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From: National Institute of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

NCCAM Clearinghouse

Acupuncture is one of the oldest, most commonly used medical procedures in the world. Originating in China moe than 2,000 years ago, acupuncture became widely known in the United States in 1971 when New York Times reporter James Reston wrote about how doctors in Beijing, China, used needles to ease his abdominal pain after surgery. Research shows that acupuncture is beneficial in treating a variety of health conditions.

In the past two decades, acupuncture has grown in popularity in the United States. In 1993, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated that Americans made 9 to 12 million visits per year to acupuncture practitioners and spent as much as $500 million on acupuncture treatments.1 In 1995, an estimated 10,000 nationally certified acupuncturists were practicing in the United States. By the year 2000, that number is expected to double. Currently, an estimated one-third of certified acupuncturists in the United States are medical doctors.2

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has funded a variety of research projects on acupuncture that have been awarded by its National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and National Institute on Drug Abuse.

This information and resource package provides general information about acupuncture, summaries of NIH research findings on acupuncture, information for the health consumer, a list of additional information resources, and a glossary that defines terms italicized in the text. It also lists books, journals, organizations, and Internet resources to help you learn more about acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine.

Acupuncture Theories

Traditional Chinese medicine theorizes that the more than 2,000 acupuncture points on the human body connect with 12 main and 8 secondary pathways, called meridians. Chinese medicine practitioners believe these meridians conduct energy, or qi, between the surface of the body and internal organs.

Qi regulates spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical balance. Qi is influenced by the opposing forces of yin and yang. According to traditional Chinese medicine when yin and yang are balanced they work together with the natural flow of qi to help the body achieve and maintain health. Acupuncture is believed to balance yin and yang, keep the normal flow of energy unblocked, and restore health to the body and mind.

Traditional Chinese medicine practices (including acupuncture, herbs, diet, massage, and meditative physical exercises) all are intended to improve the flow of qi.3

Western scientists have found meridians hard to identify because meridians do not directly correspond to nerve or blood circulation pathways. Some researchers believe that meridians are located throughout the body’s connective tissue;4 others do not believe that qi exists at all.5,6Such differences of opinion have made acupuncture a source of scientific controversy.

Preclinical Studies

Preclinical studies have documented acupuncture’s effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the Western system of medicine.7,8,9,10,11,12

Mechanisms of Action

Several processes have been proposed to explain acupuncture’s effects, primarily those on pain. Acupuncture points are believed to stimulate the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to release chemicals into the muscles, spinal cord, and brain. These chemicals either change the experience of pain or release other chemicals, such as hormones, that influence the body’s self-regulating systems. The biochemical changes may stimulate the body’s natural healing abilities and promote physical and emotional well-being.13 There are three main mechanisms:

  • Conduction of electromagnetic signals: Western scientists have found evidence that acupuncture points an strategic conductors of electromagnetic signals. Stimulating points along these pathways through acupuncture enables electromagnetic signals to be relayed at it greater rate than under normal conditions. These signals may start the flow of pain-killing biochemicals such as endorphins and of immune system cells to specific sites that are injured or vulnerable to disease.14,15
  • Activation of opioid systems: research has found that several types of opioids may be released into the central nervous system during acupuncture treatment, thereby reducing pain.16
  • Changes in brain chemistry sensation, and Involuntary body functions: studies have shown that acupuncture may alter brain chemistry by changing the release ofneurotransmitters and neurohormones in a good way. Acupuncture also has been documented to affect the parts of the central nervous system related to sensation and involuntary body functions, such as immune reactions and processes whereby a person’s blood pressure, blood flow, and body temperature are regulated.3,17,18
Conditions Appropriate for Acupuncture Therapy
Digestive
Abdominal pain
Constipation
Diarrhea
Hyperacidity
Indigestion
Emotional
Anxiety
Depression
Insomnia
Nervousness
Neurosis
Eye-Ear-Nose-Throat
Cataracts
Gingivitis
Poor vision
Tinnitis
Toothache
Gynecological
Infertility
Menopausal symptoms
Premenstrual syndrome
Miscellaneous
Addiction control
Athletic performance
Blood pressure regulation
Chronic fatigue
Immune system tonification
Stress reduction
Musculoskeletal
Arthritis
Back pain
Muscle cramping
Muscle pain/weakness
Neck pain
Sciatica
Neurological
Headaches
Migraines
Neurogenic
Bladder dysfunction
Parkinson’s disease
Postoperative pain
Stroke
Respiratory
Asthma
Bronchitis
Common cold
Sinusitis
Smoking cessation
Tonsilitis
Source: World Health Organization United Nations. “Viewpoint on Acupuncture.” 19 19 (revised).23

Clinical Studies

According to an NIH consensus panel of scientists, researchers, and practitioners who convened in November 1997, clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective treatment for nausea caused by surgical anesthesia and cancer as well as for dental pain experienced after surgery. The panel also found that acupuncture is useful by itself or combined with conventional therapies to treat addiction, headaches, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow,fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma; and to assist in stroke rehabilitation.19

Increasingly, acupuncture is complementing conventional therapies. For example, doctors may combine acupuncture and drugs to control surgery related pain in their patients.20 By providing both acupuncture and certain conventional anesthetic drugs, doctors have found it possible to achieve a state of complete pain relief for some patients.16 They also have found that using acupuncture lowers the need for conventional pain-killing drugs and thus reduces the risk of side effects for patients who take the drugs.21,22

Outside the United States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the health branch of the United Nations, lists more than 40 conditions for which acupuncture may be used.23 The table (above) lists these conditions.

Currently, one of the main reasons Americans seek acupuncture treatment is to relieve chronic pain, especially from conditions such as arthritis or lower back disorders.24,25 Some clinical studies show that acupuncture is effective in relieving both chronic (long-lasting) and acute or sudden pain,26 but other research indicates that it provides no relief from chronic pain.27Additional research is needed to provide definitive answers.

FDA’s Role

The FDA approved acupuncture needles for use by licensed practitioners in 1996. The FDA requires manufacturers of acupuncture needles to label them for single use only.28 Relatively few complications from the use of acupuncture have been reported to the FDA when one considers the millions of people treated each year and the number of acupuncture needles used. Still, complications have resulted from inadequate sterilization of needles and from improper delivery of treatments. When not delivered properly acupuncture can cause serious adverse effects, including infections and puncturing of organs.1

NCCAM-Sponsored Clinical Research

Originally founded in 1992 as the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM), the NCCAM facilitates the research and evaluation of unconventional medical practices and disseminates this information to the public. The NCCAM established in 1998, supports 13 Centers, where researchers conduct studies on complementary and alternative medicine for specific health conditions and diseases. Scientists at several Centers are investigating acupuncture therapy.

Researchers at the NCCAM Center at the University of Maryland in Baltimore conducted arandomized controlled clinical trial and found that patients treated with acupuncture after dental surgery had less intense pain than patients who received a placebo.20 Other scientists at the Center found that older people with osteoarthritis experienced significantly more pain relief after using conventional drugs and acupuncture together than those using conventional therapy alone.29

Researchers at the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation in Minnesota are studying the use of acupuncture to treat alcoholism and addiction to benzodiazepines, nicotine, and cocaine. Scientists at the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation in New Jersey are studying acupuncture to treat a strokerelated swallowing disorder and the pain associated with spinal cord injuries.

The OAM, now the NCCAM, also funded several individual researchers in 1993 and 1994 to conduct preliminary studies on acupuncture. In one small randomized controlled clinical trial, more than half of the I I women with a major depressive episode who were treated with acupuncture improved significantly.30

In another controlled clinical trial, nearly half of the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who underwent acupuncture treatment showed some improvement in their symptoms. Researchers concluded that acupuncture was a useful alternative to standard medication for some children with this condition.31

In a third small controlled study, eight pregnant women were given moxibustion to reduce the rate of breech births, in which tile fetus is positioned for birth feet-first instead of the normal position of head-first. Researchers found the treatment to be safe, but they were uncertain whether it was effective.32 Then, rescarchers reporting in the November 11, 1998, issue of theJournal of the American Medical Association conducted a larger randomized controlled clinical trial using moxibustion. They found that moxibustion applied to 130 pregnant women presenting breech significantly increased the number of normal head-first births.33

Acupuncture and You

The use of acupuncture, like many other complementary and alternative treatments, has produced a good deal of anecdotal evidence. Much of this evidence comes from people who report their own successful use of the treatment. If a treatment appears to be safe and patients report recovery from their illness or condition after using it, others may decide to use the treatment. However, scientific research may not substantiate the anecdotal reports.

Lifestyle, age, physiology, and other factors combine to make every person different. A treatment that works for one person in, y not work for another who has the very same condition. You, as a health care consumer (especially if you have a preexisting medical condition), should discuss acupuncture with your doctor. Do not rely on a diagnosis of disease by an acupuncturist who does not have substantial conventional medical training. If you have received a diagnosis from a doctor and have had little or no success using conventional medicine, you may wish to ask your doctor whether acupuncture might help.

Finding a Licensed Acupuncture Practitioner

Doctors are a good resource for referrals to acupuncturists. Increasingly, doctors are familiar with acupuncture and may know of a certified practitioner. In addition, more medical doctors, including neurologists, anesthesiologists, and specialists in physical medicine, are becoming trained in acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, and other alternative and complementary therapies. Friends and family members may be a source of referrals as well. In addition, national referral organizations provide the names of practitioners, although these organizations may be advocacy groups for the practitioners to whom they refer. See “Acupuncture Information Resources” for a list of these organizations.

Check a practitioner’s credentials.

A practitioner who is licensed and credentialed may provide better care than one who is not. About 30 states have established training standards for certification to practice acupuncture, but not all states require acupuncturists to obtain a license to practice. Although proper credentials do not ensure competency, they do indicate that the practitioner has met certain standards to treat patients with acupuncture.

The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture can give you a referral list of doctors who practice acupuncture. The National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance lists thousands of acupuncturists on its Web site and provides the list to callers to their information and referral line. The Alliance requires documentation of state license or national board certification from its listed acupuncturists. The American Association of Oriental Medicine can tell you the state licensing status of acupuncture practitioners across the United States as well. To contact these and other organizations, see “Acupuncture Information Resources.”

Check treatment cost and insurance coverage.

Reflecting public demand, an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the nation’s insurers covered some acupuncture treatments in 1996. An acupuncturist may provide information about the number of treatments needed and how much each will cost. Generally, treatment may take place over a few days or several weeks. The cost per treatment typically ranges between $30 and $100 but it may be more. Physician acupuncturists may charge more than nonphysician practitioners.13

Check treatment procedures.

Find out about the treatment procedures that will be used and their likelihood of success. You also should make certain that the practitioner uses 1 new set of disposable needles in a sealed package every time. The FDA requires the use of sterile, nontoxic needles that bear a labeling statement restricting their use to qualified practitioners. The practitioner also should swat, the puncture site with alcohol or another before inserting the needle.

Some practitioners may use electroacupuncture; others may use moxibustion. These approaches are part of traditional Chinese medicine, and Western researchers are beginning to study whether they enhance acupuncture’s effects.

During your first office visit, the practitioner may ask you at length about your health condition, lifestyle, and behavior The practitioner will want to obtain a complete picture of your treatment needs and behaviors that may contribute to the condition. This holistic approach is typical of traditional Chinese medicine and many other alternative and complementary therapies. Let the acupuncturist, or any doctor for that matter, know about all treatments or medications you are taking and whether you have a pacemaker, are pregnant, or have breast or other implants. Acupuncture may be risky to your health if you fail to tell the practitioner about any of these matters.

The Sensation of Acupuncture

Acupuncture needles arc metallic, solid, and hair-thin, unlike the thicker, hollow hypodermic needles used in Western medicine to administer treatments or take blood samples. People experience acupuncture differently, but most feel minimal pain as the needles are inserted. Some people are energized by treatment, while others feel relaxed. 34 Some patients may fear acupuncture because they are afraid of needles. Improper needle placement, movement of the patient, or a defect in the needle can cause soreness and pain during treatment.35 This is why it is important to seek treatment only from a qualified acupuncture practitioner.

As important research advances continue to be made on acupuncture worldwide, practitioners and doctors increasingly will work together to give you the best care available.

For More Information

For more information about acupuncture research sponsored by different parts of NIH contact the respective Information Office or Clearinghouse. Call the NIH operator for assistance at 301-490-4000.

For more information about research on acupuncture, contact the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM), which has published a bibliography of more than 2,000 citations to studies conducted on acupuncture. The bibliography is available on the Internet athttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/acupuncture.html or by writing the NLM, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda. MD 20894. The NLM also has a toll-free telephone number: 1-888-346-3056.

For a database of research on complementary and alternative medicine, including acupuncture access the CAM Citation Index on the NCCAM Web site at http://altmed.od.nih.gov/nccam.

 

Glossary of Terms

Acupuncture – An ancient Chinese health that involves puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular locations, called acupuncture points, oil the patient’s body. Acupuncture is believed to help reduce pa in or change a body function. Sometimes tile needles are twirled given a slight electric charge (see electroacupuncture) or warmed (see moxibustion).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – A syndrome primarily found in children and teenagers that is characterized by excessive physical movement, impulsiveness, and lack of attention.

Clinical studies (also clinical trials, clinical outcomes studies, controlled trials, case series, comparative trials, or practice audit evidence) – Tests of a treatment’s effects in humans. Treatments undergo clinical studies only after they have shown promise in laboratory studies of animals. Clinical studies help researchers find out whether a treatment is safe and effective for people. They also tell scientists which treatments are more effective than others.

Electroacupuncture – A variation of traditional acupuncture treatment in which acupuncture or needle points are stimulated electronically.

Electromagnetic signals – The minute electrical impulses that transmit information through and between nerve calls. For example, electromagnetic signals convey information about pain and other sensations within the body’s nervous system.

Fibromyalgia – A complex chronic condition having multiple symptoms, including muscle pain, weakness, and stiffness, fatigue; metabolic disorders, allergies and headaches.

Holistic – Describes therapies based on facts about the “whole person,” including spiritual and mental aspects, not only the specific part of the body being treated. Holistic practitioners may advise changes in diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors to help treat a patient’s condition.

Merldians – A traditional Chinese medicine term for the 14 pathways throughout the body for the flow of qi, or vital energy, accessed through acupuncture points.

Moxibustion – The use of dried herbs in acupuncture. The herbs are placed on top of acupuncture needles and burned. This method is believed to be more effective at treating some health conditions than using acupuncture needles alone.

Neurohorinones – Chemical substances made by tissue in the body’s nervous system that can change the structure or function or direct the activity of an organ or organs.

Neurological – A term referring to the body’s nervous system, which starts, oversees, and controls all body functions.

Neurotransmitters – Biochemical substances that stimulate or inhibit nerve impulses in the brain that relay information about external stimuli and sensations, such as pain.

Opioids – Synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that may reduce pain and induce sleep.

Placebo – An inactive substance given to a participant in a research study as part of a test of the effects of another substance or treatment. Scientists often compare the effects of active and inactive substances to learn more about how the active substance affects participants.

Preclinical studies – Tests performed after a treatment has been shown in laboratory studies to have a desirable effect. Preclinical studies provide information about a treatment’s harmful side effects and safety it different doses in animals.

Qi (pronounced “chee”) – The Chinese term for vital energy or life force.

Randomized controlled clinical trials – A type of clinical study that is designed to provide information about whether a treatment is safe and effective in humans. These trials generally use two groups of people, one group receives the treatment and the other does not. The participants being studied do not know which group receives the actual treatment.

Traditional Chinese medicine – An ancient system of medicine and health care that is based on the concept of balanced qi or vital energy that flows throughout the body. Components of traditional Chinese medicine include herbal and nutritional therapy restorative physical exercises, medication acupuncture, acupressure, and remedial massage.

Yang – The Chinese concept of positive energy and forces in the universe and human body Acupuncture is believed to remove yang imbalances and bring the body into to balance.

Yin – The Chinese concept of negative energy and forces in the universe and human body. Acupuncture is believed to remove yin imbalances and bring the body into balance.

References

  • Lytle, C.D. An Overview of Acupuncture. 1993, Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Health Sciences Branch, Division of Life Sciences, Office of Science and Technology, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration.
  • Culliton, RD. “Current Utilization of Acupuncture by United States Patients.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD, November 3-5,1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications Research. Bethesda, MD: National Instittites of Health, 1997.
  • Beinfield, H. and Korngold, E.L. Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1991.
  • Brown, D. “Three Generations of Alternative Medicine: Behavioral Medicine, Integrated Medicine and Energy Medicine.” Boston University School of Medicine Alumni Report, Fall 1996.
  • Senior, K. “Acupuncture: Can It Take the Pain Away?” Molecular Medicine Today. 1996. 2(4):150-3.
  • Raso. J. Alternative Health Care: A Comprehensive Guide. Buffalo, NY Prometheus Books, 1994.
  • Eskinazi, D. P. “National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Workshop on Alternative Medicine Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementaty Medicine. 1996. 2(1):1-253
  • Tang, N.M., Dong, H.W., Wang, X. M., Tsui, Z.C., and Han, J.S. “Cholecystokinin Antisense RNA Increases the Analgesic Effect Induced by Electroacupuncture or Low Dose Morphine: Conversion of Low Responder Rats into High Responders.” Pain. 1997. 71(1)-.71-80.
  • Cheng, X.D., Wu, G. C., He, Q. Z., and Cao, X. D. “Effect of Electroacuptuncture on the Activities ol Tyrosine Protein Kinasc in Subcellular Fractions of Activited T Lymphocytcs from the Traumatized Rao;.” Immunopharmacology. Forthcoming.
  • Chen, L.B. and Li, S.X. “The Effects of Electrical Acupuncture of Neiguan in the PO2 of the Border Zone Between Ischemic and Non-Ischemic Myocardium in Dogs.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1983, 3(2):8 1-8.
  • Lee, H.S. and Kim, J.Y. “Effects on Blood Pressure and Plasma Renin Activity in Two Kidney One Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats.” American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994. 22(3-4):215-9.
  • Okada, K_ Oshima, M., and 1 Kawakita, K. “Examination of the Afferentnt Fiber Responsible for the Suppression of Jaw-Open Reflex in Heat, Cold and Manual Acupuncture Stimulation in Anesthetized Rats.” Brain Research. 1996 740(1-2):201-7.
  • National Institutes of Health. Frequently. Asked Questions About Acupuncture. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.
  • Dale, R.A. “Demythologizing Acupuncture Part 1. The Scientific Mechanisms and the Clinical Uses.” Alternative & Complementary Therapies Journal. April 1997. 1(2)-.125-31.
  • Takeshige, C. “Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia Based on Animal Experiments.”Scientific Bases of Acupuncture. Berlin, Germany: Springere-Verlag, 1989.
  • Han, J.S. “Acupuncture Activates Endogenous Systems of Analgesia.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD. November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications of Research. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.
  • Wu, B., Zhou, R.X., and ZI M.S. “Effect of Acupuncture on Interleukin-2 Level and NK Cell Immunoactivity of Peripheral Blood of Malignant Tumor Patients.” Chung Kyo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chich. 1994.14(9):537-9.
  • Wit, B. “Effect Of Acupuncture on the Regulation of Cell-Mediated Immunity in Patients with Malignant Tumors.” Chen Tzu Yen Chiu. 1995, 20(3):67-71.
  • National Instituties of Health Consensus Panel. Acupuncture National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Statement November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternaive Medicine –ind Office of Medical Application., of Research Bethesda, MD: N ational Institutes of, Health, 1997.
  • Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenherg, P, Wong, R., and Berman, B. “Efficacy of Chinese Acupuncture on Postoperative Oral Surgery Pain,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1995.79(4):423-8.
  • Lewith, G.T. and Vincent, C. “On the Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Acupuncture: A Problem Reassessed and a Framework for Future Research.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996. 2(1):79-90.
  • TsibuIiak,VN., Alisov, A.P, and Shatrova,V.P. “Acupuncture Analgesia and Analgesic Transcutaneous Electroneurostimulation in the Early Postoperative Period,”Anesthesiology and Reanimatology 1995. 2:93-8,
  • World Health Organization. Viewpoint on Acupuncture. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1979.
  • Bullock, M.L., Pheley.A.M., Kiresuk.T.J., Lenz, S.K., and Culliton, PD. “Characteristies and Complaints of Patients Seeking Therapy at a Hospital-Based Alternative Medicine Clinic.” Journal of Alternative Medicine 1997-30):31-7.
  • Diehl, D.L., Kaplan, G., Coulter, I., Glik, D.,and Hurwitz, E.L.” Use of Acupuncture by American Physicians.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1997, 3(2):119-26.
  • Levine, J.D., Gormley, J., and Fields, H.J., “Observatins on the Analgesic Effects of Needle Puncture (Acupuncture).” Pain. 1976.2(2):149-59.
  • Ter Reit, G., Kleijnen, J., and Knipschild, P. “Acupuncture and Chronic Pain: A Criteria-Based Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Epidemiology 1990 43:1191-9.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Acupuncture Needles No Longer Investigational”FDA Consumer Magazine June 1996.30(5).
  • Berman, B., Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenberg, P, Wong, R., Loangenberg, P, and Hochberg, M. “Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1995. (3):139-42.
  • Allen, J.J.B. “An Acupuncture Treatment Study for Unipolar Depression.” Psychological Science. 1998. 9:397-401.
  • Sonenklar, N. Acupuncture and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant *R21 RR09463. 1993.
  • Milligan, R. Breech Version by Acumoxa. National Instituties of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant #R21 RR09327. 1993.
  • Cardini, F. and Weixin, H. “Moxibustion for Correction of Breech Presentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial..” Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998. 280:1580-4
  • American Academy of Medical Acupuncture “Doctor, What’s This Acupuncture All About? Brief Explanation for Patients.“Los Angeles. CA: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, 1996.
  • Lao, L. “Safety Issues in Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996, 2(1):27-9.

  • Go to NCCAM Resource List Go to NCCAM web site for more current information
  • www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

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From http://www.michaeljfox.org/newsEvents_mjffInTheNews_moreMJFFNews_article.cfm?ID=507&headertitle=MJFF

By Sara Castellanos, Aurora Sentinel

For those suffering from Parkinson’s disease, most are willing to take a stab at anything to ease the endless days of being tired.

No doubt, the tremors, stiffness and slowness are par for the course. But it’s the general sense of fatigue that’s particularly debilitating.

“People with Parkinson’s disease still have fatigue even when their sleep problems are treated,” said Dr. Benzi Kluger, assistant professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Colorado Hospital.

The enervation is so overwhelming, that Kluger himself decided to take a stab at a non-traditional approach to reducing exhaustion. He’s leading a research study to determine whether alternative Eastern medicine, specifically acupuncture, can help alleviate the symptoms of severe fatigue in Parkinson’s patients. He secured $350,000 last year from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to fund the study, which commenced in November 2010. So far, about 20 Parkinson’s disease patients are participating in the study and Kluger hopes that number will increase to about 100 within two years.

In his study, Kluger is also trying to determine how much of acupuncture’s effects — if there are any — are due to the actual alternative medicine, and how much of its effects are due to placebo.

“It’s possible that both the acupuncture and placebo groups will show improvement,” he said. “Whether the acupuncture groups show greater improvement than the placebo groups is another question.”

For licensed acupuncturist Daisy Dong-Cedar, Kluger’s study is simply trying to prove what she already knows.

Dong-Cedar, who is the chief acupuncturist in the study, has been practicing the method for 26 years. She trained in China and joined the University of Colorado Hospital 10 years ago. In the past five years, the form of alternative medicine has grown more popular among doctors, she said.

“Physicians have started to integrate the medicine,” she said. “The public really demanded alternative medicine.” Acupuncture is covered for some conditions under certain insurance companies, but her clients usually pay out of pocket. The cost ranges from $25 to more than $100 per treatment, with the average treatment costing between $60 and $70 with a $100 initial consultation fee.

But the cost is often worth the results for people who are trying to quit smoking, trying to get pregnant, or trying to reduce pain in the lower back and neck, Dong-Cedar said.

“If you’re older and you have a lot of chronic conditions, the reaction to acupuncture is slower,” Dong-Cedar said. “If a person is young and healthy, and the condition is more acute, the result is much quicker, sometimes within one or two treatments.”

Kluger’s research is being conducted as a double-blind study. Also, the patients are blindfolded while they are receiving acupuncture treatment, and Kluger doesn’t know which patients are receiving acupuncture treatment and which patients are receiving placebo. Without divulging specifics about the study, Kluger said the acupuncturist places needles in acupuncture points on the patient’s face and back. For patients who are in the placebo group, the acupuncturist may place “fake” needles that don’t puncture the surface of the skin in spots that aren’t typical acupuncture spots.

Symptoms of severe fatigue are common in about half of the people diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. The neuro-degenerative disease affects between 1 percent and 2 percent of people over the age of 65 and is second only to Alzheimer’s in neuro-degenerative illnesses, Kluger said. Those diagnosed with the disease will lose neurons in specific parts of the brain, affecting muscle movement and control. About half of those diagnosed with the disease have sought alternative treatments including acupuncture to help with their symptoms, but until now, there weren’t many evidence-based studies to determine whether acupuncture is, in fact, effective.

“Patients, particularly for symptoms like fatigue and pain, are going to other sources and they’re going to acupuncturists, herbalists and nutritionists,” Kluger said. “Their physicians don’t really have any good information to tell them about it. So that was really one of the major impetuses for doing this study.”

If Kluger finds that acupuncture can be used as an alternative form of medicine to alleviate the symptoms of severe fatigue, which plague nearly 50 percent of those with Parkinson’s disease, insurance companies might be more apt to cover the treatment, he said.

If the study reveals the effects of acupuncture are due mostly to placebo, that could be a major breakthrough as well.

“Placebo is enormously powerful, and really gives us evidence that people have so much capacity to heal but don’t know how to tap into it,” Kluger said.

It may be too soon to tell, but Parkinson’s patient Howard Ewy said he is noticing some results.

“I think it has helped me in that I can walk further and faster and I need fewer naps,” said Denver resident Ewy, 81, and a retired Navy aviator. He was diagnosed with the disease last year and until he decided to participate in Kluger’s study, he had never received acupuncture treatment before this. Ewy said he decided to participate in the study because he’s interested in learning more about all types of therapies available to alleviate the symptoms of his disease, from Western medicine to Eastern medicine.

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Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM), i.e.Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)’s definition, scope, research, education and license requirements.

Special report of SAR. Article from the official Journal of AAAOM, Acupuncturist.March 31, 2009.

http://www.aaaomonline.info/aom_in_us.pdf

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Nowadays, many people prefer to use organic foods, because they are afraid of chemicals, such as chemicals for killing the insects, fertilizers, etc., which may be harmful to our body, esp. when we get such chemicals in a certain amount in a short-term, or a very small amount in a long-term. We do have concerns.

However, when people are sick, most of them still prefer to use chemical medications. The reasons are complicated, but the main reason probably is the healthcare system has been controlled by pharmaceutical companies, which use a lot of money each year to protect their interests by lobbing the congress, supporting medical schools, their style scientific studies, etc. MDs actually intentionally or unintentionally become drug sale representatives, in some extent. Due to the health insurance system, patients have to go to MDs to get examinations, advises, prescriptions (using chemicals). Actually, Patients have no choice. And very high percentage of patients may not be aware that using chemical drugs could cause potential problems.

Another reason that patients prefer the use of chemical drugs is that they feel chemical drug-style medicine is scientific, best in testing, and based on their education. Also they may think they will get results faster.

An example is for fertility treatments. In conventional medicine, MDs prefer In vitro fertilization (IVF), by using different chemical drugs to help patient to get pregnant quickly (20-30% success rate). After such a process, I really don’t know if the quality of such a child is still the best.

We are often afraid of something may be wrong for maintaining our health– when we eat animal foods, which grow so fast under chemicals stimulation. However, when we think of having our babies, we also use such a chemical procedure. It seems have some potential worry in there.

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As a specialty of Acupuncture, Aetna actually has NO acupuncturist network in Virginia (VA), Washington DC area.

Aetna only has one acupuncture discount rate network through ASH, i.e. American Specialty Health Acupuncture network. So, it means any acupuncturist has to accept a discount fee schedule if he/she join the ASH network when treating a patient who has Aetna insurance.

But, sometime, if the patient has Aetna Acupuncture benefit, Aetna may pay the acupuncture provider at a out-of-network fee schedule (see, save money) –i.e., according to the rule, Aetna should have an acupuncturist network (but has NONE), then Aetna could pay the provider treating its HMO/EPO patient, –Aetna may refuse to pay, because no acupuncturist is in-network. Sometime Aetna may pay the treatment for PPO patients who have acupuncture benefit (as an out-of network, 50%-70%, patient need pay more, such as high deductible due to out-of-network, high percentage of coinsurance, 30-50%), which Aetna may also refuse to pay…….the reasons—medical unnecessary, or acupuncture benefit only for acupuncture anesthesia—that means it should be done when surgery by is done by an MD—not by an acupuncturist.

Aetna insurance is not very clear about the acupuncture network issues, acupuncture benefit definition, HMO, EPO, PPO, etc. , and payment.

Appeal? No one will say that “my processing was wrong” in Aetna insurance office. The representatives seem to always have many reasons to refuse any appeal.

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Dear Dr. Fan,                   02/18/2010

My name is L……  I have a 9.5 years old daughter who has dystonia since she was about 6 years old. The dystonia started with her right leg, and now also affect her left leg.
She also has mild dystonia on her eyes and mouth. Since the dystonia started, Josephine has been having problem with walking. Her feet turned inward and also stiff.
She walks very very slow, and her gait makes it even worse. She also gets a lot of headache.
Her neurologist prescribed her Artane for the dystonia, and she has been taking it until today.
 
I look forward to have alternative treatment such as acupuncture, and Chinese herbal medication. For right now I can not take her outside California to visit your clinic, but I am working on it to be able to take her seeing you. However, I would like her to get Chinese herbal medication and start taking it asap.
 
I am still working on having her video and sending it to you. Please respond to me about how we could get her Chinese herbal medication.  Her insurance will not cover this alternative treatment, so we will pay by ourselves. So please also let us know the cost of the medication.
 
Thank you very much for returning my call this morning. I have a very high hope after reading your website. I realize dystonia is not something that can be cured, but at least if it can be mild it will mean so much for my daughter’s life. Looking forward to hearing from you.
 
Sincerely,
 
L

The Reply from Dr. Arthur Fan 02/19/2010 9:00AM

Dear Lenny, 

That is correct. Almost all of treatments for dystonia in conventional medicine is symptom treatment (no cure). Using Chinese medicine, acupuncture plus herbs, it is also very hard to be cured in a short time. However, we do have some patients “cured”! 

That does the “cured” mean in dystonia? 

Answer: most of dystonia symptoms gone and just need mild herbal medicine or acupuncture maintenance. The treatment for that aim is at least 6 month to one year, or even more.

These treatments are not payable from your insurance in current time.  And you need patience.

Please give me her other information

Appetite, bowel movement condition, sleep condition.

Tongue color–coating (white? yellow? thin or thick) and tongue color(pink or very red),

Pulse (you could let a local acupuncturist have a look).

For more information, such as how much the fees for herbs, capsule, etc. You could read the detail online in my blog.www.arthuryinfan.wordpress.com(dystonia part)

Arthur Yin Fan, PhD,CMD,LAc

McLean Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC
8214 Old Courthouse Road, Tysons Square Office Park,
Vienna, VA 22182.
Phone:(703)499-4428; Fax:(703)547-8197

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The Pulse diagnosis is one of main methods in Chinese Medicine. Traditionally, the evaluation impression could be reached after using any of four styles of diagnostic methods. So, the patient’s pulse is important in this style of medicine.

Traditionally, the doctor considers that the pulse reflects patient’s constitution and the patient’s illness change.  However, it may be affected by many other conditions, such as exercise and medications.

Herbal medicine could affect patient’s pulse in some extents, for example, qi-improving herbs may cause the pulse stronger. Even more, if the patient takes too much of qi-improving herbs, the pulse may become slippery or overstrong (there are over 25 definition of pulses – e.g., slow and fast, deep and floating, slippery, wiry, and fine).

Medications may affect the patient’s pulse very much, for example if the patient uses Progesterone, the pulse is slippery and like she is already pregnant.

The beta-blocker could decrease the pulse rate and force, so the pulse may be weak and slower than should be. The anti-hypertension drugs also affect patient pulse depending on specific style of action.

Some medications may indirectly affect the pulse. For example, some antibiotics may hurt patient’s stomach, causing gastritis and pain, which may cause the patient to have a string pulse.

www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.us

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Q: What financial programs do Dr. Fan offer?

A: Payment for services rendered is due at the time the services are performed. Dr. Fan participates with some insurance companies’ networks; however, most insurance carriers only cover a portion of the actual charge (insurance companies generally only cover the use of acupuncture in treating pain and/or nausea). For this reason, it is important for patients to keep an ongoing account throughout the course of their treatment. The remaining balance is always the responsibility of the patient (including fees for cupping, Chinese herbs, etc.)

Dr. Fan is a provider of CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield (HMO, PPO, FEP; National Accounts, Blue Cards, etc.), Cigna PPO and United Healthcare, American Specialty Health (ASH), and FirstHealth (included in Mail Handler). He also gives an 80 percent discount to patients whose insurance doesn’t cover acupuncture.

CALL YOUR INSURANCE BEFORE SEEING DR.ARTHUR FAN.
(1) If Dr. Fan is an in-network Acupuncture provider for your HMO or PPO;

Dr. Fan will bill your health plan for you. You just need to pay him your deductible, if any, and co-payments and fees for non-covered treatments–such as herbal tea, cupping or massage. Benefits apply to acupuncture treatment for pain and/or nausea.
(2) If you have a PPO/HMO plan that does not have a benefit for Acupuncture,

In some situations Dr. Fan will give you a discount(about 80 percent rate), according to the pre-existing agreement between Dr. Fan and your plan.
(3) If your insurance plan accepts out-of-network acupuncture providers,

Dr. Fan may be able to submit claims to your insurance company.
(4) If your plan has no acupuncture benefit for out-of-network providers,

Dr. Fan will give you a discounted rate if your insurance card shows the marker “ASH” or “N-CAM”. Dr. Fan does offer discount program to senior patients (20% off). Medicare and Medicaid programs do not include acupuncture benefits.

For more information about insurance issue, please call your insurance for detail.

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Yes.

Some insurance plans include in acupuncture benefits. We do accept them and process for patients.

However, such plans vary a lot according to each individule patient.  i.e. even you seem have same insurance card information as another friend who has acupuncture benefit in his/her insurance policy, you may have NO coverage at all.

Even you have acupuncture coverage, the deductible, copay and allowed acupuncture sessions may also different.

In addition, most of insurance plans may only cover some kind of pain managements—not for all diseases/disorders, or any kind of pain.

And, at current stage, insurance policy does NOT cover herbology.

Before you see an acupuncturist, call your insurance and make sure.

Most of acupuncturists provide some economical plans for the patients who have NO acupuncture coverage in their insurance plans(insurance companies may advice provider give such plan).

www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.us

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