oriental Medicine degrees as well as a Chinese herbology certificate program.

Tri-State College of Acupuncture serves the public through its partnerships with community health centers and hospitals as well as acupuncture and Chinese herbal clinics.

The three-year Master in Acupuncture program provides students with hands-on training in three styles of acupuncture – Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture Physical Medicine and Japanese Acupuncture.

Designed to provide students with a well-rounded education in classical Chinese medicine, the curriculum emphasizes the meridian perspective and the use of palpation for treatment and diagnosis with training in qi gong, cupping and gua sha. Students also gain an integrated perspective through courses in Western biomedical theory.

Students take part in clinical practice classes, where they give and receive treatments, and work in the college’s on-site Community Clinic. They also complete a clinical internship.

Students develop a comprehensive business plan and take courses in business, ethics and legal issues.

The 114.1 credit/2,196-hour program prepares students for the NCCAOM national board exams and licensure in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut.

The college limits program enrollment to 55 students per year.

The four-year Master in Oriental Medicine program combines the acupuncture program with 810 hours of training in botany, Chinese herbology and nutrition.

Most students complete the Masters in Acupuncture, transfer into the Oriental Medicine program with advanced standing and complete an herbal clinical internship and Chinese herbology courses.

Students who hold a master’s level degree in acupuncture from another accredited institution can take the 810-hour course and earn the Advanced Certificate in Chinese Herbology.

The Oriental Medicine program allows students advanced study in gynecology, dermatology, and musculoskeletal and channel dysfunction. The curriculum includes Asian dietary theory, Western and Eastern nutrition, and classical theories and texts.

Students complete an internship in the college’s Herbal Community Clinic and present complex clinical cases.

Admissions requirements: Applicants must hold an associate’s degree – or 60 semester credits — from an accredited institution with a minimum 2.5 grade point average.

Tri-State College of Acupuncture also offers a Postgraduate Clinical Affiliations Program, which allows licensed graduates the chance to work in community-based health programs throughout New York City. Externs take part in a six-month acupuncture rotation and receive educational seminars via conference call.

Students can earn continuing education credits through the tuition-free program.

Master in Acupuncture and the Master in Oriental Medicine programs hold accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

15Texas Health and Science University

(Austin, Texas)Texas Health and Science University

Texas Health and Science University, founded in 1990, offers programs in acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine, business, and English as a Second Language. The university also has a branch campus in San Antonio and operates Student Intern and Professional clinics in Austin as well as the Acupuncture Health Clinic in San Antonio.

Texas Health and Science University has several sister schools in China and Taiwan and offers a dual degree program with Zhejiang Chinese Medical University.

Through its College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, students can pursue Bachelor in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, a combined Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and Master of Business Administration or MBA in Healthcare Management, and Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degrees.

All students must treat at least 350 patients in the university’s Student Intern Clinic.

The Bachelor in Traditional Chinese Medicine program, open to students who have completed general education requirements at another school, includes courses in Chinese terminology and phonetics, point location, biomedical concepts and Western medical history, reflexology and herbology.

Students transfer at least 60 credits and complete 70 credits/1,125 hours at Texas Health. Students must complete the program in six trimesters.

The Master’s in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree program includes courses in Qi Gong, herbology, diagnosis, and anatomy and physiology.

Students also complete more than 700 clinical internship hours.

Students must complete internship hours and coursework in 15 trimesters.

The university also offers a combined Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and Master of Business Administration or MBA in Healthcare Management. The program prepares graduates to manage their own clinics.

Acupuncture program classes meet weekdays, while the MBA program classes meet Saturdays.

The Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Program provides students with advanced integrative study in pain management.

Students attend classes four days – an intensive weekend – each month for 28 months.

The 59-credit-hour – 1,230-clock-hour – doctoral program consists of 28 modules and includes courses in Western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, integrative medicine and specialty case studies.

Clinical training includes collaboration, supervision and internship.

Doctoral students also complete a capstone project.

The Dual Master’s degree in Traditional Chinese Medicine – offered in partnership with the International Education College at Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in Zhejiang, China – features instruction and clinical hours in the U.S. and China.

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board authorized Texas Health and Science University to award the Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree.

The university received accreditation from the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools to award master’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. Texas Health and Science University’s Master’s in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree program also received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

Admissions requirements: Applicants should have 60 semester credits in general education with a minimum 2.0 cumulative grade point average.

Doctoral applicants must hold a master’s degree in Oriental medicine from an accredited school with at least 2,770 clock hours.

16American Academy of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine

(Roseville, Minnesota)American Academy of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine

The American Academy of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine (AAAOM), founded 1997, offers master and doctoral degrees in acupuncture and Oriental Medicine as well as a certificate in massage. Instruction combines fundamental concepts of Western biomedicine and Chinese medicine with an emphasis in the integration of traditional healing practices and Western medicine.

AAAOM has one of the largest TCM libraries in the country. The faculty has jointly published more than 600 articles, books and studies. AAAOM reports to have more than 20 doctoral faculty members. The school also has an extensive clinic network to serve patients in the community.

The academy is affiliated with several medical schools in China, such as its sister school, the Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Jinan, China. Advanced students can continue their studies there at the Ph.D. level or take part in certificate programs. Students also can study or take part in observation at Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing.

Students develop skills in herbal medicine, medical Tui Na massage, dietary therapy, acupuncture, tai chi and qi gong as well as clinical skills through observation and internship.

The 182-credit Master of Science in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (MSAOM) degree emphasizes Chinese herbology and acupuncture.

Students complete 1,740 hours of didactic instruction, 900 hours of clinical observation and training, and 540 hours of bioscience-related material. Students must complete at least 360 treatments and see at least 72 patients.

Students can choose to develop skills in one of these areas of traditional Chinese medicine: Geriatrics, pediatrics, internal medicine, musculo-skeletal disorders, gynecology, neurological disorders, dermatology or sensory organ disorders.

Courses include tai chi, meridians, microbiology, Clinical Chinese herbology and Western medical pathology.

Full-time students can earn the MSAOM degree in 12 trimesters. The school also offers part-time and accelerated options. Designed to prepare graduates to practice traditional Chinese medicine, the 62-credit Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (DAOM) program allows students to develop an understanding of health conditions from the perspective of Western and traditional Chinese medicine.

The 1,260-hour DAOM program emphasizes traditional Chinese medicine neurology, orthopedics, gynecology, oncology and psychiatry.

Doctoral students attend classes Friday to Monday every four weeks for two years.

Students must complete a capstone research project and 660 hours of clinical practicum/training on-campus or at off-campus clinics.

The Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine provides accreditation to the American Academy of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine’s Master of Science in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program.

Admissions requirements: Master’s degree program applicants must hold at least 60 semester credits at the baccalaureate level, or its equivalent. Doctoral program applicants must hold a master’s degree, or its equivalent, in acupuncture and Oriental medicine from an accredited institution with a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.5.

17New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine

(Mineola, New York)New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mineola, NY

New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, founded in 1996, offers degree programs in acupuncture, Oriental medicine and Chinese herbology as well as a medical Qigong practitioner certificate program. Most of the faculty obtained their training in China and have extensive teaching and clinical experience in China and the United States. The college provides small classes.

The college operates a Teaching Clinic, which offers care to the community and a clinical internship site for students. The college has acupuncture clinics on Long Island and in Manhattan.

New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine offers most classes on weekends.

The three-year Master in Acupuncture program consists of three strands of courses – acupuncture, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western biomedical sciences.

The 141-credit program’s curriculum includes theories of Chinese physiology based on the five elements and Yin and Yang, meridians and point location, medical terminology, Western diagnosis and pharmacology.

Students must complete courses in massage, Eastern nutrition, energy work, herbology, and professional ethics. Acupuncture students complete 720 clinical training hours through observation, assistantship and internship.

The college’s four-year Master in Oriental Medicine degree program is similar to the Acupuncture program with an additional strand of courses in Chinese Herbology.

The 184-credit curriculum includes courses in Chinese herbal classics, toxicity and safe use of herbs.

Oriental Medicine students complete 900 clinical training hours through observation, assistantship and internship – including preparing formulas in the herbal pharmacy.

The master’s programs prepare graduates for licensure and practice in New York.

Designed for licensed acupuncturists and those with acupuncture degrees, the Chinese Herbology Certificate Program consists of 510 hours of didactic courses and 360 hours of clinical training over five trimesters.

The New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine’s Master’s degree in Acupuncture program and Master’s degree in Oriental Medicine programs received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM).

Admissions requirements: Applicants must have completed 60 undergraduate credits from an accredited institution with a minimum 2.5 grade point average.

18National College of Natural Medicine

(Portland, Oregon)ncnm

Established in 1956, the National College of Natural Medicine is the oldest accredited naturopathic medical college in the nation. The college offers programs in classical Chinese medicine, naturopathic medicine, integrative mental health, integrative medicine research, and nutrition.

The college operates several natural medicine clinics, a medicinary, a laboratory, and the Helfgott Research Institute.

Through the School of Classical Chinese Medicine, students can pursue a Master of Science in Oriental Medicine or a Doctor of Science in Oriental Medicine, which incorporates the master’s program.

Both programs emphasize a “scholar-practitioner” educational style and provide students with a holistic education in Western medicine, classical foundations and training in the clinical applications of Chinese medicine.

The 3,474-hour/ 226-credit Master of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) degree includes courses in acupuncture, body work, nutrition and qigong.

Students can complete the MSOM program in four years. (Students also can enroll in the Master’s in Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine programs concurrently and finish in six years.)

Master’s degree students complete clinical observation hours and a clinical internship.

During the four-year Doctor of Science in Oriental Medicine program, students can fulfill master’s degree competencies and learn to apply ancient knowledge in today’s healthcare system.

The doctoral program emphasizes the application of biomedical knowledge within whole-systems science. Students take part in weekend qigong retreats and complete a capstone project. Doctoral graduates also receive their Master in Oriental Medicine degree.

The National College of Natural Medicine received accreditation from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. The college’s Master of Science in Oriental Medicine degree holds accreditation from the Accreditation Commission or Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. The California Board of Acupuncture and the New Mexico Board of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine approved the college’s programs.

Admissions requirements: All applicants must hold a bachelor’s degree or higher from an accredited institution.

19Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine

(Seattle, Washington)Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine, Seattle, Washington

The Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine, founded in 1994, believes in providing small class sizes with hands-on supervision and clinical experience with experienced practitioners in a diverse range of styles along with exposure to medical Chinese language to provide an education in East-Asian medicine. In their first year students assist experienced practitioners every week in the care of patients. The faculty includes instructors trained in approaches from mainland China, Japan, Taiwan and Europe as well as modern and ancient acupuncture and herbal strategies.

Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine offers Master’s degrees in acupuncture, and acupuncture and oriental medicine, and a Doctor of Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine degree.

The institute operates acupuncture and Chinese herb clinics, acupuncture clinics, massage clinics, faculty clinics and the Greenlake Community Acupuncture Clinic.

The Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine accepts about 14 students each year into its program.

During their first year of study, students receive a broad foundation in East-Asian medicine – allowing them to make an informed decision as to whether to focus on acupuncture therapies (Master of Acupuncture degree) or acupuncture and herbal therapies (Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degree).

Regardless of the chosen degree option, the curriculum focuses on clinical practice and a deepened understanding of the biomedical perspective of diseases.

Learning in the Master of Acupuncture degree program includes the technical aspect of techniques as well as clinical practice and demonstration of the basic skills for assessment, diagnosis, treatment and referral.

Individuals pursuing the Master’s degree in acupuncture and Oriental medicine receive training in integrated clinics combining acupuncture and herbal medicine. They receive instruction in Chinese herbs, Chinese medical language and Chinese medical classes. They also have weekly clinical preceptorships and help in the herbal dispensary.

All students complete clinical internships in community clinics, drug treatment centers or other facilities.

Students can earn the Master’s degree in Acupuncture in three years; the Master’s in Oriental Medicine and the Doctor of Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine require an additional year.

Doctoral students hone their clinical and communication skills. They also will work with mentors selected by the student and approved by the school.

Designed to prepare graduates for careers as clinicians and educators, the Doctor of Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine program emphasizes clinical specialties, research activities, teaching experience and advanced clinical practice.

The Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine’s Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and Master in Acupuncture degree programs hold accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

The Washington State Department of Health recognizes the institute as an approved college of acupuncture and Oriental medicine.

Admissions requirements: Master’s degree applicants must have at least three years of study at the baccalaureate level with a minimum 3.0 grade point average.

20Finger Lakes School of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine of New York Chiropractic College

(Seneca Falls, New York)finger

New York Chiropractic College, founded in 1919, offers master’s degrees in acupuncture, and acupuncture and Oriental medicine through the Finger Lakes School of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine. The campus features a hands-on anatomy lab, an herb garden and dispensary lab.

Designed to prepare graduates for professional clinical practice, the programs provide students with a foundation in Oriental medicine traditions combined with biomedicine instruction.

The 120-credit Master in Acupuncture degree program consists of 2,265 contact hours with didactic and clinical elements.

The curriculum includes instruction in acupuncture, anatomy, Tui Na, nutrition, Tai Ji Chuan, moxibustion, and breathing techniques.

Students complete clinical observation and assistantship as well as a year-long clinical internship.

The 164-credit Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program consists of 3,060 contact hours.

The Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine program includes the Anatomy degree curriculum as well as herbal medicine courses. Students also complete practical training in herb preparation and herb dispensary management.

All students take part in 105 hours of clinical training at various sites, including at the Veteran’s Administration Hospital in Canandaigua, the Campus Health Center and the Seneca Falls Health Center.

The college also offers a China Abroad Program. The two-week course combines didactic and clinical training at the Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Hangzhou, China.

The New York State Education Department of the State University of New York registered New York Chiropractic College’s master degree programs in acupuncture and Oriental medicine.

The Middle States Commission on Higher Education provides accreditation to New York Chiropractic College. The school received accreditation from the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine for its Master in Acupuncture and Master in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine programs.

Admission requirements: Applicants must hold at least 90 semester hours of college credit – including nine credits of bioscience coursework – from an accredited institution with at least a 2.0 grade point average in the bioscience courses and a 2.5 cumulative GPA.

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