Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘acupuncture legislation’

GLOBAL VIEWS
Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969–1979) — acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture  | PDF |

http://www.jcimjournal.com/jim/

June 23, 2015 | Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert (doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60186-8)
 | PDF |

Read Full Post »

Dr. Fan’ s new article was published recently.

GLOBAL VIEWS
Nevada: the first state that fully legalized acupuncture and Chinese medicine in the Unites States — In memory of Arthur Steinberg, Yee Kung Lok and Jim Joyce who made it happen
February 27, 2015 | Arthur Yin Fan | J Integr Med 2015; 13 (2) : 72–79
doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60158-3
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF |

Read Full Post »

只能称针灸师 美国加州业者推立法为中医师正名

2012年09月10日 10:48 来源:中国新闻网  http://www.chinanews.com/hr/2012/09-10/4171203.shtml

  中新网9月10日电 据美国《世界日报》报道,美国加州中医界将州参、众议会通过的SB628法案视为一大胜利,在该法案下,拥有博士(Dr.)学位的合格针灸师可改称为针灸医师。中医界表示,他们下一步是推动“中医师”头衔,中医师在美国一直以针灸师名义行医。

 

在SB628法案下,凡取得针灸师执业资格前,已获得博士学位者,其正式职衔可改为“针灸医师”。无博士学位者则续称为“针灸师”,在回学校进修取得博士学位后,职衔可改为“针灸医师”。

事实上,从针灸师升格为针灸医师的背后是中医界十几年的努力。中医政治联盟主席刘美嫦表示,过去西医批评中医教育水平不够,所以中医界逐步推动硕士和博士学位,并且同时从立法角度为医师正名。她说,根据目前加州针灸管理局的规定,针灸师完成硕士学位即可获发针灸师执照,要提高为医师就得通过更高的学位考试。

全美有3万合格针灸师,一半在加州。

针灸与东方医学学院院长巫文硕说,据他了解,美国之所以用针灸师而非中医师的头衔,是因为在尼克松访问中国前一年,一名纽约时报记者到中国采访时,染上肠胃炎开刀,当地医师以针灸为他麻醉,他回到美国后大篇幅报导针灸,所以美国人对中医的概念就是针灸。

巫文硕指出,美国针灸师的行医范围包括中药、推拿、太极、气功,这都是法律允许的,实质上等同于中医师。他认为,名正言顺固然重要,但提升中医的内涵更重要,与其争取正名,还不如努力将学生水平提高。(赖至巧)

 

Read Full Post »

World Journal of Tradiitonal Chinese Orthopedics  page 208-210; No.2, V0l. 7 and No.1, V0l. 8.

http://file.lw23.com/8/89/89c/89ccd8f3-a76c-4e28-a3fb-e0042b3752cd.pdf; retrieved on 01/06/2012

国加州 中医针灸立法概况及新挑战

罗志长 (美国加州中医师联合总会名誉会长、世界中医骨科联合会资深主席)

中医针灸在 中国是 国宝,但到 了外国却成 了外来文化,如何使这个外来文化在所在国立足、生根、发展,就成 了各 国中医界必须经历和认真探讨的 问题.我们在美国也经历过艰难 的立法过程 。

美国中医针灸 的发展,虽然全国轰动,但是美 国民众思想最开明,针灸发展最迅速,中医队伍最庞大,中医立法最完整 的,要数加州 。 因此加州中医针灸立法过程的成功经验和失败教训,有一定的参考价值。

非法 时期

在 1971年 以前 的一百多年间,加州和全美 国一样,中医针灸基本上是空 白的。早期随着华裔劳工 的输入,中医针灸也被传入了美 国,为劳工们解决 自身 的病痛 问题.虽然那时也有一 些中草药铺和针灸,但他们没有法律 的保障。

1971年 7月 以后 出现的 “针灸热”,使加卅的中医针灸展现一片前所未有 的景象,但是一些 中医师常遭告发,尤其一些老 中医前辈不时受到骚扰 、威胁 、诽谤,并 以 “无牌行医”等罪名被拘捕起诉 。为了争取中医针灸师的合法权益,加州一批 中医精英前辈,开始 了艰辛的针灸职业合法化运动 。

半合法时期

1972 年,在加卅I西医师公会的策划 下, 由杜 菲(Duffy)众议 员提 出第一条针灸法案 (AB15o0),该法案规定 :没有西医执照的人可做为医师助手进行针灸治疗,但必须在某些核准的医学院校 内,在西医的直接监督下施术,并且必须 以科研为 目的。该法案获顺利通过议会,并由美国前总统里根即当时的加州州长签署成为法律。 这条法律成为加州的第一个针灸立法。

在此后的两年 间,中医界先后提 出五条法案,法案要求 :

1.允许针灸治疗在校园以外 的地方进行 。

2.拨款四十万元供作针灸研究之用。

3.承认针灸师资格,针灸师可 以独立进行针灸治疗,但事先必须有西医或牙医的诊断和介绍 。

4.成立有七名成员的针灸顾问委 员会,专司管理针灸 事 务 。

No.2V0|7andNo.1V0L8

在 当时的条件下,上述条款对针灸医师是有利的,参 、众两 院都顺利通过,但却遭里根州长一一予以否决 。

正式立法

上述失败,激发起大家的抗争锐气,使大家更加团结一致 ,决定再次委托马斯可尼提出 SB86提案,提案规定 : “凡是有证据证 明曾经从事针灸治疗五年 以上经验者”,或 “在医学院校的针灸研究项 目中从事针灸治疗三年以上者 ”,均有资格申请注册成为针灸师。

经过一年半的激烈辩论,终于在 1975年 6月 27日,这条法案,成功地通过 了上 、下议 院的全部审议过程,并于 1975年 6月 30日上午十时送交州长办公室 。7 月 12 日,当时刚上任不久的民主党籍 的布朗(JerryBrown)州长签署成为法律,并立 即生效。这一历史性的胜利,成为加州中医针灸顺利发展的里程碑 。

成立管理机构

1976年,布朗州长正式任命七位 中、西医师,成立 『加州针灸顾 问委员会 J1980年,被立法升格为 『加州针灸考试委员会 J.1989年,由于当时针灸考试委员会一位韩裔委员柳在佑 的卖题舞弊案,引发将针灸考试委 员会降格为『加州针灸委员会 J,取消执行考试之权力,并规定今后五年 内,针灸执照考试将由独立 的专业考试顾 问负责执行。 此后数年, 由于中医针灸 的发展形势健康良好,随于 1998年,经过立法,把针灸考试委员会升格为独立的 『加州针灸局 J(CALIFORNIAACUPUNCTURE BOARD),摆脱 了原来隶属于加州医务部辅助 医疗职业处的管辖,但仍受加州消费者委员会的领导.2002年,由于外州利益集 团的干预,立法当局顾请 小胡佛委员会(LittleHooverCommission)对针灸局的工作重新审核评估,评估内容为。

1.针灸需要的教育学时;

2.针灸师之行医范围;

3.全 国针灸执照在加州之通行性;

4.针灸局对针灸学校之审核权 。

小胡佛委员会的评估报告对针灸局持负面结论,加上立法院的复杂斗争,消费者委员会决定取消针灸局,形势十分险峻。2005年,经过 中医专业界的团结、斗争、游说和妥协,终于和立法议员达成协议,有条件地保 留了针灸局.

争取独立行医权

1979年, 由加州针灸联合总会策划,委托众议员托利斯 (Torres)先生提 出并通过 了f针灸师独立行医法案J即 AB1391法案,取消了针灸师诊治病人必须先经西医、牙医、足医或整脊医师诊断或转诊的限制,使针灸师的权力提高了一步 。

中医行医职业规范化

1980年,由美国针灸协会策划,委托众议员诺克斯 (Knox)先生提 出并通过了 『中医行医规范法案j即AB3040法案.这项 内容广泛的法案要点如下 :

1.针灸师具有 “第一线医务工作者”(PRIMARY HEALTHCARE PROVIDER)的身份 。

2.针灸师可以合法使用 电针疗法,艾灸疗法,拔罐疗法 。

3.针灸师可以使用推拿,气功,太极拳等治疗手段。

4。针灸师可以使用中草药以 “促进患者之健康 ”。

到了 2001年 2月 20日,加州参议员普拉塔再次提 出{2001年中医师行医规范提案》即 SB341法案,其目的在于肯定和在文字上澄清上述法案的 内容,并进一步扩大中医师可以使用的行医方式。例如可以使用营养物品、草药 以及膳饮辅助食品等,特别注明中医师在临床治疗中可 以处方使用各种植物 、动物及矿物产品.除了 AB3040法案规定的内容外,新法案还要求增加一项磁疗法.该法案顺利通过参、众两院,并于同年九月二十七 日获得州长 GeayDavis签署成为法律。

发展业务,开拓病源

1.经 过立 法努 力,取 得 了加州 医疗 补助 计划(Medi—Cal)提供针灸福利;

2.允许不持有针灸证书的外 国或外州针灸专家在教学或示范 中可从事针灸治疗 ;

3.规定 “健保组织 ”或 “自身保险 ”或 “残障保险”计划,都必须具备供选择 的针灸治疗福利。

4. 将 针 灸 师 在 工 伤 保 险 系 统 中 列 为 医 师(Physician),有权治疗受伤雇员,针灸师 以医师 资格,永久保留在工伤医疗保险系统之中.此外中医立法还取得了下列进展 :

(1)1997年 ,由Napolitano提 出的 AB174法案。

规定禁止其它医务人员(整脊医师 、护士和物理治疗员)等未经正规训练就从事针灸治疗 。

(2)1998年 Cedillo提出 AB2120法案,规定针灸医师有权拥有其它医疗职业公司股权。

(3)1998年 Migden提出 AB21M 法案,规定在工伤法 中明确规定雇主及管制医疗组织 向工伤雇员提供的医疗服务 中都必须加上针灸福利项 目:a.雇员有权选定的 “私人针灸医师”;b.工伤员者在转换主治医师时有权选择针灸师。

(4)1999年 Wildman提案要求在加州工伤补偿处产业医务委员会 中添加一名足医委员和一名针灸医师委员。

(5)2001年 《豁免中药销售税提案》先后提 出四次,前三次因经济理 由皆被搁置在拨款委员会中,第四次 以AB249案提 出,于九月十三 日以 40:0的绝对 比数通过 ,完成 了参众两院的全部审议程序,可是戴维斯州长也以经济理由予 以否决。

(6)SB573 <<2001年中医保 险法案》由参议院议长 JohnBurton提 出。在八十年代初,加州几乎所有的医疗保险公司都拒绝支付针灸服务.1984年,以华裔中医界为核心,联络 了各族裔针灸 团体,组成 了 f加州针灸大同盟j,并通过 Torres和罗森陀两位参议员共同提出 SB2179 『针灸保险法案 J,规定所有保险公司的医疗保险计划都必须包括针灸福利。当时预算需要运作经费二十余万美元,经过一年多的努力 ,只筹得十五万美元 。因经费不敷所支,致使原本提 出的要求所有商业医疗保险 “需要提供 ” (PROVIDE)针灸福利的条款,被修 改为保险公司要有 “可供选择 ”(OFFER)的针灸福利 。一字之差,二十年来,使中医业者在经济上损失惨重。20o5年曾再度努,可惜尚未成功。

(7) 联邦医疗补助 Medi—care即老年医疗保险,此保险支付中医针灸治疗费用需由美国国会通过,是全 国性的大问题 ,已有HR7 47提案,多年来加州中医同业及全 国性组织都在不 断努力,动员各州国会议员参加联署。

教育改革

二十年前,加州中医针灸的教育标准为 2370学时,这个实行多年的标准已经不能适应形势的发展。故有赵美心 JudyChu众议员提出 《针灸师教育标准提案》,其 目的在保证针灸 中医师的专业水平。这条提案 自从2002年 2月 14日提出后, 已经通过参、众两院,并已于九月由州长签署成为法律。这条法案规定在 2005年,中医针灸的基本训练将达 3,000小时,到 2010年则将达

4,000小时,最终 目的是要把中医教育提高到博士水平.

目前。教育水平较高的加州和教育水平偏低的全 国组织正为此展开剧烈的争议。

关于学位和中医师称呼问题

多年来一直 困扰着许多年资高,资历深,但英语欠佳的医师们。目前美国除了内华达州,佛罗里达州以及加州工伤保险系统之外,美 国中医针灸师并无医师身份。1983年间,加州有一百多位中医针灸师经过两年 的艰 苦 进 修 学 习 , 取 得 了 “东 方 医 学 博 士 ”(DoctorofOrientalMedicine)的头衔.经过反复的争论,总算可 以有条件地使用 Dr.和 OMD.现在许多学校正在朝这个方向努力之中。 展望未来,美国中医针灸医师将普遍达到博士水平。而只有这样,才能逐步进身美 国主流社会.

中医针灸专业面临新挑战

进入新世纪以来,就在中医事业得到美国主流社会认 同和接纳的同时,加州中医专业的发展却遇到接二连三的挫折,例如 :中医业界要求提高教育水平的努力遇到障碍;中医师做为第一线医疗提供者的资格受到非议;中医师诊断的能力受到质疑;开医嘱化验单和做医学影像检查的权力受到挑战;转诊特殊病人给西医或其它医务人员的资格受到反对,等等。

原因何在?

1. 中医针灸在美国,尤其是加州,已经形成一个可观的行业,占据了一定的市场,引起非中医业者的垂青,许多其它专业如西医、牙医、足医、整脊医、营养医,甚至护士,都想从中分一杯羹, 因此凡对中医针灸专业有利的事都要受到阻挠 。

2. 外州一些私人利益集团,专营以低标准招考

针灸、中药 、按摩等执照而谋利者,同时以低标准入学门坎招生, 以保证学校生源,这与加州中医界主张必须大力提高中医水平的宗旨背道而驰。然而加州中医业人数众 多,几 乎占全 国的一半,是外州利益集团所虎视眈眈 的大市场, 因此利用其财力千方百计地阻挠加州中医针灸的发展 。

3. 可笑的矛盾 :当中医业者争取评估工伤员者

的权力时,西医认为中医水平太低 ;当我们主张提高教育水平时,利益集团为保护招生来源而加以反对.使中医师处于前后夹攻的境地。

以上所叙述 的主要是加州的情况,美国其它各州也有类似程序的立法过程 。

加州经验教训仅供参考,今后加州还要 向其它州和各国学习好的经验,只有互相学习,互相促进,才能在全国范围内取得中医针灸立法 的全面胜利。

维普资讯 http://www.cqvip.com

Read Full Post »

Acupuncture in New York

http://themidtowngazette.com/2011/10/acupuncture-in-new-york/

BY MENGWEI CHEN

"Trying to grow hair," said Bill Cosby while receiving acupuncture on his sofa at home, Photo by Mengwei Chen“Trying to grow hair,” said Bill Cosby while receiving acupuncture on his sofa at home. Photo by Mengwei Chen

Lying comfortably on the sofa in his dimly lit house, the comedian Bill Cosby seemed pretty relaxed at 7:45 a.m. on Oct. 25, his eyes half closed and his smile charming, as usual, even though five 3-inch-long needles were inserted into his head, eight 4-inch-long ones were in his round belly, and 10 3.5-inch-long ones protruded from his legs and feet.

His favorite part of acupuncture treatment? “Moxibustion,” Cosby said in his serious joking mode, referring to the mugwort herb Dr. Ming Jin sometimes burns on his skin to smooth his flow of blood and qi. “I drink ‘em all.”

For Cosby, 74, this is his 20th year taking acupuncture. For acupuncture, this year marks the 40th anniversary since a New York Times correspondent introduced Americans to its benefits in an article titled ”Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking.” Four decades later, however, many U.S. insurers still refuse to cover the procedure, and sometimes even the ones who do will try to avoid paying the bill, acupuncturists say.

“It harms the benefits of both patients and acupuncturists,” said Dr. Xiaoming Tian, director of the Academy of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, speaking earlier this week at a 40th anniversary celebration in Flushing. “Three point seven million Americans have taken acupuncture in 2007. Eleven percent of them were children. That ratio is almost higher than China. Yet most of them are paying cash.”

Part of the problem is that long-standing conflicts between the two biggest Chinese acupuncture associations — the United Alliance of New York State Licensed Acupuncturists and the American Traditional Chinese Medicine Society — have slowed the legislative process, said Dr. Tian, the first clinical consultant on acupuncture at the National Institutes of Health and a former member of the White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy.

“Why can’t Chinese acupuncturists stop wasting time on fighting each other and get insurance policy done?” Dr. Tian asked.

The answer is complicated. The two groups have failed to merge, because their philosophies are different and they disagree about whether an older generation of traditionally trained  acupuncturists is as qualified as younger, licensed practitioners trained in the United tTates.

On one side of the question is Dr. Ming Jin, from Shanghai, the former president of the united alliance, a 300-member union consisting mainly of senior acupuncturists who barely speak English. She owns Ming Qi, one of the busiest acupuncture clinics in Manhattan, located at 161 Madison Ave., near the Empire State Building. Her clinic only accepts cash. Bill Cosby is one of her many celebrity patients.

“I believe the first rule is to make money,” said Dr. Jin. “I told all my members to learn how to make money in America. That’s the foundation of anything above. Chinese acupuncturists should have our own economic entity, a company, a consortium.”

Her mentor, Dr. Jingyuan Ding, was the politically influential leader of a campaign that helped establish a 1975 state law, which legalized acupuncture and regulated the licensing process in New York, grandfathering in current practitioners. Dr. Ding had strong political ties to former Lt. Gov. Mary Anne Krupsak, State Judge Edwin Margolis and State Sen. James Donovan. When Dr. Ding died of a sudden heart attack at a restaurant table, Dr. Jin was the first one called there.

“When I saw him lying in the mortuary the last time, I knew, his things were not done. I must carry his mission on. I must do all I can as a human,” she said.

Dr. Jin said her biggest dream is to merge with the medicine society to form a coalition of Chinese acupuncturists, creating a strong, unified voice when appealing to governments. “We tried to cooperate in 2006, but it was a failure,” recalled Dr. Jin. “We have many seniors who made great contributions before these young acupuncturists, but they did not know how to respect them or give them proper positions.”

On the other side of the dispute is Ling Zheng, from Fuzhou, China, a licensed acupuncturist who is the secretary of the medicine society, which has 700 members,  most of whom are younger and trained in modern oriental medicine schools with western medicine knowledge. He has worked at his small office at 14 E 34th St. since 1996.

He is famous for his expertise in arguing with, and sometimes suing, all sorts of insurance companies to get paid. (A typical acupuncture may cost from $100 to $200.) Zheng said that two-thirds of his patients did not need to pay cash, a rare situation. He shares all of his tactics for dealing with insurance companies with members of the medicine society, for free. But he does not do the same for members of the united alliance.

“Those group of people never accept new things. All they want is to make easy money in Chinatown,” said Zheng. “Even if I give them what I have, they won’t get the money from insurance companies, because they don’t speak English.”

Talking about collaborating with the other organization, Zheng said, “We are different people. I personally think money is dirty. I want our organization to stay academic and professional. I admit that the united alliance is better than us in business, but we have different ways.”

“In our organization, your position depends on what you are doing, not what you did decades ago.” said Zheng. “But they want to send every one of their old folks above our head to give orders. Ridiculous. If the two organizations are to merge, it is after I step down.”

For centuries, Eastern cultures have known the value of acupuncture. The earliest recorded use of acupuncture in history occurred in China over 2,200 years ago.

Modern scientific research has not been able to fully document how acupuncture works. According to U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine reports, for which Dr. Tian Xiaoming and his team interviewed over 1,700 doctors and patients, acupuncture is effective for at least relieving pain and nausea. The way it works: Acupuncturists insert their power through needles into certain points to remove blockage of the flow of Qi, the inner vital energy, and to reach a balance of contradictory forces of Yin and Yang.

Dr. Roger Tsao, 68, from Taiwan, who never went to a formal acupuncture school but has acupuncture licenses from the states of California, Florida, New Jersey and New York, has been practicing acupuncture in New York since 1969. When he started the business, many acupuncturists dared only to treat horses and dogs.

Dr. Tsao, who is bilingual, once participated or collaborated with almost all acupuncture. He was one of the 11 members of the New York State Board for Acupuncture from 1999 to 2004. But now he has quit everything.

“I’m tired of seeing Chinese people fighting each other for positions and titles,” said Dr. Tsao. “I’m too old to bear with that. They only want to kick you off and be the boss. But they never ask if they are good enough to be the leader.

“We definitely need a whole union, like those chiropractic physicians,” Dr. Tsao said, “but I’m not sure if I can see this day.”

Currently, Dr. Tsao works as a part-time professor at the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, which is the largest school of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the nation. Over 70 percent of students are American, paying  tuition of  about $250,000  in a degree  granting program that takes three and a half years to complete.

In 1972, President Richard Nixon visited China and officially opened the gate for acupuncture.

Nearly 40 years later, Bill Cosby is enjoying regular 45-minute sessions at home. “Beneath that picture you just took of my head,” demanded Cosby, “please write: ‘Trying to grow hair.’”

Read Full Post »

Someone wrote an article online, mentioned the first state had acupuncture legislation was California, actually this is a wrong information. The first state should be Nevada.  Maryland and Oregon were in the same year (1973) immediate after Nevada. Washington DC was in 1989. Virginia in 1993.

网上有人写文章,谈到美国第一个州通过针灸立法的是加利福尼亚,实际上有误。第一个通过针灸立法的应该是内华达,而马里兰和俄勒冈是同一年(1973年)通过立法的。华盛顿DC 是1989年,维吉尼亚则是1993年。

Below is a list from American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental medicine(AAAOM).

State Legislative Initiatives: The first practice act legislation was enacted in 1973 in Nevada Maryland and Oregon. Today, 44 States (PDF), plus the District of Columbia have enacted practice acts.

1973-Maryland, Nevada & Oregon
1974-Hawaii, Montana, South Carolina
1975-Louisiana, New York(I think), and California
1978-Rhode Island
1981-Florida & New Mexico
1983-New Jersey & Utah
1985-Vermont, Washington
1986-Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1987-Maine
1989-Colorado, District of Columbia, Wisconsin
1990-Alaska
1991-New York(I think this should be the year for re-publishing the sate law)
1993-Iowa, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia
1995-Connecticut, Minnesota
1996-West Virginia
1997-Arkansas, Illinois, New Hampshire
1998-Arizona, Missouri
1999-Idaho, Indiana
2000-Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee
2001-Nebraska
2005-South Carolina
2006-Kentucky, Michigan

2009 -Alabama

Read Full Post »

Someone mentioned in blogs, inUSA, the first State passed acupuncture legislation was California. Actually it is inaccurate. California was in 1975-1976. The first one should be in Nevada in 1973, Maryland and Oregon Sates passed the legislation in same year.

Washington DC was in 1989(However, DC was the first place in USA where a first legal acupuncture clinic established in end of 1972, at that time, acupuncture was allowed, but without acupuncture regulation) .Virginia was in 1993年.

State Legislative Initiatives: The first practice act legislation was enacted in 1973 in Maryland, Nevada and Oregon. Today, 44 States (PDF), plus the District of Columbia have enacted practice acts(only 6 states have no legislation-Alabama,Kansas,North Dakota,South Dakota, Oklahoma and Wyoming).

1973-Maryland, Nevada & Oregon
1974-Hawaii, Montana, South Carolina
1975-Louisiana, California, New York
1978-Rhode Island
1981-Florida & New Mexico
1983-New Jersey & Utah
1985-Vermont, Washington
1986-Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1987-Maine
1989-Colorado, District of Columbia, Wisconsin
1990-Alaska
1991-New York
1993-Iowa, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia
1995-Connecticut, Minnesota
1996-West Virginia
1997-Arkansas, Illinois, New Hampshire
1998-Arizona, Missouri
1999-Idaho, Indiana
2000-Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee
2001-Nebraska
2005-South Carolina
2006-Kentucky, Michigan

2009 -Alabama

Read Full Post »