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Jun 3, 2014 A Madam e-mail To ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US
Dear Dr. Fan,
I spoke with you recently over the phone about my diagnosis of oromandibular dystonia. You had asked that I send you some background, as well as my address to send an herbal remedy to that you have found works well for dystonia patients.

I was diagnosed around 9 years ago by two neurologists (Lahey Cliinic, Mass General) with task-specific oromandibular dystonia. I was doing radio broadcasting (weather reporting) for a couple of years, which involved repetitive phrases and likely- at least in part- brought on the condition. I first developed symptoms while doing the reports in a recording booth, although my conversational speech was normal (behind the microphone I had symptoms, and stepping away from the microphone I had no symptoms). The symptoms intensified over time and I eventually had to quit the broadcasting. My conversational speech eventually became impaired, and it took at least a year (or more) for the condition to go mostly back into remission. I stayed away from the broadcasting until around 10 months ago, and have only been doing a small amount of broadcasting (two hours or so) a week. I started noticing symptoms returning while working in a research lab (that is my primary job and where I spend most of my time). It was a stressful year for me, as I was trying to get a couple of projects finished so I could publish the work- I had invited a colleague of mine to be a co-first author on this work, and we ended up having many stressful, intense conversations about the work that involved constant voice projection (the lab is loud because of background noises). I’m not sure if it was a combination of stress/anxiety coupled with voice projection, and perhaps also coupled with the little bit of broadcasting I had started doing again that brought the condition back. I was also volunteering for a couple of hours a week at a preschool- which involved more voice projection. I first developed symptoms while in the lab, talking with my colleague.

Years ago when the dystonia first appeared, I received scalp acupuncture treatments based on a protocol published in a Chinese journal that showed success in 19 early Parkinson’s patients. This was successful in relieving my symptoms. I’m on the same protocol again and am receiving treatments three times a week. I had published an article in Natural Solutions Magazine (formerly Alternative Medicine Magazine) in collaboration with my acupuncturist. Below my signature is an excerpt from the article.

I was wondering if you could send me information that I could pass along to my acupuncturist that details the protocol that you use with your dystonia patients? I would also be grateful to receive the herbal remedy that you have found works well for oromandibular dystonia. My address is(omitted in this article):

Thank you kindly for your time.
Best wishes,
E
(Excerpt from the published article):
I had been placed on a Bell’s Palsy acupuncture protocol for several months, since this was- at the time- the only neurological disorder my acupuncturist was familiar with, and unfortunately one that is characteristically very different from dystonia. I was about to quit the acupuncture since it wasn’t bringing me any real benefit, when I asked her if she knew of any protocols used to treat Parkinson’s disease- the closest disorder to dystonia that I knew of. Although researchers have not found a direct link between dystonia and Parkinson’s disease, there is great interest in some of the symptom crossover, and research groups are actively trying to better understand the overlap between the two movement disorders. Since Parkinson’s and Dystonia are both neurological and result in similar signs and symptoms, it was possible that a Parkinson’s acupuncture protocol could be adapted to a dystonia patient.

My acupuncturist found a journal article that outlined a protocol that involves both body and scalp acupuncture, and which is used to treat Parkinson’s patients.1 Acupuncture can help relieve symptoms by altering blood hormone levels. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Parkinson’s and dystonia are believed to be caused by genetics, aging, damage from excessive emotions, faulty diet, and chronic disease. Parkinson’s and Dystonia in TCM are seen as an inability of the blood and yin to nourish sinews and vessels, resulting in contraction, stiffness, and rigidity. The liver in TCM is what governs the sinews, and if the blood and yin become deficient, yang can become hyperactive, resulting in liver wind. These disorders mainly take root in the liver, but can lead to more complex presentations such as phlegm accumulation, qi and blood stagnation, and spleen and kidney deficiency. In TCM, you treat the root cause; in this case, treatment would involve settling the liver and extinguishing wind, and the manifestations, such as phlegm, stagnation, and/ or deficiency. One small study, An Acupuncture Protocol for Parkinson’s Disease,2 showed a total amelioration rate of 84.2 percent when scalp acupuncture was incorporated into an acupuncture treatment.

 

Arthur Yin Fan,CMD,PhD,LAc Jun 3,2014(E-mail) To A Madam (e-mailed me above)

Hi, E,

You may still use scalp and body acupuncture you mentioned. Take time. And also use some local points.

For herbal medicine, we have two:
(1) Pattern based herbology, heal tea.
(2) Dystonia focused herbal pills. It is called Liu Jun San capsule (100 capsule/per bottle, use 3#, 3 times a day).
It was a Chinese FDA (local branch) approved for hospital use (my former hospital).

 

A Madam Jun 3,2014 To Arthur Yin Fan,CMD,PhD,LAc

Dear Dr. Fan,

Thank you very much. I would like to try the dystonia focused herbal pills (if this is what you would recommend for my condition). I had seen a Youtube video of a gentleman with oromandibular dystonia that you had helped, whose symptoms looked (and sounded) identical to my own (lower left lip spasms, pursing of the lips, difficulty speaking). Did he take the dystonia focused herbal pills, or the pattern based herbology, heal tea?
Thank you again,

E

From: A Madam To: ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US
Sent: Thursday, July 10, 2014 8:19 AM
Subject: Request for more dystonia-specific herbal capsules

Dear Dr. Fan,
The herbal capsules that I received from you (Liu Jun San, 3 bottles in early June) seem to be working very well for me. My condition within two weeks of taking them went into a near remission. I still have symptoms, however my conversational speech has dramatically improved and I am even still able to do some radio broadcasting each week. I have also been doing scalp acupuncture, which might be synergistic with the capsules. I was also taking herbal teas prepared by my acupuncturist for several weeks prior to taking the capsules- She said there was some overlap in the ingredients in the teas versus what is in the capsules.

I would like to order another shipment of Liu Jun San for next month. I would actually be interested in continuing to take these capsules indefinitely, as I believe they might be effective in suppressing my symptoms. Is it possible for me to receive an automatic shipment every month, with the money taken out of my credit card each month automatically?

Thank you kindly.
Best wishes,
E

  • Jul 11 at 9:46 PM  To  Arthur Yin Fan,CMD,PhD,LAc
Wonderful! Thank you so much!
I was at a party this evening, by the way, and I was discussing my condition with someone. She said she never would have known if I hadn’t told her. I really am doing so much better- Thank you!
E

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2013-10-24 14:46:59 人民网


毛泽东与保健医生李志绥合影
中医药学是中华民族优秀文化之瑰宝,是我国劳动人民在长期与自然灾害和疾病作斗争中反复实践、总结而逐步形成的一套理论体系和方法。毛泽东历来十分重视民族文化遗产,无论是在革命战争年代还是在和平建设时期,相信和重视发展中医药,都是他的一贯主张。没有专门学过医的毛泽东,在学习历史和社会经验的过程中,学到了许多中医药学辩证思想和中医药学思维方式,他倡导的中医药发展思想对中国医药学的发展发挥了巨大的作用。
毛泽东在杭州刘庄宾馆小憩时说:“中国对世界有三大贡献,第一是中医……”
早在1913年,毛泽东就曾在《讲堂录》笔记中写道:“医道中西,各有所长。中言气脉,西言实验。然言气脉者,理太微妙,常人难识,故常失之虚。言实验者,求专质而气则离矣,故常失其本,则二者又各有所偏矣。”这是迄今为止所发现的毛泽东对中西医学方面的最早论述。
1928年11月25日,毛泽东在《井冈山的斗争》一文中指出:“作战一次,就有一批伤兵。由于营养不足、受冻和其他原因,官兵生病的很多。医院设在山上,用中西两法治疗。”
那时,在井冈山红军医院里,有西医也有中医,许多内科病都是用中医治疗,多数是采用自制中草药。毛泽东曾经指出:鉴于根据地缺医少药,必须发挥中医中药的作用。他说:“草医草药要重视起来,敌人是封锁不了我们的。”当时,红军医院收容200多名参加反“围剿”的伤员,全部采用中医中药治疗病伤。
中医药以它不可低估的药用价值,挽救了许多红军战士的生命,帮助红军度过了艰难岁月。
在延安时,由于环境条件恶劣,毛泽东曾患风湿性关节炎,发作时往往痛得连胳膊都抬不起来。吃了不少西药,仍不见效。一次,开明绅士、名中医李鼎铭到杨家岭来看望毛泽东。他为毛泽东切脉之后,很自信地说,吃四服中药就可以好了。那时,中西医之间矛盾尖锐,毛泽东身边的医生都是西医,他们不同意毛泽东服用中药。
毛泽东则力排众议,坚持把李鼎铭开的四服中药吃了下去。吃完后,疼痛果然消失,胳膊活动自如了。这更使毛泽东认识到中医药的神奇功效。毛泽东又介绍李鼎铭为八路军的干部、战士治病。很快,中医中药成了八路军必不可少的医疗方式。不久,李鼎铭还为八路军培养了一批中医,他们活跃在各个部队。
1949年9月,毛泽东在接见全国卫生行政会议代表时,从保护和发展中医药这一宝贵的祖国文化遗产出发,提出必须很好地团结中医,提高技术,搞好中医工作,发挥中医力量。
1953年,毛泽东在杭州刘庄宾馆小憩时说:“中国对世界有三大贡献,第一是中医……”此说似乎不无戏言成分,但他把中医摆在“三大贡献”之首,表明了其对中医的情结。
1954年,毛泽东作出重要批示:“中药应当很好地保护与发展。我国的中药有几千年历史,是祖国极宝贵的财产,如果任其衰落下去,将是我们的罪过;中医书籍应进行整理……如不整理,就会绝版。”同年,他又指示:“即时成立中医研究院。”于是,在全国范围内调集名医,于1955年12月成立了中国中医研究院,毛泽东还接见了第一任院长鲁之俊。
1956年,毛泽东在同音乐工作者谈话时指出:“应该学外国近代的东西,学了以后来研究中国的东西。就医学来说,要以西方的近代科学来研究中国的传统医学的规律,要发展中国的新医学。”并说:“我们接受外国的长处,会使我们自己的东西有一个跃进。中国的和外国的要有机地结合,而不套用外国的东西。”他还说,历史上中医的一个很大特点是从不拒绝接受外来的好东西,比如中药胖大海,实际上是进口货,但中医拿过来了,现在谁能说它不是中药呢?中医得到发展,是由于兼收并蓄,博采众长。
1958年10月11日,毛泽东在对卫生部党组《关于西医学中医离职学习班的总结报告》的批示中指出:“中国医药学是一个伟大的宝库,应当努力发掘,加以提高。”
毛泽东的一系列讲话和批示,为中医药学的发展指明了方向。

延安时期,针对有些西医看不起中医,毛泽东指出:中西医一定要结合起来
有关中西医结合发展创新的思想,毛泽东早在《井冈山的斗争》一文中就提出了要“用中西两法治疗”。在延安时,毛泽东对名中医李鼎铭说:“现在延安有些西医看不起中医,你看边区的医药事业应如何发展?”李鼎铭说:“中西医各有所长,只有团结起来才能取得进步。”毛泽东说:“你这个想法很好,以后中西医一定要结合起来。”
在学习方法上,毛泽东曾认为中医带徒的方法也很好,一面教读医书学理论,一面带他看病,使理论和实践紧密结合起来,这种教学方法很先进,带一个出一个,很少出“废品”,所谓“名师出高徒”不是一句空话,因为他们让学生从一开始就懂理论与实践的不可分割。
1944年10月30日,毛泽东在陕甘宁边区文教工作者会议上的演讲中谈道:针对150万人口的陕甘宁边区内,还有100多万文盲,2000个巫神,迷信思想还在影响广大的群众。……新医的任务“是联合一切可用的旧知识分子、旧艺人、旧医生来帮助、感化和改造他们,为了改造,先要团结”。
在毛泽东中西医结合思想影响下,陕甘宁边区医务界在延安最先开展了西医学习中医的活动。许多西医虚心拜中医为师。例如,鲁之俊、朱琏等就曾拜老中医任作田为师,学习针灸知识。陕甘宁边区政府表彰了任作田与鲁之俊团结中西医的成绩,并授予他们特等模范奖。
1949年9月,在中央军委总卫生部在北京召开的第一届全国卫生行政会议上,毛泽东对中央军委总卫生部部长贺诚和各大军区卫生部部长作了明确的指示:你们的西医只有一两万,力量薄弱,你们必须很好地团结中医。毛泽东为第一届全国卫生会议题词:“团结新老中西各部分医药卫生工作人员,组成巩固的统一战线。”这一题词为新中国成立初期制定卫生工作方针提供了理论基础和思想基础。
1955年1月,毛泽东在一次关于中医工作的讲话中说:中国6亿人口的健康主要是靠中医,不是靠西医,因为西医的人数很少,中医对人民健康的作用是很大的。中国医药有悠久的历史,对人民有很大的贡献,要建立机构研究中医药,应按对待少数民族政策那样对待他们,各机构中应有他们的成员。对有本事的中医要当专家看待,按专家的待遇对待。
1954年,毛泽东发出“西医学习中医”的号召并提出了一些具体的改进措施:要抽调100名至200名医科大学或医学院的毕业生交给有名的中医,去学他们的临床经验,而学习就应当抱着虚心的态度。西医学习中医是光荣的,因为经过学习、教育、提高,就可以把中西医界限取消,成为中国真正统一的医学,以贡献于世界。
1955年12月,在中医研究院成立的同时,全国第一届西医离职学习中医研究班开学,从全国调来76名有经验的西医脱产两年半学习中医。从1955年底到1956年初,卫生部又在北京、上海、广州、武汉、成都、天津等地举办了6期西医离职学习中医班,从全国范围内抽调部分医学院校毕业生及有一定临床经验的西医参加,系统学习中医理论和治疗技术两年半。参加学习的共有300多人。1955年9月间,北京、上海、广州和成都等地的中医学院相继成立。
1958年10月11日,卫生部党组向中央写了《关于西医学中医离职学习班的总结报告》。毛泽东作了“中国医药学是一个伟大的宝库,应当努力发掘,加以提高”的著名批示。在这一批示中,毛泽东还指出:“我看如能在1958年每个省、市、自治区各办一个70人至80人的西医离职学习班,以两年为期,则在1960年冬或1961年春,我们就有大约2000名这样的中西医结合的高级医生,其中可能出几个高明的理论家。”毛泽东的批示,极大地鼓舞了西医学习中医的积极性。据1960年全国西学中经验交流会时统计的资料,全国西医离职学习中医班有37个,学员2300余人,在职学习中医的有36000余人。高、中级医药院校,也大多开设了中医学课程,培养了一大批西学中人员。其中,大多数成为以后中医或中西医结合研究的技术骨干和学术带头人,为今天中医药能够走出国门、走向世界作出了杰出的贡献。
毛泽东认为:“学习各国的东西,是为了改进和发扬中国的东西,创造中国独特的新东西。”“就医学来说,要以西方的近代科学来研究中国的传统医学的规律,发展中国的新医学。”“西方的医学和有关的近代科学、生理学、病理学、生物学、化学、解剖学等,这些近代的科学都要学。但是,学习西医的人,其中一部分又要学中医,以便运用近代科学的知识和方法来整理和研究我国旧有的中医中药,以便使中医中药的知识和西医西药的知识结合起来,创造中国统一的新医学、新药学。”在这里,毛泽东最先指出了中西医结合研究的内涵。
针对歧视、排斥中医的现象,毛泽东严肃地指出:几年来,都解放了,唱戏的也得到了解放,但是中医还没得到解放
近百年来,中国历史上有过许多次歧视、消灭中医的沉痛教训。
尽管中医药教育长期以来以“祖传师承”、“开办学校”两种方式在民间延续着,但在1922年北洋政府时期颁布施行教育系列方案时,中医药学就被排斥于正规教育体系之外,此举曾引起中医界的抗争,引发了近代中医抗争运动。国民党政府在1929年曾提出“废止旧医,以扫除医事卫生之障碍”的方针;1936年又提出“国医在科学上无根据”,一律不许执业的谬论。国民党当局始终也没有同意中医办教育。随着西学东渐,特别是抗生素等药物的产生和应用,西医急性传染病和感染性疾病的诊疗水平有了很大提高,使传统的中医药学临床应用受到了严峻的挑战和考验。如何认识中医药,怎样利用中医药,成为摆在中国共产党人面前的现实问题。毛泽东在充分肯定中医药学的同时,也指出了中医药学的历史局限性,即缺少现代科学的解释,应加以提高。他说:“看不起中医是不对的,把中医说得都好、太好,也是错误的”,“我们对中医必须有全面的、正确的认识,必须批判地接受这份遗产,必须把一切积极因素保存和发扬”。
新中国成立初,一直存在着两种截然对立的倾向。一是有些人对中医抱着一种历史虚无主义的态度,说中医“不科学”,中药“不卫生”。二是在中医界内部,有些人把中医神秘化,认为中医“百病皆治”、“完美无缺”,不需要用现代科学、也不能用现代科学方法来加以整理和研究。因此,团结中西医的方针在新中国成立后的头几年里,卫生部门领导也一直没有认真执行。
1951年,卫生部的个别领导公开发表文章,称中医为“封建医”,把中医中药知识看作是封建社会的“上层建筑”,应该随封建社会的消灭而被消灭。这一错误观点流传很广,并得到一些人的支持,成为有些卫生行政部门的干部实行排挤和逐步消灭中医的理论依据,从而引起广大的中医和人民群众的不满。特别是1951年5月1日卫生部公布的《中医师暂行条例》及实施细则,与1952年10月4日公布的《中医师考试暂行办法》,均规定了一些不切实际的要求和过于苛刻的办法,使大多数中医不能合法执业。在国家实行公费医疗制度中,中医药治疗费用不能报销,中医无法发挥应有的作用。1951年12月,卫生部发出的《关于组织中医进修学校及进修班的通知》,尽管目的是组织中医进修业务,但讲授的大都是西医课程。对中医的提高和改造要求过高过急,不是从保持中医传统的理论和医疗特色出发来发展中医,而是错误地认为中医必将被西医代替,由城市到乡村,由乡村走向自然淘汰。
当时,由中央卫生部直接领导的中医师资格审查,仅就华北地区68个县来讲,竟有90%以上的中医师被认为是“不合格”的。对中医师的考试,由于多为西医内容,使得大多数中医师被淘汰。如在天津中医师考试中,其结果仅有1/10的中医师通过。在高等教育中没有中医药这一学科,使得中医药人才的培养问题没有着落。
针对当时普遍存在的认为中医不科学而歧视、排斥中医的现象,毛泽东在1954年就及时纠正说:“中医对我国人民的贡献是很大的,中国有六万万人口,是世界上人口最多的国家,我国人民所以能够生衍繁殖,日益兴盛,当然有许多原因,但卫生保健事业所起的作用是其中重要原因之一,这方面首先应归功于中医。”他又说:“中西医比较起来,中医有几千年的历史,而西医传入中国不过几十年,直到今天我国人民疾病诊疗仍靠中医的仍占五万万以上,依靠西医的则仅数千万(而且多半在城市里)。因此,若就中国有史以来的卫生教育事业来说,中医的贡献与功劳是很大的。祖国医学遗产若干年来,不仅未被发扬,反而受到轻视与排斥,对中央关于团结中西医的指示未贯彻,中西医的真正团结还未解决,这是错误的,这个问题一定要解决,错误一定要纠正。首先各级卫生行政部门思想上要改变。”
1955年,毛泽东在一次会上又严肃指出:几年来,都解放了,唱戏的也得到了解放,但是中医还没得到解放。中医进修西医化了。看不起中医药,是奴颜婢膝奴才式的资产阶级思想。
为了全面纠正影响中西医团结的错误倾向,毛泽东和党中央采取了一系列重大措施。1954年11月,中共中央批转国务院文委党组《关于改进中医工作的报告》。卫生部于1955年2月2日发出《关于取消禁止中医使用白纸处方规定的通知》,旨在取消对中医行医的限制。1956年11月27日,卫生部发布了《关于废除中医师暂行条例的通令》。《通令》称:本部在1951年5月1日公布的《中医师暂行条例》,与党的中医政策精神相违背,使中医工作受到严重损害,特此宣布废除。
1954年下半年,北京、天津、上海等大城市的各大医院,开始吸收中医参加工作,并设置中医门诊和中医病床,公费医疗也明确规定中医看病吃药准予报销。据1958年统计,当时全国已建立了300多家中医医院。在党的中医政策的指引下,从中央到地方的各级卫生行政机关,吸收中医参加领导工作并设置中医管理机构,从而极大地提高了中医的政治地位。
毛泽东风趣地对施今墨说:“你们同行是不是冤家啊?”
毛泽东不仅关心着中医药事业的发展,而且还与许多名医都有交往,请他们看病,甚至与他们亲切长谈。有一次,毛泽东宴请一些知名人士,其中就有北京四大名中医之一的施今墨先生。施今墨与著名西医专家黄家驷、林巧稚等同桌。毛泽东风趣地对施今墨说:“你很有名啊,我在年轻时就听说过你。你们同行是不是冤家啊?”施今墨回答:“主席,我们团结得很好,互相很尊重。”毛泽东听了很高兴。
1955年,上海名中医章次公先生被调到卫生部任中医顾问。不久,中央“四老”之一的林伯渠患病颇重,呃逆月余不止,章次公赴治,三剂药治好了林伯渠。中央办公厅一位同志在闲谈时对毛泽东说:“卫生部新来了一位老中医章老,那医术可神了……”接着又将林老案例讲给毛泽东听。毛泽东高兴地说:“我早对你们讲过,中医不比西医差嘛,你们还不信。”过了几天,毛泽东身体不适,指名请章次公为他看病。此后,毛泽东曾两次约请章次公彻夜长谈中医学。他看过不少中医书,提了许多问题,章次公均对答如流,毛泽东会心地说了一句:“难得之高士也。”
1957年夏天,中共中央在青岛召开各省、市、自治区党委书记会议。其间,毛泽东到海水浴场游泳时,不慎得了感冒,加上失眠的困扰,病情日渐严重。随行的保健医生用西药治疗,效果不好。中共山东省委第一书记舒同得知后,便推荐山东著名的老中医刘惠民给毛泽东看病。因为刘惠民大夫开起药方来多用一般医生不太敢用的毒性较强的药材,因此,保健医生和毛泽东身边的工作人员都表示担心,不同意毛泽东吃。刘惠民也因事关重大而心有顾忌,一再表示:“药方可以开,但必须由舒书记的夫人亲自跟我去药店抓药、亲自煎药,并亲自看着主席喝下去才行。”
面对两种截然不同的意见,舒同当即表示:“刘大夫治感冒的药我吃过,的确很灵。他要求由我的爱人给主席煎药,我同意。万一有问题,由我们夫妻负责。”
最后,征求毛泽东自己的意见。毛泽东虽在病中,但仍不失幽默地说:“舒同同志担保了的,我不怕!”
于是,舒同的夫人石澜便在这样一种特殊的背景下,担当起了为毛泽东抓药、煎药的特殊任务。
3天后,毛泽东的感冒症状完全消失了,而且睡眠也逐渐好起来。毛泽东感到特别高兴。
毛泽东问起刘大夫的药方里有一味“酸枣仁”是起什么作用的,为什么要“生、熟合起来捣”。
舒同夫人石澜回答:“药用的酸枣仁,数陕北的最好。当年在延安,主席您住过的那个杨家岭满山都是酸枣树。我们常去摘一些酸枣回来,放在衣兜里当水果吃。酸枣仁这东西,生吃能提神,炒熟了吃能安神。生、熟捣碎入药,就能同时发挥两种作用,平衡中枢神经。所以您不仅感冒好了,睡眠也好了。这正是刘大夫的高明之处呀!”
毛泽东听后哈哈大笑,对坐在一旁的舒同说:“看看,你的夫人讲得多细,将来可以改行当医生了!”11月,毛泽东应邀赴莫斯科参加世界各国共产党和工人党代表大会,刘惠民被指定为保健医生,随同毛泽东前往。
1959年冬,刘惠民为毛泽东诊治感冒。在开处方时,毛泽东忽然提了个问题,问刘惠民民间常说的“上火”怎样解释。刘惠民用中医理论解释后,毛泽东笑着说:你讲的这些我不懂啊,你看怎么办?刘惠民略微思索一下,回答说:“西医学了中医,再用中医的话讲出来,主席就懂了。”毛泽东听后,非常高兴地站起来,说:“对喽,所以我说,关键的问题在于西医学习中医。”
毛泽东接受中医治疗最精彩的一幕是针拨治疗白内障。1974年底,毛泽东患老年性白内障,双目已近失明。经过慎重考虑,中央决定由中国中医研究院著名眼科专家唐由之为毛泽东实施针拨术。中医传统方法中有一种“金针拨障法”,民间失传已久,但该方法已由中国中医研究院继承下来并有所发展和改进,唐由之是主要负责专家。毛泽东知道后,欣然同意做手术。
1975年7月23日,唐由之顺利地完成了这一手术。在手术过程中,毛泽东示意播放古典乐曲《满江红》,其心率、血压一直正常。
做了白内障手术后,需要休息几天,但毛泽东只隔一天就忙着看起书来,唐由之劝阻不住。毛泽东看了一会儿,果然感到眼睛不舒服,便停下来说:“唐由之啊,我们的争论,你胜利啦!”他还伸出右手食指和中指做了一个“V”字形手势。唐由之说:“主席,您亦胜利了,因为您要我们用中医中药的知识和西医西药的知识结合起来,今天给主席做的白内障手术,就是在这种思想指引下研究成功的。”毛泽东听后会意地笑了。
毛泽东:“祝针灸万岁!”
中国的针灸,已有2000多年的历史。针灸的起源,可能比药引还要早,是我国最宝贵的医学遗产之一。针灸疗法以操作简单、应用广泛、疗效迅速、安全经济等特点,深受广大人民群众的欢迎。针灸疗法在中国人民对疾病的斗争中发挥了巨大作用,促进了我国医疗保健事业的发展。但是,自西医传入中国以来,由于崇洋媚外思想的影响,有一些人忽视广大人民群众对针灸治病的实际需要,一味地说中医针灸“落后”、“不科学”,是“土东西”,全盘加以否定。
毛泽东熟读史书,对历史上针灸的治疗作用非常了解。他在读司马迁的《史记·扁鹊仓公列传》时就知道,约在公元前5世纪的扁鹊,用针刺法使昏迷不省人事的“尸蹶”病人苏醒过来,经过其他综合治疗,使病人完全康复,被誉为“起死回生”的妙术。《后汉书·华佗传》里,也记载有华佗用针灸治曹操顽固的“头风”。毛泽东在读《旧唐书》时,熟悉名医甄权的传记,当时鲁州刺史库狄苦于“风痛”,两手无法拉弓射箭,虽经不少医生治疗均未奏效,后请甄权诊视。甄权认为只需针刺一次即能痊愈。果然在针刺“肩髁”穴后,两手即能引弓而射。《宋史·许希传》里也讲到宋仁宗的病被许希用针刺医好。这些史书所述,都给毛泽东留下了深刻的印象。
19世纪以后,清政府对针灸疗法蛮横地加以排斥和打击,并于1822年下令永远停止在“太医院”中施行针灸疗法。从此针灸被当成“土东西”而被忽视。
新中国成立后,毛泽东主张对包括针灸术在内的中国优秀传统文化加以批判地吸收继承。他认为:“针灸是中医里的精华,要好好地推广、研究,它将来的发展前途很广。”
1955年4月,毛泽东在杭州邀请著名针灸专家、卫生部副部长朱琏一道吃晚饭。在跟朱琏谈天的时候,毛泽东说起了她的《新针灸学》一书。这本书是3月23日送呈毛泽东的。毛泽东不但全看了,而且颇为赞同其中说到的针灸与现代医学理论发展的关系。毛泽东对朱琏说:“巴甫洛夫的高级神经活动学说的理论,对针灸治病的神秘提供了解释的钥匙。反过来针灸又能够给它提供丰富的实际材料。如进一步研究,一定可以发挥更大的效果,丰富与充实现代的医学,研究针灸,对医学理论的改革将发生极大的作用,是吗?”他征询朱琏的看法,朱琏肯定地回答说是的。毛泽东也频频点头:“很好,医学理论的确要改革。”
开饭了,菜有几盘,却不奢侈。大家都举起面前的酒杯。毛泽东也站起来,举杯说:“今天–”他沉吟着,该说什么祝酒词呢?
叶子龙接过话说:“今天祝各界大团结万岁。”
毛泽东说:“不是。今天–是祝针灸万岁!”他环顾几个在座的大夫,自己先喝了一口酒,接着说:“你们不要以为针灸是土东西。针灸不是土东西,针灸是科学的,将来各国都要用它。”
他打手势让大家都坐下,自己也放下了酒杯,接着说道:“中医的经验,需要有西医参加整理,单靠中医本身是很难整理的啊。”
在毛泽东的鼓励和支持下,朱琏著的《新针灸学》被译成数国文字,在国外出版发行。
在毛泽东“针灸是科学的”正确思想指引下,中国的针灸疗法获得了飞跃发展。针灸不仅在民间广泛地流传和应用,满足了人民群众医疗上的需要,而且不断走出国门,受到世界各国人民的重视和信赖。
1971年7月,美国《纽约时报》驻华盛顿办事处主任詹姆斯·雷斯顿来华访问。《纽约时报》是美国的一份大型传统日报,以及时、准确、权威而著称。该报十分重视选择头版要闻,对于较长的文章,经常是第一段登在头版,其余部分则登在后面。詹姆斯是美国资深记者,擅长时政报道,获过多次新闻大奖。这年7月,詹姆斯被派往中国采访,在北京参观了很多单位,包括到中医院参观针灸治疗。他在访问中不幸患上阑尾炎,在北京一家医院接受阑尾切除手术治疗。当时周恩来指示:一定要把手术做好,千万不能感染。术中使用的是常规药物麻醉。术后他感到腹部不适,便接受了针灸治疗。回美国后,詹姆斯于7月26日在《纽约时报》头版发了一篇报道,标题是《现在让我告诉你们我在北京的手术》,头版只登了一小段,而文章的主要部分登在第6版上,正题为《现在让我告诉你们我在北京的阑尾切除手术》,文章占了将近一整版,并配有作者访问北京一家中医院针灸诊疗室的照片。詹姆斯当时已经62岁,由于他的不平凡的经历和《纽约时报》在新闻界中的地位,在一般美国人心中,像这样的记者写出的文章可信度是极高的。动手术可用小小的银针来麻醉,病人不觉疼痛,还可治疗好多病,没有毒副作用,这在西方可是从来没有过的神奇事。当时又正值白宫刚刚宣布尼克松总统将于1972年访华,美国公众对东方大国–中国有一种神秘感,从而使针灸医术的神奇疗效在美国民众中引发了浓厚兴趣。
1972年,尼克松首次率团访华,参观了中国的“针刺麻醉”胸外科做肺切除手术,神经外科做颅脑肿瘤的切除手术,看到病人都在清醒的状态下接受开胸、开颅等大型手术,感到十分惊奇,难以理解。在向尼克松赠送的礼品中,还有一本外文出版社出版的英文版《中国针刺麻醉》一书。代表团返美后纷纷宣传“针刺麻醉”的神奇,再一次引起美国民众的浓厚兴趣,特别是美国医务界对中国针灸医术开始有学习的愿望。中医针灸也随之传入美国,并在世界上产生了“中医热”和“针灸热”。
目前,世界上许多国家和地区设立了中医药机构,中医药正逐步走向国际化,实现了毛泽东的夙愿。

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Yesterday, a 44 years old lady came and hugged me very tightly for three minutes. And then told me she got pregnant naturally after my acupuncture treatment.

She said she should be my no.76 clients got pregnant–because she had seen there was a notes on the office board-75 pregnancy since 2007.

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Original article at http://www.jcimjournal.com/jim/FullText2.aspx?articleID=jintegrmed2013041
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 11, 2013   Issue 4
Dialogue with Dr. Lixing Lao: from a factory electrician to an international scholar of Chinese medicine
Arthur Yin Fan (McLean Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC Vienna, VA 22182, USA )

DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013041

Fan AY. Dialogue with Dr. Lixing Lao: from a factory electrician to an international scholar of Chinese medicine. J Integr Med. 2013; 11(4): 278-284.

Received May 12, 2013; accepted June 6, 2013.

Open-access article copyright ? 2013 Arthur Yin Fan.

Correspondence: Arthur Yin Fan, PhD, MD, LAc; Tel: +1-703-499-4428; Fax: +1-703-547-8197; E-mail: ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

Dr. Lixing Lao, an internationally known scholar of Chinese medicine renowned for his clinical and mechanisms research, is the Director of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Program at the Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland (UM) School of Medicine; the Co-Chair of the Acupuncture Research Society; and the former Editor-in-Chief of the American Acupuncturist, the official journal of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. The Baltimore Magazine has listed Dr. Lao as one of the nation’s top acupuncture practitioners (Figure 1).
Dr. Lao has played a pivotal role in the advancement of TCM in the United States. As the first full professor of acupuncture and TCM appointed to a conventional medical school in the United States, he was invited to be a key speaker at both the 1994 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hearing on acupuncture[1,2] and the 1997 National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus conference on acupuncture[2]. As a result of the hearing, the FDA reclassified acupuncture needles as a medical device, no longer an investigational device. The NIH conference led to preliminary confirmation of the safety and efficacy of acupuncture. These two conferences were milestones that opened the way to wider clinical use of acupuncture.
Besides research and clinical practice, Dr. Lao has been involved in TCM education for over 20 years. On October 20, 2012, the author, Arthur Yin Fan, interviewed him in the President’s Office of the Virginia University of Oriental Medicine in Annandale, Virginia, USA.
Fan: Dr. Lao, it is nice to see you again. What have you been doing recently?
Lao: As a professor in UM’s Center of Integrative Medicine, I’ve mainly been doing research, and conducting clinical trials and experiments on the safety and efficacy of acupuncture and herbs. As an academic, I’m also involved in teaching.
Fan: I heard you’ve attended some conferences recently.
Lao: Yes, I have participated in quite a number of conferences, domestically and internationally. In November, I will go to Beijing, China, for the anniversary celebration of the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, which will be combined with an international acupuncture conference. I’ll be one of the main speakers.
Fan: You have been involved in TCM for over thirty years. Now you are an international, leading scholar in this field. What led you to this profession?
Lao: It’s a long story. During the Chinese Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s, formal education stopped. All students became involved in what was called “Stopping Class to Conduct the Revolution” [停课闹革命; Dr. Fan notes: This was similar to school strikes and student occupations in the West, from December 1966 to October 1967]. At that time, “barefoot doctors”— practitioners using acupuncture, herbal medicine, and basic medical procedures like first aid — began to treat the poor rural farmers [Fan notes: more than 90% of the Chinese population lived in impoverished rural areas and lacked basic health care before the barefoot doctors movement]. Such a career was attractive to many young people, including me. There was no strict regulation of acupuncture during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (Fan notes: because the traditional or “old” regulations were dismantled by Chairman Mao Zedong, who was a supporter of barefoot doctors). Many young adults learned TCM in various ways and became barefoot doctors during that period. There was no formal schooling during the Cultural Revolution, and I long to learn something real and useful. I became interested in acupuncture because I had heard many moving stories about the barefoot doctors, which triggered my interest in medicine and health care.
Another reason for me to learn acupuncture or TCM was because of an incident in 1970 during the so-called “Returning to School to Make Revolution (复课闹革命, Fan notes: after October, 1967)”. It was what would have been my last year of high school; students were assigned to factories for half a year and rural areas for the other half to get “real knowledge.” First I was sent to learn farming on Chongming Island, a county of Shanghai City, in the middle of the Yangzi River. One night I began experiencing severe acute abdominal pain, which was later diagnosed as an intestinal obstruction. It was the middle of the night. With great difficulty and the help of my classmates, I walked for miles to see a doctor, Madam Lin, a very nice, extremely proficient old lady who was the doctor assigned to provide medical care for the students from my high school on the island. At that time there was no highway to Shanghai, and the Shanghai ferry ran only during the day. So there was no choice — I could not go to Shanghai despite the emergency. Acupuncture was the only treatment available. It was really magical: Dr. Lin needled me in two places. The pain quickly disappeared and then I slept. I woke up the next morning with no pain. After asking me several questions, Dr. Lin felt there was no need to send me to the hospital in Shanghai and let me go back with the other students. That experience affected me greatly.
Later, during a down period when there was not much to do on the farm, Dr. Lin arranged a class for students. She taught us basic medical knowledge, including the prevention of illness and some basic treatments. I wanted to see how she treated patients and handled difficult cases, so I carried her medical kit when she made home visits. In effect, I was her apprentice, although it was not a formal apprenticeship.
The second half of that year was spent in a factory in the city of Shanghai. There was an elective project —learning medical knowledge. As high school students we had a chance to participate in a three-month training program for suburban barefoot doctors at a district hospital, but only two students per class could be enrolled. I was the class president and had a strong interest in medicine, so I got the chance to attend, and I learned a lot. At that time we were 16 or 17 years old and eager to learn. The school no longer taught normal classes, and the students wanted something to fill their empty brains. The program started with two weeks of classroom teaching; teachers (they were medical doctors) with different specialties taught acupuncture and Western medicine as well as topics such as rescue methods to be used after atomic bomb explosions, how to hold a scalpel when performing an operation, how to interpret an electrocardiogram, and so forth. I remember that when the doctor taught acupuncture, he taught us 30 acupoints a day, including point location, main effects, and insertion techniques for each point. The next day, we would have to stand up to answer questions. We two high school students were always very participatory and liked to answer the questions, while the barefoot doctor candidates, mostly young suburban mothers, were afraid to answer. They were so busy with field and house work after class and they had little time to go over the lessons. That class gave me great pleasure.
After the classroom learning, we interned in each department, starting with the pharmacy. Under supervision, we prepared Western drugs and patent herbs according to the prescriptions that patients brought in. After three days, we were familiar with the names of many drugs and patent herbs and their actions. Then we went to the department of internal medicine. The first few days we copied the doctor’s prescriptions and observed the physical examinations. After that, we could see patients and prescribe medicine under the doctor’s supervision. I started seeing patients on the second day because my supervising doctor considered me ready to practice. We were in a district hospital, patients often came from local factories and the illnesses and disorders were simple. Mostly, I took a patient’s blood pressure, asked some questions, and then refilled a previous prescription; or something like low back pain and patients just wanted pain killers or an excuse for sick leave; rather simple stuff; that was it. My classmate and I sat at two office tables all morning and counted up our patients, competing as to who had seen the most — that was fun and got me interested in medicine.
After that department, we interned in injection room and then in the acupuncture and moxibustion department. There was a doctor, half blind, a graduate of the Tuina (Chinese therapeutic massage) Program from the Shanghai College of TCM. Maybe because of his poor vision, his memory was very strong; he could recall all the acupuncture points and tuina manipulations. At that time, he was single and lived in the hospital dorm near my home. So every night I went to his dorm and learned from him. He talked about the acupuncture and tuina he had learned in college, and I took notes. I became very interested in acupuncture at that time, and it was something like a real apprenticeship. We became good friends.
In 1971, the “old-three grades (老三届) settling in the countryside and mountains” movement (上山下乡; launched by the government) stopped, and middle and high school students and graduates again had a chance to stay in the city. One reason I’d learned acupuncture and moxibustion was to give me a way to take care of myself if I had to live in the countryside. I wanted to be prepared to serve rural patients and my fellow schoolmates who might be resettled there. But when I graduated from high school, I was assigned to the Shanghai Xingzhong Power Machinery Factory (新中动力机器厂) as a factory worker. After training in several jobs, I became an electrician, maintaining the normal operation of the electronic devices there. If there were problems with a device, I would have to work very hard to fix it as quickly as possible in order to avoid a delay of production; otherwise, I’d wait in the office without much to do.
My Shifu (teacher and supervisor) graduated from Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He preferred being an electrician to being a technician, and he taught me a lot. He was a nice man, and to this day we remain friends. My Shifu not only taught me practical skill of repairing electronic devices but also taught me theory of electricity, so I learned faster because I understood the mechanisms. One night, he invited me and his good friend and former classmate, to dinner at his home. His friend arrived with acute low back pain, which began during his bus trip over to dinner. He said to me, “I heard you know acupuncture. Please give me a treatment; I am very hurt.” At that time, I carried acupuncture needles around with me in a pen-like tube. There were no regulations for doing acupuncture at that time, so I gave him a treatment and after removing the needles asked him to move his back as much as possible. To his surprise, his pain was gone; the back muscle spasms disappeared immediately after the treatment. The result pleased him and my Shifu, so by word of mouth, many people found out that I was good at acupuncture.
A few days later, a very old employee in the finance department of the factory came to see me. He had bad intercostal neuralgia. He said he had had three onsets: the first had been cured by a famous TCM doctor, Shi Xiaoshan (石筱山); the second was cured by another famous doctor — I forget the name. Now it was the third onset; he said he’d already seen many doctors and tried many medications, both Chinese and Western, and nothing helped. So he used a lot of pain-killers that only masked the pain for two to three hours, and also upset his stomach. He wanted me to give him acupuncture. I told him I had not treated anyone with such a condition but I would try. His pain was active, so I treated him. He got immediate results and was very pleased. After that, I became very busy — before, people called me only for something electrical, and now people began to call me for their health issues too, especially low back pain and sciatic pain. I had to keep two sets of equipment — my electrician’s tools plus the acupuncture needles and some alcohol swabs for disinfection. I enjoyed helping people for their illness and treated them for free, as a colleague.
Fan: How old were you at that time and when you started your college study?
Lao: I started at that factory when I was 17, and stayed about 7 years. The college entrance examination (CEE) started up again in 1977 after the Culture Revolution stopped in 1976. So I was 24 when I entered college in the fall of 1978. During the Cultural Revolution, I had had formal education only up to actual fifth grade level (although I was a high school graduate) because the classes were disbanded to “make revolution.” I did not think I had enough knowledge to pass the CEE, but my high school math teacher encouraged me to try. I then borrowed middle and high school textbooks and started self-study with some help from my math teacher and my Shifu. I was lucky enough to pass the exam in July 1978 after about 5 months of extensive study.
Fan: How was your experience in college?
Lao: I was accepted and admitted to the Shanghai College of TCM and assigned to the acupuncture major. I initially thought I already knew enough acupuncture and wanted to the major in Chinese herbal medicine. But soon after I started the course work, I found I actually knew very little about acupuncture. The clinical experience I had earlier helped me to better understand TCM and acupuncture theory as well as other courses, including Western medicine. I studied hard and enjoyed the five-year learning opportunity and did not want to waste time that had been lost during the Cultural Revolution. I was elected president of our class and vice president of the Student Union of the college.
Fan: Very impressive experience. Then you enrolled in the University of Maryland for PhD study in physiology and also got your acupuncture license in the State of Maryland?
Lao: After graduating in 1983, I was appointed to the Acupuncture Department of my college as a teacher and researcher. Then China encouraged young people to go abroad for study, which was one of the important policies of the reform. I applied to the Physiology Department of the Dental School at UM because it has a pain research group as I was interested in the mechanisms of acupuncture for pain relief. At that time, the National Certification Commission of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) initiated an acupuncture certificate examination oriented mostly toward TCM. Because of my teaching background, I was invited to review point locations for a group of a local acupuncture school students who were preparing for that examination. Local acupuncturists also told me I was eligible to apply for an acupuncture license in the State of Maryland. So in 1988 I became licensed as No. 300, the 200th licensed acupuncturist in Maryland (the license number starts at No. 101). Later I also passed the exams and obtained NCCAOM certification of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine.
Fan: At that time, acupuncturists worked under the supervision of an MD. How did you start your clinic?
Lao: I had to work under an MD’s supervision. A local acupuncturist referred me to Dr. Sores, a very nice Filipino-American doctor. She told me that she had just visited China with a group of American physicians and was deeply impressed by the acupuncture anesthesia she’d observed. One MD could supervise three acupuncturists at that time; I became her second one. Dr. Sores was so kind to let me use her clinic, which was near the Johns Hopkins University, when there were rooms available. She waived the rent for the first several months; even later, she charged a fairly low rent. I studied for my Ph.D. during the day and worked in the clinic from 6:00 to 9:00 pm two or three days a week until graduation.
Fan: How did you get your academic appointment at the University of Maryland School of Medicine?
Lao: A year before my graduation, I had a period of deep confusion. If I took a postdoc position in a laboratory for physiological research, I’d have to move (to other states) and leave my flourishing acupuncture practice; if I stayed in my Maryland practice, I’d have to leave my academic career. I’d studied acupuncture for five years and spent five more on my PhD in physiology. Giving up either would be a pity. By luck, in 1991 I saw an announcement in the school magazine and the Baltimore Sun saying that an MD, Brian Berman, had been awarded a million dollars to set up a complementary medicine program to study the safety and efficacy of acupuncture, Chinese and other traditional medicine, and alternative medicine in the Department of Anesthesia, UM School of Medicine. After I talked to him about possibility to work with him, he offered me a research assistant professor position and wanted me to start work at once. I still hadn’t completed my dissertation and actually couldn’t. But we became friends. In one occasion, I successfully treated his two-year-old daughter with tuina and became his family acupuncturist. On June 15, 1992, the day after my dissertation defense, I started work as an assistant professor in his program.
It was the right time, right place, and right people. In 1992, the NIH established the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM). Dr. Berman was on their advisory board and took me to many meetings. In 1993, the OAM formally started to award fairly small, $30 000 research grants to about thirty awardees. We applied and were awarded two grants in 1994. I was the principal investigator (PI) of one project named “Acupuncture and Postoperative Oral Surgery Pain”; Dr. Berman was the PI and I was the co-investigator of the second program “Acupuncture Safety/efficacy in Knee Osteoarthritis”. After this seed funding, we got bigger grants, NIH Research Project Grants, also known as R01 grants, to continue both these projects. The clinical trial of acupuncture on knee osteoarthritis (OA) had a great impact. This large sample (N=570) trial found that acupuncture was significantly more beneficial for patients with knee OA than those in sham control[3]. We continued such work on arthritic pain and now are involved in other modalities such as Chinese herbal medicine, laser acupuncture, and moxibustion.
In 1998, we got a Center Grant known as P50 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM, former OAM), which consists of funding for three projects focused on a research question; I served as the Project Leader on mechanisms of acupuncture in inflammatory pain and established our first laboratory for the basic science research on acupuncture and TCM. Since the establishment of the lab, we have published many basic science studies on acupuncture and herbology. You were there three years, Arthur. Thank you for your great contribution to our lab’s research on the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine. Because of our significant achievements from earlier, we’ve gotten several big grants (known as P50, P01 and U19) over the last ten years and also many smaller ones.
Fan: Your clinical trials, especially on acupuncture for knee OA[3] and on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, made great contributions toward persuading commercial healthcare insurance companies to cover the use of acupuncture for such illnesses. Since then, more and more insurance companies have begun to pay for acupuncture treatments.
Lao: You’re right. I feel we have done the right thing — choosing to study illnesses commonly seen in clinic and publishing our results in major medical journals. Positive results give practitioners great support.
Some acupuncturists and research colleagues didn’t understand why we chose to study arthritis. They told us, “We use acupuncture to treat arthritis every day. It’s been done for thousands of years, especially in China, and with good results. Unquestionably, acupuncture can treat arthritis. Why waste time doing a clinical trial on that?” The fact is, although there is a consensus among acupuncturists and Oriental medicine professionals and some patients, many Western-trained doctors and their patients have no understanding of the safety and efficacy of acupuncture. We need to demonstrate the effect and safety of acupuncture in treating common illnesses for which medications aren’t too effective. In America there is a high incidence of arthritis, which doesn’t respond well to conventional medication. Most arthritis, especially knee OA, is chronic. Pain medications are only briefly effective, and must be used long term, which lead to serious adverse effects. And the safety and effectiveness of acupuncture on OA is easy to evaluate. In an illness such as diabetes, which has many complications, treatment results may be hard to measure.
Our strategy was to study the condition most suitable to acupuncture treatment first. Positive results would help the mainstream medical profession to start accepting acupuncture, and then we can tackle more difficult diseases. If we had chosen a difficult one first and not gotten a positive result, people might believe that acupuncture is simply ineffective, not that we got a poor result because we didn’t choose a suitable subject. So we picked something less complex first. Also, we wanted to pick a common disease, and there are many OA patients.
I researched textbooks, clinical trials, and case reports to decide which acupoints and acupuncture strategies we should use, and then tested these in a small group of patients to ensure they’d be effective in clinical conditions. Additionally, as you know, success depends on the “right time, right place, and right people”. There was a strong need to show whether acupuncture is safe and effective, and we had a good team. Besides Dr. Berman, me, and our TCM research personnel, we invited Dr. Marc C. Hochberg, a doctor in our school of medicine at UM and an internationally known knee expert, to provide a set of evaluation and assessment methods for knee OA. His support was essential to the project’s success.
Acupuncture and Chinese medicine professionals might also feel that a study on acupuncture for dental extractions[4] is unnecessary since doctors and researchers in China have done acupuncture anesthesia studies showing that acupuncture is an effective anesthetic in major operations. Dental pain is a very small topic. But when I designed the dental project, I wanted to refute the preconceptions of the conventional medicine practitioners and some others who believe that acupuncture is a placebo, i.e., that its apparent effectiveness is only a result of psychological expectation.
In designing that study, I found that there were advantages to doing acupuncture immediately after an extraction. The novel control was established; patients couldn’t easily differentiate between real, needle insertion, and sham, no insertion, acupuncture — right after extraction, the local anesthesia hadn’t worn off and patients were blindfolded, so when acupuncture was performed on Jiache (ST6), Xiaguan (ST7), Yifeng (SJ17) and Hegu (LI4), the patient didn’t see or feel the procedure. Establishing an effective control is a difficult thing in acupuncture studies; sham acupuncture isn’t like a pill that can be the same shape and size as a drug being tested. Although we could have used shallow needle insertion at the real point, these can induce physiological reactions. The best control is non-insertion. Patients might be able to distinguish between insertion and no insertion, but it was not in this project when our subjects were still under local anesthetic.
I modified the model a little for our clinical trial. In the original model, the researchers administered medication about an hour after tooth extraction, when moderate pain starts. I decided to use acupuncture as prevention, with pain-free time being the main indicator, and pain level as the secondary indicator. Before the trial, I did a preliminary study using several patients undergoing tooth extraction. Most actually had no pain after the acupuncture and didn’t need pain medication. My second modification was patient blinding — patients were literally blindfolded during the acupuncture. The test period was only 6 h, very short. A long period might cause a patient to realize if he had received real acupuncture.
The reason I chose postoperative dental pain was because I graduated from the dental school’s PhD program and knew the dental doctors there. I contacted Dr. Bergman, who is an oral surgeon who is interested in acupuncture. We did a few patients to obtain preliminary study data and observed that acupuncture was very good for dental pain after tooth extraction. Then we started a formal collaboration and applied for a research grant from the NIH. Our study showed acupuncture to be much better than sham — or placebo — acupuncture. That study might not have much clinical significance, but it is scientifically significant. It addresses a few questions, such as whether acupuncture is a placebo.
Fan: Those clinical trials that show acupuncture to be no better than placebo — there have been many, such as that of the trial published by a Seattle Group[5]; the results were all similar — I consider the problem to be one of design. First of all, is so-called sham acupuncture really sham? And are its results really placebo effects? Needle insertion effects are not like effects of oral or i.v. medication. Applying a medication model and trial design in an acupuncture study might not produce good research. Also, acupuncture’s time-point effectiveness varies; some effects show up immediately; others require a 10- or 16-session course or six months. Giving 10 sessions of so-called sham and expecting patients not to know if she/he is getting real acupuncture is difficult if not impossible. As you say, if you expect to blind patients but use strong “sham” stimulation, that could induce physiological reactions and amount to actual acupuncture. Also, if the statistical design is wrong, differences won’t show up; this can happen especially if a sample is too small.
Lao: True. I’ll give you an example with a sound methodology, because study methodology is improving so we can have more confidence in the results. A group of researchers in New York led by Vickers did a well-known literature review published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2012[6]. Archives of Internal Medicine is one of the archives of the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), which is a very prominent journal, and this review was widely reported by the media. Vickers got NIH funding five years ago. He asked researchers who published papers on large acupuncture clinical trials to give him the raw data from their studies. Using those data, Vickers’ team repeated the original statistical analyses to see if they could get the results that were originally published. Twenty-nine high quality acupuncture trials were analyzed, which involved four types of chronic pain lasting more than four weeks: knee OA inflammatory pain; musculoskeletal pain — low back and neck pain; headache — migraine and tension; and shoulder pain. The 29 studies used yielded a total of 18 000 chronic patients divided into at least three groups: acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and routine conventional medicine. The results showed that acupuncture performed much better than the routine conventional treatments and better than sham. The most interesting thing from this paper was that Vickers predicted that if this study were repeated after a few years, the chance of overturning these conclusions would be very low or almost impossible because, statistically, it would take 47 trials of more than 100 patients each, with an effective size of 0.25 in favor of sham controls, to obtain negative results. This study is convincing because it accounted for all possibilities.
Fan: We are both clinical practitioners. So you might agree with my feeling — that the so-called sham acupuncture used in so many clinical trials[5,6]actually is a variation on real acupuncture. Each school of acupuncture has a different style; some use gentle or shallow stimulation in which the patient might not feel the needling sensation at all; some use extra-meridian acupoints. I myself, in different patients and even in the same patient according to different circumstances, conditions, or body parts, might use different stimulation strategies. So it seems to me that gentle or shallow insertion, non-insertion, or extra-meridian insertion isn’t necessarily sham acupuncture. If using a toothpick to mimic acupuncture is sham, then how do we explain the action of the Bian Shi (stone needle), an alternative to the filiform needle? I feel that if metal needles or toothpicks induce a physiological reaction, that’s real acupuncture. In a drug trial the researcher can use an inert pill.
Lao: You are correct. These factors make it more difficult to design an adequate acupuncture sham control. Since the mechanism of acupuncture effectiveness itself is not clear, one can’t design a control that has no such mechanism (like an inert placebo pill). For a conventional medication, its mechanism is relatively clear, such as it works on certain receptors or certain pathways, so it is easy to design a control that does not have that function on these targeted receptors and pathways.
Fan: Why do we still use sham acupuncture in clinical trials?
Lao: The concept of sham control is not bad. The problem is we just don’t know what would be an appropriate “sham”. Some people in the mainstream medical field who have the “speaking rights,” insist on adding so-called sham controls. Although this is not good practice, we have no choice. We have to conform to the status quo. However, in recent years, patient-centered, comparative effectiveness research that more accurately reflects daily acupuncture practice, not using a sham control, has been drawing the attention of many researchers. I believe that type of research will be the next step of acupuncture research – to determine which conditions are most suitable for acupuncture treatment, as compared to conventional treatment.
Fan: What are your comments on the acupuncture research going on in China?
Lao: TCM’s birthplace is China, although none of the papers we’ve discussed were published by scholars in China. I hope that one day soon scholars there will be performing high-quality research. This is why I am so eager to help young scholars in China with study design. As the Chinese economy improves, the Chinese people should take more responsibility for TCM research and produce studies that can’t be dismissed because of poor quality. I want to foster the development of acupuncture and TCM because they really do help patients, are easy to use, and are cost effective. I would like to see researchers in China to conduct more serious and vigorous high-quality studies.
Fan: I admire you. You have been an acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine researcher for over 20 years and are regarded internationally as a spokesman of TCM research. You’ve met so many difficulties and still have remained mentally strong. What gives you the strength to do so well?
Lao: I am very confident about the development of acupuncture as well as TCM as a whole. Success is based on small daily accumulations. The current situation of acupuncture and herbology is much better than it was a few years ago. Although our profession still has some problems, we should stay optimistic. I believe the proverb: real gold doesn’t fear the fire that smelts it.
Fan: I hope you continue to make contributions, in acupuncture research, in education, and in legislative and political activities.
Lao: Thanks for your interview.
Fan notes: Between June, 1992 (one year after the Center was established) and the present, the center where Dr. Lao works has received more than?35?million dollars in funding from the NIH and other different sources, for carrying out research on acupuncture and Chinese medicine. As a principal investigator or co-investigator, Dr. Lao has been on 28 grants or research projects. Dr. Lao so far has published 142 peer-reviewed papers, 26 non-peer reviewed, invited papers, and 10 book chapters. He is a co-editor of a new acupuncture and moxibustion textbook that will be published by the end of this year. He was the chair of the 2007 Society for Acupuncture annual meeting – “The Status and Future of Acupuncture Research: 10 Years Post-NIH Consensus Conference”, and also chaired the 2010 WFAS (World Federation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Societies) annual conference in San Francisco, CA.
AcknowledgementsThe author would like to thank Ms. Lyn Lowry for English editing. The interviewer was Dr. Arthur Yin Fan.
Competing interestsDr. Arthur Fan worked in Dr. Lixing Lao’s laboratory and participated in acupuncture and Chinese herbal mechanism studies from 2002 to 2005 as an NIH Fellow in Chinese medicine. The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Figures and Tables in this article: 



Figure 1  Dr Lixing Lao at Virginia University of Oriental Medicine This picture was taken by Byung Kim.

References

1. Fan AY, Fan Z. Dr. Wu: a beautiful, moving and meditative song — in memory of Dr. Jing Nuan Wu, a pioneer of acupuncture and a Chinese medicine doctor in the United States[J] J Chin Integr Med, 2012, 10(8) : 837-840.
2. Fan AY, Fan Z. The beginning of acupuncture in Washington, D.C. and Maryland: an interview with Dr. Yeh-chong Chan[J] J Integr Med, 2013, 11(3) : 220-228.
3. Berman BM, Lao L, Langenberg P, Lee WL, Gilpin AM, Hochberg MC. Effectiveness of acupuncture as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial[J]. Ann Intern Med, 2004, 141(12) : 901-910.
4. Lao L, Bergman S, Langenberg P, Wong RH, Berman B. Efficacy of Chinese acupuncture on postoperative oral surgery pain[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1995, 79(4) : 423-428.
5. Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Avins AL, Erro JH, Ichikawa L, Barlow WE, Delaney K, Hawkes R, Hamilton L, Pressman A, Khalsa PS, Deyo RA. A randomized trial comparing acupuncture, simulated acupuncture, and usual care for chronic low back pain[J]. Arch Intern Med, 2009, 169(9) : 858-866.
6. Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, Lewith G, MacPherson H, Foster NE, Sherman KJ, Witt CM, Linde K; Acupuncture Trialists’ Collaboration. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis[J]. Arch Intern Med, 2012, 172(19) : 1444-1453.

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时代杂志1973年关于内华达州通过中医及针灸合法化的报道

已有 1089 次阅读 2009-9-28 10:50 |个人分类:生也有涯|系统分类:人文社科

时代杂志1973年关于内华达州通过中医及针灸合法化的报道

原文地址:http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945215,00.html

The Nation : Acupuncture in Nevada

Monday, Apr.23 ,1973

The Nevada state legislature last week became the first in the nation to declare traditional Chinese medicine “a learned profession.” By nearly unanimous vote, the lawmakers legalized acupuncture, herbal medicine and other Chinese practices. What sold them was neither Nixonian detente nor the thoughts of Mao, but a free Chinese clinic that, by special permission, was opened for three weeks across from the statehouse in Carson City.

Half of Nevada’s 60 lawmakers have put themselves under the needles of one Lok Yee-kung. There have been several claimed cures and even more conversions. Assemblyman Robert Hal Smith reported that his 20-year sinus condition disappeared after needles were stuck in his forehead and alongside his nose. Equally as gratifying to his wife, the treatment silenced his snoring. Another legislator said that he had been cured of the pain of a childhood knee injury, and a third claimed to have been relieved−though only temporarily−of a number of leg ailments. Scores of constituents begged their representatives to get appointments for them at the clinic. Said one legislator’s secretary: “It looked like a little Lourdes around here.”

Skeptics questioned the propriety of legislators accepting free treatment and noted that the clinic−and a hard lobbying effort for the legalization bill−had been organized by the so-called American Society of Acupuncture, a corporation that stands to earn pin money if Governor Mike O’Callaghan signs the bill. Justifying the freebie treatments, Senator William Raggio explained: “None of us knew much about this thing, and we supposed this was the best way to find out.” It is refreshing to know that even legislators in Nevada check the deck before dealing.

 

 

翻译:(翻译不是很到位,勉强看看罢)

上周内,华达州议会成为全国率先宣布中医为“一个专门职业”的州。立法者们以几乎全票通过的表决结果使针灸草药和其他中国医药手段在该州合法化。经过特别许可,一个既不贩售尼克松主义,也不传递毛泽东思想的自由的中国诊所,在卡森市州议会大厦前开办了三个星期。

内华达州的60个国会议员,有一半接受了针灸大师陆易公为自己施针。除了有一些已经一些声明自己自己得到治愈,更多的表示得到了改善。众议员罗伯特史密斯哈尔报告说,当所有针扎进他前额和鼻子,困扰他20年的鼻窦消失了。同样令人高兴的是他的妻子,针灸治愈了她打鼾的毛病。另一位立委说,他童年时的膝盖伤痛已经得到治愈,三分之一的人称虽然只是暂时的,但是他们腿部的伤病得到了缓解。大量的选民乞求他们的代表代他们在诊所预约。一个立法者的秘书说:“这就像在这里有圣玛丽亚神迹(lourdes)一样。”

怀疑者质疑接受免费治疗的立法者,并指出,诊所和一个合法化的法案艰辛的游说努力,是由一个叫做美国针灸协会推动的,而这个公司能在州长Mike O’Callaghan签署法令后赚点零花钱。参议院William Raggio为这次免费义诊辩护说:“我们对这件事并没有了解那么多,但我们觉得这是最好的证明途径。”令人耳目一新的是,内华达州立法者在通过立法之前先以身试药。

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OMB No. 0925-0001/0002 (Rev. 08/12 Approved Through 8/31/2015)

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Provide the following information for the Senior/key personnel and other significant contributors.

Follow this format for each person. DO NOT EXCEED FIVE PAGES.

NAME: Fan, Arthur Yin
eRA COMMONS USER NAME (agency login):
POSITION TITLE: Independent researcher in Chinese Medicine, Licensed Acupuncturist

EDUCATION/TRAINING (Begin with baccalaureate or other initial professional education, such as nursing, include postdoctoral training and residency training if applicable.)

INSTITUTION AND LOCATION DEGREE
(if applicable)
Completion Date
MM/YYYY
FIELD OF STUDY
Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu MD 06/1986 Chinese Medicine
Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu PHD 06/1998 Chinese Internal Medicine, Brain diseases
Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing Municipal Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Resident 07/1989 Integrative medicine
Nanjing University of Medical Science Brain Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu Other training 09/1990 Neurology
Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC Postdoctoral Fellow 08/2002 Pharmacology, toxicology in herbs, diet and nutrition supplements
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Fellow 05/2005 Pain and inflammation; Acupuncture mechanism, herbal medicine efficacy and safety evaluation

A. Personal Statement

Arthur Yin Fan (Fan Ying) is an independent researcher and a leading specialist in Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine with about three decades of clinical experience in both Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western medicine. He was awarded an MD degree in Chinese Medicine (1986) and a PhD in Chinese Internal Medicine (1998); he also had one additional year’s training in the neurology as well as a four-year residency combining Chinese and Western internal medicine, i.e. integrative medicine. He was the first NIH fellow in Chinese medicine in 2002-2005.

Dr. Fan has been a reviewer for medical research grants and academical papers for several peer-reviewed Journals for more than fifteen years; he has published over eighty academical papers. He was a consultant for the center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland medical school. As a researcher in acupuncture, he investigated its effect and mechanism on reducing pain and inflammation. He also researched herbal medicine, nutrition supplements’ efficacy and safety at University of Maryland and Georgetown University Medical School.

Practicing in the Washington, DC-northern Virginia area since 2002, Dr. Fan employs acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine as alternative or complementary treatment for patients with various conditions. He is one of very few doctors who has both MD and PhD background (in Chinese medicine, integrative medicine). Dr. Fan holds the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) certificate in Oriental Medicine.

From 1998 to 2001, Dr. Fan was one of the major designers and founders of Nanjing Chinese Medicine Center for Stroke, which combined the medical resources of ICU, neurology, acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, physical therapy, hyperbaric oxygen chamber, and other therapies to maximize patients’ survival and recovery in a limited time. Currently, this center is listed as one of the key stroke centers in China. This kind of integrative medicine style already has spread to every city of China since then.

  1. Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan AY, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Aug;237(1-2):129-36. PubMed PMID: 12236580.
  2. Zhang RX, Lao L, Wang X, Fan A, Wang L, Ren K, Berman BM. Electroacupuncture attenuates inflammation in a rat model. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Feb;11(1):135-42. PubMed PMID: 15750372.
  3. Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Zhou AN, Berman BM. Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010 May;8(5):438-47. PubMed PMID: 20456842; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3739922.
  4. Fan AY. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, part I: design and results interpretation. J Integr Med. 2015 Mar;13(2):65-8. PubMed PMID: 25797635.

B. Positions and Honors

Positions and Employment

1986 – 1989 Resident doctor, Nanjing Municipal Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing
1990 – 1990 Fellow/trainee, Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing University of Medical Science, Nanjing
1990 – 1995 Attending doctor, Neurology Department, Nanjing Municipal Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing
1998 – 2001 Associate Professor in Research and in Internal Medicine; Associate Chief doctor, Neurology Department, The Third Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing
2001 – 2002 Visiting researcher, postdoc, Dept. Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC
2002 – Independent researcher in Chinese Medicine, Licensed Acupuncturist, McLean Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC, Vienna, VA
2002 – 2005 NIH Fellow in Chinese Medicine, Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
2004 – 2005 Postdoc, Research assistant, Veteran Affairs Maryland Health Care , Baltimore, MD
2015 – Chair,Scientific Study & Academic Affair Committee, TCMAAA, Traditional Chinese Medicine American Alumni Association, Largo, FL

Other Experience and Professional Memberships

2008 – Member, Acupuncture Society of Virginia
2009 – 2010 Board member, Acupuncture Society of Virginia
2015 – Chair, Scientific Study & Academic Affair Committee, TCMAAA (Traditional Chinese Medicine American Alumni Association, FL, USA).

Honors

1995 Young Scientist Travel Award, International Brain Research Organization
2001 Merit award for Medical Science and Technology Advancement, Jiangsu Provincial Government, China
2011 Member, Editorial Committee, Journal of Integrative Medicine
2013 Editor, Journal of Alternative & Integrative Medicine

C. Contribution to Science

a. Acupuncture clinical trial methodology: design,sample size calculation, statistics, result interpretation
  1. Fan AY. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, part I: design and results interpretation. J Integr Med. 2015 Mar;13(2):65-8. PubMed PMID: 25797635.
  2. Fan AY. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part II: Zelen design and effectiveness dilutions. J Integr Med. 2015 May;13(3):136-9. PubMed PMID: 26006026.
b. Acupuncture mechanism study in pain and inflammation
  1. Zhang RX, Lao L, Wang X, Fan A, Wang L, Ren K, Berman BM. Electroacupuncture attenuates inflammation in a rat model. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Feb;11(1):135-42. PubMed PMID: 15750372.
c. Herbology efficacy or herb-pharmacology: Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan; Comparing of the safety between single herb and formula
  1. Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Wang LB, Lee DY, Ma ZZ, Zhang WY, Berman B. Effects of an acetone extract of          Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on rats with persistent inflammation. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):323-31. PubMed PMID: 15865500.
  2. Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Zhou AN, Wang LB, Moudgil KD, Lee DY, Ma ZZ, Zhang WY, Berman BM. Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on adjuvant-induced arthritis in lewis rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):104-9. PubMed PMID: 15970410
  3. Lao L, Fan AY, Zhang RX, Zhou A, Ma ZZ, Lee DY, Ren K, Berman B. Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the modified Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) in rats. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(5):833-44. PubMed PMID: 17080548.
  4. Zhang RX, Fan AY, Zhou AN, Moudgil KD, Ma ZZ, Lee DY, Fong HH, Berman BM, Lao L. Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):366-71. PubMed PMID: 19100323; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2818782.

d. Efficacy studies on common used herbs and dietary supplements: Maitake mushroom, Qing Gan Jie Du Dan/ Liver purifier

  1. Echard BW, Talpur NA, Fan AY, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Hepatoprotective ability of a novel botanical formulation on mild liver injury in rats produced by acute acetaminophen and/or alcohol ingestion. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2001 Jul-Aug;110(1-2):73-85. PubMed PMID: 12090358.
  2. Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan AY, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Aug;237(1-2):129-36. PubMed PMID: 12236580.
  3. Rajaiah R, Lee DY, Ma Z, Fan AY, Lao L, Fong HH, Berman BM, Moudgil KD. Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan modulates antigen-directed immune response in adjuvant-induced inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4;123(1):40-4. PubMed PMID: 19429337; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2925191.

e. Safety and toxicity evaluation of herbal medicine: Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan; Literature review; acute toxicity investigation and chronic toxicity evaluation; comparing the single herb and compound formula.

  1. Zhang RX, Fan AY, Zhou AN, Moudgil KD, Ma ZZ, Lee DY, Fong HH, Berman BM, Lao L. Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):366-71. PubMed PMID: 19100323; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2818782.
  2. Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Zhou AN, Berman BM. Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010 May;8(5):438-47. PubMed PMID: 20456842; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3739922.

D. Research Support

Completed Research Support

2003/07/31-2004/07/31

Under P50-00084, which was a Feasibility Study

Fan, Arthur Yin (PI)

A Pilot Study on Yang-Deficiency Syndrome And Pain Sensitivity in Rats

Yang-Deficiency (YD, also called Deficiency-cold Syndrome/Pattern, or Yang-Xu Zheng) is a common diagnosis made by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and other chronic pain or/and chronic inflammatory diseases (CP/CID). YD is marked by chronic cold, frailty or weakness, lethargy, and decreased sexual and reproductive ability or poor body development. TCM Yang-enhancing remedies have demonstrably and effectively corrected these chronic conditions, and the application of such remedies could improve the rehabilitation process of some chronic diseases characterized by YD. In China, YD animal models have been successfully developed by injecting large doses of steroid hormones or by removing the adrenal gland or thyroid gland in rats, mice and rabbits. However, up to now, there has been no study on pain in the YD model or the RA-YD animal model. Our study will consist of two sets of experiments. In part one we will develop YD in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them with hydrocortisone acetate daily for one week. We will test their major physiological parameters (body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure); administer endurance tests (anti-fatigue test: 25 ºC room temperature swimming test, anti-cold test under fatigue conditions: 0ºC ice-water swimming test); and measure the functions of three endocrinological axes (cortisone; triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4]; estradiol [E2], testosterone [T]) using radioimmunoassay (RIA) plasma levels. In part two, we will test the pain sensitivity using behavioral studies (paw withdrawal latency, or PWL) in YD rats compared to normal rats. The data obtained from this study will be used for a future pain and inflammation study, for an herbal remedy study on RA and its Syndromes, and for creating a RA-YD disease-Syndrome integrated animal model.

Role: PI

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