Archive for the ‘History’ Category

A comment paper on dry Needling to Board of Physical Therapy, Virginia, From: http://www.townhall.virginia.gov/L/viewcomments.cfm?commentid=47915

Commenter: Mark Seem, PhD, LAc *                                                     12/28/15

Oppose ‘Dry Needling’ by Physical Therapists

I am a licensed Acupuncturist in the States of New York and Maryland for the past three decades and more. I developed a classical Chinese acupuncture approach to integrating acupuncture needling of myofascial pain and related disorders, where release of tight knotted muscles, often called ‘trigger points’ after the work of Dr. Janet Travell. I shared this classical acupuncture technique with her by treating a complex old whiplash syndrome for her Myotherapy traveling companion and friend who was an expert at acupressure to release such trigger points, when Travell taught with Maryland neurologist Robert Gerwin, MD in 1990, who had never seen acupuncture needling of trigger points before, nor had Dr. Travell. He wondered what he was doing lecturing to a group of half acupuncturists, and I asked contrariwise how he felt comfortable teaching physical therapists, who had no required training in the use of such solid filiform needles in their entry-level programs there. He was not able to make the demonstration I did that night for Dr.Travell and her trigger-point bodywork expert colleague as he had a dinner to go to. Whenever I successfully needled in classical Chinese style muscle channel shallow technique, with a 1 inch needle inserted half way into the soft tissue that I had compressed with my non-needling hand as the Japanese often do, easing up now and again to give the deeper muscle room to react, it would twitch often dramatically that was visible to Dr. Travel and me and very palpably experienced by her colleague who even remarked that it felt just like deep trigger point injections done by Dr. Gerwin who directed the training in the Travell  Seminar Series when elderly Dr. Travell was no longer able. Myotherapists ran the parallel training for physical therapists in the manual therapy technique sections of that course, where physicians taught the trigger point  injection techniques. Physical therapists, according to Travell’s instructions, who are licensed to practice ischemic compression that can be almost as effective as trigger point injections, and much less risky than using thick 3-5 inch long syringes, were very pleased with these powerful manual techniques hey are licensed to practice based on the same manuals. Medicare and Medicaid standards for coding for trigger point injections call for coding for a few, or multiple, trigger point injection sites; as well as coding for what medication filled the syringe – usually lidocaine or even cortisone as the case may be, and sometimes homeopathic solutions that medical doctors and their ‘physician extenders’ use as well.

Travell and Simons’ 2 volume seminal text on this practice always provide manual therapy ‘ischemic compression’ technique options, so there is no reason for any well trained physical therapist who takes such a 50-75 hour program practicing on peers to ever need to learn needling techniques, which Travell did not favor ever being taught to other than medical doctors, dentists and osteopathic physicians given the danger of hitting nerves and also important organs when needling over the torso on the front, back or side.

After Dr. Gerwin heard Dr. Travell and her colleague report on the similarity in efficacy of my one acupuncture session to trigger point injection, and he saw the thin short Japanese Serein needles I gave him to check out, he looked for externs and found an osteopathic resident trained in such acupuncture release of trigger points. Subsequently he met and partnered eventually with a physical therapist who claims to have learned such needling with acupuncture needles in the Netherlands where he is from. I taught that technique to physical therapists in the Netherlands who were the main licensed providers, along with physicians in my classical acupuncture seminars for the Anglo-Dutch Institute comprehensive acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine program, as well as to physical therapists and physicians in rehabilitative medicine in the UK, and they all concurred no one should do acupuncture treatment of such myofascial conditions without proper acupuncture training. They also agreed that ‘dry needling’, which is to say the use of an empty syringe with no medication was nonsensical, even though Dr. Hong, an acupuncturist who like Dr. Gunn went on to become a physical and rehabilitation medicine physician, dropping any reference to that earlier acupuncture training as Dr. Baldrey in the UK, and Dr. Ma in Colorado have done, to cover up their original comprehensive acupuncture training. Hong’s research study had 3 options – actual trigger point injections of lidocaine into myofascial trigger points; injection of saline solution instead; and dry needling with no fluid injected. While no insurance company would ever provide coverage for such dry-needling, Hong was able to show that all 3 techniques worked equally well, with post-injection soreness the mildest as expected in those who received lidocaine, an anesthetic, and greater for those who were injected with cortisone, and the greatest with those injected with a ‘dry’ syringe.

Travell and Simons had already come to the conclusion that the twitching evoked in acute myofascial trigger point conditions was the actual therapeutic mechanism, as the twitching stretched the tight contracted muscle fibers [trigger points] within the sorest part of such muscles, and so stretching created by the injection, accompanied by some soothing fluid, even saline solution, with lidocaine seeming to make that stretching release last the longest, explained the mechanism for such often dramatic relief.

While a more time consuming technique, ischemic compression release which all entry-level physical therapists have learned, allows them to approximate the release from the more risky trigger point injections, at a fraction of the cost of such surgically coded injections. They can also use electro-stimulation techniques on such trigger points conditions with equally good results, and there are even ultra-sound, and laser devices hey are licensed to use.

The only reason physical therapists could possibly have for wanting to use acupuncture needles, then, since they are not at a loss for their own manual therapy techniques and FDA legal regulated devices, is to be able to tell their patients who ask if what they do is as effective as the ever more popular 2000 year old originally Chinese acupuncture, where no potentially harmful medications are ever ‘injected’, making it a primary nonpharmacological therapy among those physical and occupational therapists are licensed to practice, as appeared for pain management conditions in the accreditation manual update of the Joint Commission that accredits some 20,500 mainstream and integrative medicine hospital and integrative medicine outpatient facilities and programs, where acupuncture was also on that list, where physical therapy does not figure, for behavioral healthcare, mood and mental disorders, including psychosomatic and organ functional problems like IBS or Reflux that physical therapists are not trained to treat.

In short, unless the Board would consider it appropriate for licensed acupuncturists to be able to practice all of the licensed manual therapy techniques a trained physical therapist may practice, since we learn our own East Asian acupressure-related techniques, or the same licensed chiropractic and osteopathic manipulations those providers may practice, if we learn far simpler release techniques within our acupuncture scope of practice, without the same level of osteopathic or chiropractic training in their required entry-level well supervised training treating the public that the short trigger point [acupuncture] dry-needling courses may never provide for legal reasons, I submit that the approval for physical therapists to practice using FDA regulated medical devices known as acupuncture needles, for those licensed in acupuncture to use such needles or for licensed surgeons, is irresponsible in the extreme and opens the Pandora’s box for all licensed therapists to start using other licensed therapist’s FDA regulated techniques and devices.

Finally, the high likelihood that the 20,000 licensed acupuncturists in this country will have had enough, and will file a federal class-action suit with the FDA to penalize these poorly trained self-professed trigger point ‘dry-needlers’ [illegal acupuncturists] is high and poses a serious risk for the Board and for each physical therapist the state licenses, where the implicit final determination of entry-level competence in physical therapy does not include national or state training, standards or assessment of any level of competence in such lucrative CEU short courses that are only good for the course owners themselves.

I suspect that passing such a bill will leave licensed acupuncturists no choice but to mount a powerful full disclosure public relations attack on your Board and on any physical therapists who practice such shoddily learned acupuncture techniques without a license in acupuncture. And the door will be open for them to advertise that they practice physical therapy acupuncture and trigger point needling, beating the physical therapists at their own game while legally billing for what physical therapists must be illegally checking off as a manual [rather than intramuscular] therapy, which is another kind of fraud altogether that your Board would do well to investigate.

I thank you for considering these comments based on 38 years teaching, supervising and practicing licensed acupuncture, after what is now a master’s degree accredited 3 year program of some 1906 hours of training minimum, with 500 hours in the practice of acupuncture.


Mark Seem, PhD, LAc.

Founder and Past President, Tri-State College of Acupuncture


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Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969–1979) — acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture | PDF |

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摘自:《档案春秋》200503期 作者:顾留馨

















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一九八四年的SB2179 提案規定健保組織(HMO)或自身保險或殘障保險計畫以外的醫療保險計畫,包括非營利醫院等集體性的醫療保險計畫都必需具備供選購的針灸福利。


特別是一九九九年的SB466 和 2001年的SB341,明文界定並擴大中醫師可以使用的行醫手段。例如:可以使用營養物品、草藥以及膳飲輔助食品等,特別註明中醫師在臨床治療中可以處方使用各種植物、動物及礦物產品。除了過去已經取得合法地位的電針療法、艾灸療法與拔罐療法,以及使用東方式按摩(推拿)、呼吸技術(氣功)、醫療體育(太極拳等)等各治療手段等項外,再增加一項磁療法。


 從中醫專業教育課程和執照考試制度的發展歷史也可以清楚看到名義上的「針灸師」 是如何逐步演變成為事實上的「中醫師」的過程:

美國的正規中醫教育開始於七十年代初,基礎比較薄弱。加州的中醫教育一直走在全國的最前列,隨著加州中醫專業地位的不斷提高,(例如:成為完全獨立的專科醫療職業,成為第一線醫務工作者,後來在工傷補償系統中被列為醫師等項進步。)社會對中醫師的學術要求也自然逐步提高,而加州的中醫院校多年來也一直在逐步提高教育程度。教學總學時的要求從七十年代的不足2,000學時,到八十年代的2,348學時,乃至九十年代的3,000學時左右。目前許多院校開始提供博士學位課程 (總學時在4,000學時以上),其質素已經達到國際上中醫專業高等教育的同等水平。





就中醫界內部而言,雖然韓裔和日裔中醫師也都認識到「針灸」一詞在加州有明顯的局限性和誤導性。但是出於他們的民族主義的理念,至今無法接受「中醫」一詞。好在我們的華裔前輩具有寬大的胸懷,並沒有用中國的民族主義來與之對抗。他們用智慧的妥協解決了這個矛盾。大家都同意使用「東方醫學」(ORIENTAL MEDICINE)一詞來表達我們的專業,從而維護了團結,共同推動立法和教育的進步。

八十年代開始的中醫博士學位教育使用的就是DOCTOR OF ORIENTAL MEDICINE或 OMD。雖然ORIENTAL一詞多少隱含有對東方民族的歧見,不過三十多年來各族中醫業者,包括白人業者,對此並未曾提出過非議,這一名稱或頭銜也得到官方或中醫教育系統的接受。多數中醫團體和院校,包括華裔和非華裔的組織或機構,現在都還在延用這個名詞,例如:CAOMA, CSOMA, AAAOM, OCOM, PCOM, ECTOM, NCCAOM, ACAOM, CCAOM等等。目前,在主流媒體、在民間、在中醫院校、特別是在華裔中醫團體的英文文件中一般都直接用CHINESE MEDICINE來代替「東方醫學」,或與東方醫學互換使用。不過在有關中醫針灸的法律文件中正式使用CHINESE MEDICINE 或TCM一詞目前尚無法被其他亞洲族裔所接受。這個問題看來還有待通過世界衛生組織水平的國際協商才有機會最終解決。


其實,中醫正名還有一個更大的關卡,那就是來自西醫公會的阻力,因為他們基本上壟斷了「MEDICINE」一詞,不准其他醫療專業使用。2002年,加州中醫界曾委託趙美心議員提出的AB1943,只不過規定加州官方有關中醫針灸事務的法律文件一律統稱之為「針灸與東方醫學」ACUPUNCTURE AND ORITENTAL MEDICINE,以反映中醫界的實際現狀,卻立即遭到西醫公會的強力反對。此項要求甚至無法通過衛生委員會的初步審議而被刪除。隨後,於2006年中醫界又委託眾議院教育委員會哈福議員提出「成立亞洲醫學局法案」 AB2821,簡單地要求將目前的『針灸局』改稱「亞洲醫學局」BOARD OF ASIAN MEDICINE。然而西醫公會還是堅持不讓中醫界使用「醫學」一詞,提案很快就被封殺。顯然,一個只有碩士水平的專業要爭取「醫學」的名銜,阻力必然是很大的。


經過業界全體同仁近四十年的辛勤耕耘和各族裔中醫針灸組織的共同奮鬥,加州執照針灸師已經升格成為「第一線醫務工作者」(PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL),甚至在工傷系統中正式列為「醫師」(PHYSICIAN),可以獨立診治內、外、婦、兒、骨傷各科病患。毫無疑問,我們已經是事實上的中醫師。今天加州的中醫事業已經建立起一套比較完善和相當嚴謹的規章條例、教育體制和考試制度;還得到其他醫療職業者,如西醫、整脊醫、心理醫師等的初步肯定;也在廣大消費者中培育起一定的專業信譽。加州中醫正在逐步納入主流醫療體系。這個成果來之不易,應當十分珍惜。為了保證加州中醫事業可持續地健康發展,我們認為極有必要堅定地保持尚未正名的「加州針灸局」的高度專業性。

中醫藥在美國是外來文化,這個專業的力量現在還相當弱小。因此,中醫界不容分裂,我們必須團結一致。同時,中醫學是一門完整的浩瀚系 統,中醫學不容分割。中醫業者要納入主流社會,還必須尊重西方文化,效法西方教育體制和醫療體制的傳統:先修取博士學位,再考取行醫 執照,然後進一步提高成為專科證書醫師。中醫界在當前的立法問題上,在各族裔 中醫業者和中醫團體還有很大的意見分歧的情況下,我們認為應該繼續協商和溝通,沒有達成共識之前似乎不宜匆忙地強行立法。中醫入 主流,教育是關鍵。我們的當務之急是趁布朗擔任州長的寶貴時機, 加緊再次策劃一個中醫專業教育法案,修改入門標準,規定所有中醫從業人員必須修取博士學位後方可參加執照考試,實 現中醫教育與美國其他醫療專業的教育體制相匹配。如此方有利於中醫正名的推動,而全體中醫師的基本權益也才能得到較為可靠的保障。


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Toy Avenue

Well-respected Chinese herbalist and landowner Toy Wah Hing was born in Sacramento in 1869.(There also are avenues names Wah and Hing.) The family name, however, was Yee. His father was Yee Fung Cheung, a Chinese herbalist who treated Leland Stanford’s wife, Jane, when she was deathly ill. Stanford called him Dr.Hing, and he came to assume that name, said Melvin Hing, a great-grandson of Yee. Toy Wah Hing also too up the name and herbalist trade, but also invested in large tracts of land, including the land from Auburn in Placer County to areas south of the city of Sacramento. His herbal practice sometime ran afoul of authorities  who accused him of possessing morphine, heroin and opium when he was raided in 1920. Nevertheless, his family, including 16 chilren, was the only Chinese family lived in downtown, and he was the first Chinese man in town to own a car. Grandson Melvin Hing remembers going around to collect rents in the 1930s in an “old jalopy”. Toy Wah Hing’s land holdings included an area now know as Woodbine, where in 1915, he plotted out streets named Toy, Wah and Hing. The streets were plotted on a map. They did not appear on the grounds for years. Song, a street named for his wife, was never built. Three other streets were named Yee, Lock and Sam, the herbalist’s  Chinese names…….(until now, only Lock was built, Fan’notes). Toy Wah Hing’s home was at 725 J street.

Carlos Alcala.Sacramento Street Whys: The Whys Guy’s Wise Guide to Sacramento Street names. Big Tomato Press. Sacramento. 2007 page 71-72.

Yee Fung Chung, Sacramento Pioneer.

Yee Fung Chung came to Sacramento during the gold rush. In 1862,Jane Stanford, the wife of Sacramento businessman and California governorLeland Stanford, became sick…..After moving to Virginia City, Noveda, in 1869, he bagan using his second birth name Wah Hing, a name he utilized until returning to Sacramento. The exact date of his return is unknown, but advertisements for his business at 1209 Third Street, under the name of Yee Wah Hing, appeared in 1901, and he opened an office at 725 J street in 1905. His son, Yee Lok Sam, adopted the name T. Wah Hing in about 1897, continueing his father’s business on third street, but he resumed the name Yee Lok Sam in 1910. Yee Lok Sam’s son Henry grew up in the United States and later continued the family tradition of herbal medicine at another office on J street.

William Burg. Sacramento’s K street, where our City was born. The History Press.Charleston.2012.Page 37-38. (03/25/13 searched)

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Dr. Ralph Coan: a hero in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States

Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 11, 2013   Issue 1


1.         Arthur Yin Fan (McLeanCenter for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC. Vienna, VA22182, USA )

2.         Ziyi Fan (McLeanCenter for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC. Vienna, VA22182, USA )

DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013007 Fan AY, Fan Z. Dr. Ralph Coan: a hero in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States. J Integr Med. 2013; 11(1): 39-44. Received July 23, 2012; accepted August 25, 2012. Open-access article copyright ? 2013 Arthur Yin Fan et al. Correspondence: Arthur Yin Fan, PhD, MD, LAc; Tel: +1-703-499-4428; Fax: +1-703-547-8197; E-mail: ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

Figure 1  A recent photograph of Dr. Ralph Coan This photograph was taken during the interview. He had recently partially recovered from a stroke while also suffering from heart disease.

1 Introduction

Dr. Ralph Coan is not well known to the general public. Originally, we had wanted to interview him as he was the medical director of the first acupuncture center in the United States that opened in the early 1970s[1]. We wanted to know more about that center’s history. Prior to visiting Dr. Coan, we found an article written by Dr. Sherman Cohn that mentioned Dr. Coan. The article noted that Dr. Coan was the founder of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, which is the national association of acupuncturists and Chinese medicine practitioners in the United States[2]. While interviewing Dr. Coan on February 18, 2012, it became apparent that he truly is a leading light in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States.?Dr. Coan is 75 years old and retired several years ago from his busy medical practice in Kensington, Maryland, USA. As he had recently partially recovered from a stroke while also suffering from heart disease, he could not talk much (Figure 1, Dr. Coan was in the interview). To collect further information about him, we also consulted his former colleagues and relatives, and researched articles written about him.


2 An acupuncture believer

“I put an advertisement in the Washington Post stating Looking for a Physician Position. To my surprise, I immediately got a call in the same day. He said, ‘Are you interested in working in an acupuncture clinic? If so, please come.’ I was not familiar with acupuncture before this. However, I had to get a job to support my family after I left the United States Army. At that time, most of the medical doctors (MDs) and politicians did not believe in acupuncture; some media treated acupuncture as a ‘quack’ profession. I started the work with great suspicions. It was at the beginning of 1973.” Dr. Coan recalled 40 years later.

Dr. Coan graduated from the Georgetown University School of Medicine in Washington, D.C. in 1963 as an honors student, had a one-year internship in the University of Chicago Hospitals, and completed his residency at WalterReedArmyHospital in Washington, D.C. He joined the United States Special Army and served at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, in the Canal Zone, Panama, at Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado, and Walter Reed in Washington, D.C. In 1972, Dr. Coan left the Army after serving for eight years due to the end of the Vietnam War. He was one of the three earliest staff physicians, with six Chinese medicine doctors or acupuncturists, to work for the Acupuncture Center of Washington, the first legal acupuncture center in the United States[1]. At that time, Western-trained MDs performed the diagnoses and decided which patients needed acupuncture, and the Chinese medicine doctors would perform acupuncture treatment under the MDs’ supervision. The first MD director of the Center was Dr. Arnold Benson, a New York internist and one of the three founders. Dr. Coan became the second MD director a year later, since Dr. Benson was busy and could not work full-time. As the staff director and co-founder, Dr. Yao Wu Lee recalled that Dr. Coan worked part-time initially, then became a full-time doctor, and at last, served as the MD director, while Dr. Chingpang Lee, a Chinese medicine doctor, served as the office manager.

“I was not sure whether acupuncture was safe and effective, so I wanted to do a little research by myself before I finally decided to work there. I collected the contact information of the first 50 contiguous patients and examined them — the Center had an official copy; I collected by myself secretly. Over approximately two months, I called all of those patients. The results were very encouraging: more than 80% of the patients told me that they got better without any obvious adverse effects. I became a believer, so I decided to work full-time there. I stayed in that Center for approximately 10 years.” Dr. Coan said.

At that time, there were very few acupuncture clinics, and patients came from throughout the United States as well as from many other countries. The Center was immensely popular and had to split into two separate clinics: the Acupuncture Center of Washington and the WashingtonAcupunctureCenter. At their peak popularity, both clinics saw about one thousand patients per day. Within one year, there were thirteen acupuncture clinics open in Washington, D.C., leading it to become a capital of acupuncture. The acupuncture business was so successful that buses full of patients came from New York, New Jersey, and other cities daily to visit the Center[1]. Such scenes and the effectiveness of acupuncture amazed many open-minded MDs like Dr. Coan[2]. However, the booming acupuncture business aroused anxiety and unease within conservative Western style medical institutions and drug manufacturers. In 1974, the Washington, D.C. Board of Medicine gave the Center orders to close acupuncture offices six times. To save the acupuncture profession, as well as the Center, the directors decided to respond. From mid-1974 to the early 1975, they were involved in two lawsuits in the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. The court conducted a serious hearing on acupuncture. Judge Fred Ugast listened to the testimonies of the Washington, D.C. Board of Medicine, the Acupuncture Center of Washington and WashingtonAcupunctureCenter, as well as the public for three months. Dr. Coan was one of the key MDs who attended the hearing and played an important role[2,3].

Dr. Coan remembered very clearly, “One day I was in court. I testified that in Washington, D.C. there were no MDs or dentists trained in acupuncture. It is impossible to get rid of acupuncturists in an acupuncture practice, because they are the experts. Then, Judge Fred Ugast let the doctor who was in charge of the Washington, D.C. Medical Board in. The judge asked him, ‘Dr. Robinson, your regulation wants to limit the right to practice acupuncture to licensed physicians and dentists in Washington, D.C. Do you know how many Western-trained doctors in Washington, D.C. were trained in acupuncture? How many patients need acupuncture everyday?’ The doctor replied, ‘I don’t know.’ Then the judge said, ‘Oh, you can go now.’”

“I predicted that we would win the case. At last, the judge announced that the new Washington, D.C. regulation which wanted to limit the right to practice acupuncture to licensed MDs and dentists is unconstitutional. The rights of physicians to choose proper treatment based on his best judgment, acupuncturists to perform acupuncture, and patients to get professional acupuncture services have been protected. So, acupuncturists could continue to perform acupuncture as long as it is under a MD’s supervision.”

Dr. Coan was a diligent doctor and held at least six qualifications in subspecialties of internal medicine, such as endocrinology and infectious diseases, which is many more than what doctors today may have. He worked with those acupuncturists in his office from 1972 until late 1990s. He said, “I am a believer of acupuncture, although I did not insert any acupuncture needles into any patient. When my family members were sick, I always suggested them to use acupuncture first. Acupuncture works!”

3 A pioneer in acupuncture research

There was very little acupuncture research reported in the 1970s and 1980s, Dr. Coan was one of the pioneers in conducting acupuncture clinical trials. When I mentioned his name to Dr. Lixing Lao, a well-known researcher in acupuncture and Chinese herbology, and a Chinese medicine doctor at the Center for Integrative Medicine of the University of Maryland, he gave Dr. Coan very high praise, “Dr. Coan was an important acupuncture researcher with historical status. His two papers in acupuncture clinical trials on neck pain and low-back pain have been cited by many researchers today.”

In mid-September, 1973, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a special workshop for acupuncture scientific study. Dr. Benson and Dr. Coan reported their clinical observation of acupuncture’s effectiveness in 36 cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)[4] which was conducted by Dr. Coan.

The presentation at this NIH meeting showed that during the first six weeks after the center was established in December 1972, there were 64 patients with RA who were treated with acupuncture. The first follow-up was conducted three months later. They were able to contact 55 patients, of whom 36 had been given 5 to 24 acupuncture treatments (average 6.6). Of the 36, 25 patients (69%) reported improvement, including less need for pain medications and in some cases, reduction of the nodules which occur on arthritis sufferer’s joints. Of 19 patients who had fewer than 5 treatments, only 5 cases (16%) reported improvement. The second follow-up was conducted six months later, which showed continued improvement by 16 of 27 patients (59%) from the original group. The average age of patients in this study was 55 years, and they had been suffering from RA for an average of 11.5 years.

Many newspapers in the United States reported this news, which encouraged more patients to try acupuncture.

An article entitled The acupuncture treatment of low back pain, a randomized controlled study[5] was reported by Dr. Coan and his colleagues in 1980. The study was conducted within the Acupuncture Center of Washington and Acupuncture Center of Maryland.

Acupuncture treatment was effective for the majority of patients with lower back pain, which was shown by the use of short-term controls and long-term controls, although the latter were not intended in the study design. After acupuncture, there was a 51% pain reduction in the average pain score in the immediate treatment group. The short-term controls and the delayed treatment group showed no reduction in their pain scores at the comparable follow-up period. Later, the patients in the delayed treatment group were also treated by acupuncturists, and 62% of patients reported less pain. When these two treatment groups were compared at 40 weeks with long-term controls (inadequate treatment group), the inadequate treatment group still had the same pain scores, on the average, as when they enrolled in the study. Both treatment groups, on average, had 30% lower pain scores. Furthermore, 58% of patients in the treatment groups felt that they had definitely improved at 40 weeks, while only 11% of the inadequate treatment group felt definite improvement at 40 weeks. There was a significant difference between the groups.

Another article entitled The acupuncture treatment of neck pain, a randomized controlled trial[6] was reported in 1981 by Dr. Coan and his colleagues.

Thirty patients with cervical spine pain syndromes, course of disease 8 years on average, were assigned randomly equally into treatment and control groups. After 12 weeks, 12 of 15 (80%) of the treatment group felt improvement, some dramatically, with a mean 40% reduction of pain score, 54% reduction of pain pills, 68% reduction of pain hours per day and 32% less limitation of activity. Two of 15 (13%) of the control group reported a slight improvement after 12.8 weeks. The control group had a mean 2% worsening of the pain score, 10% reduction in pain pills, no lessening of pain hours and 12% less limitation of activity.

Such study design may be seen as flawed if judged by today’s criteria. However, they were considered impressive by the researchers at that time, especially the studies were the first time in history endorsed by NIH, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the American Medical Association (AMA), whichis the main stream medical society. The reports had been documented in the United States Congress in 1979 and was one of key documents used for FDA relabeling acupuncture needle as a medical device from an investigational device in 1994. The later two studies were conducted by local acupuncturists and MDs using their own money, time and labor, with great difficulty, and totally followed the restrict NIH clinical trial rule (control, and random) at that time, which might be the only case in the United States medical research history. Dr. Coan was invited to give lectures throughout the United States. Such studies do therefore have some value. Dr. Coan said, “Acupuncture is a process of a needle piercing the body, to some extent, it is similar to a small operation. As a clinical doctor, I strongly believe it cannot be compared with so-called ‘sham’ acupuncture (which is used as a placebo, mimicking that in medication’s clinical trials; however, it is a real piercing or similar to that). We used the methods of comparing the effectiveness and adverse effects before and after acupuncture in the same patient group, or between the treatment group and waiting-list group. Like an operation, how can we compare the cut of a scalpel with the ‘sham scalpel cut’?”

I agree with him. Indeed, acupuncture is very different from medication; the design of the study should not be the same as the drug model, the so-called “golden criteria”.

4 A key person in establishing acupuncture as a profession in Maryland

“I was an MD who had witnessed so many patients getting better after acupuncture treatment and became an acupuncture believer. In the 1970s, I had strong motivation — I felt that I should do something to push the acupuncture profession forward in the United States. I decided to change something at the local level first. I convinced ten more local acupuncturists, and established a professional organization Acupuncture Association of Washington Metropolitan (AAWM). I was its president for more than 10 years. We met every Saturday morning to share news with each other and discuss the role of the acupuncturists. One day, we met in SuburbanHospital (which was the affiliated hospital of NIH). We were aware that the first quarter of each year is the legislation season in every state, so we decided to remove the obstacle in law for acupuncture in Maryland.” Dr. Coan recalled.

The members of AAWM included local acupuncturists mainly from Hong Kong and Taiwan of China and Korea, such as Grace Wong, In-Su Kim, Hansheng Gu (Hanson Koo) and Sumei Zhang. They met once a month in China Garden Restaurant on Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland. The basic procedure was: ate lunch together (about half hour), and then discussed something new and what needed to be done — like most societies today but we met more often and sometimes held seminars. Maryland was one of the earliest states that allowed acupuncturists to practice acupuncture (Fan notes: similar to the nurses working under the supervision of MD, without license) in the United States in 1973. However, in the early 1980s the Board of Medicine with the conservative Western-trained doctors did not want acupuncturists to have a license and wanted to deprive the acupuncturists’ rights. During 1981 to 1982, Dr. Coan and his colleagues were involved in acupuncture licensing legislation in Maryland.

“At that time, there was a five-person committee representing the Governor and State of Maryland in the hearing. The MD’s representative who attended that hearing was a very, very famous neurosurgeon from JohnHopkinsHospital, a ‘top guy’ in the Western medical field, who did not like acupuncture and tried to block the acupuncture licensing legislation.” Dr. Coan reminisced about the great achievement, “I am a nasty person. I knew him well and I knew he would oppose acupuncture. So I brought three local patients who had surgery from him, which is a secret weapon I used later all the time.” The neurosurgeon told the committee: “acupuncture is just a no-use therapy, especially for neurological issues, such as spinal disc problems that cause back pain and sciatica; only surgery could cure such disorders.” Then it was Dr. Coan’s turn. Dr. Coan brought out patients and asked them, “Do you know that doctor (the neurosurgeon)?” The patients replied, “We were patients of his and had operations from him.” “Did the operations help?” Dr. Coan asked. “No, after the operation, the pain got worse. However, acupuncture stopped the pain.” one of patients replied. The surgeon felt embarrassed and left the hearing immediately. And then Dr. Grace Wong, Dr. Coan’s partner and a well-known acupuncturist, made testimonies for acupuncture. So, acupuncture licensing legislation was passed very smoothly and successfully in Maryland in 1982 [Fan notes: due to the special political environment in Maryland, the Acupuncturist Licensing Act was changed to Acupuncturist Registering Act in 1982. So, the legislation passed in that year was the Acupuncturist Registering Act. The Acupuncturist Licencing Legislation was passed at last in 1994, 12 years later].

“You should understand it is so important to bring patients with you when you try to make testimonies in court and convince people about acupuncture. The patients will give you great support,” Dr. Coan said.

Dr. Lixing Lao once was Dr. Coan’s colleague. He recalled, “I participated in the events of AAWM, because I taught a point-locating class for National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) acupuncture examination preparation for the Tai Sophia Institute in 1986 as a part-time job, while I was a PhD candidate of physiology in the University of Maryland. Tai’s teaching, focusing on five-element acupuncture from England, is very different in content from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the main stream of current Chinese medicine. Dr. Yin-sue Kim attended that class and invited me to participate in Dr. Coan’s monthly events. I actually joined them in 1987. One day, we got interest to start an acupuncture school with focus on TCM in Maryland. So, several people became involved in this topic. After the normal meeting completed and other acupuncturists left, we discussed the school issue. The school was started in late 1991, and the first class was in 1992.”

The school was called the Acupuncture School of Maryland, and later, Maryland Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine (MITCM). After eight years of preparation, the school was initially started in a Catholic elementary school where it held lectures in the evening. After several years, it moved into a professional building in Bethesda, Maryland, which was very close to a metro station, and had all lectures during normal hours. “I was the founder and the first president of the school, and ran the school by myself for two years. My daughter worked there as a secretary.” Dr. Coan said. According to Dr. Lao, Dr. Coan spent a lot of energy, time, and even his own money for the school. Before the school could become financially independent, Dr. Coan lent his money to the school for support. The teachers at the school, mostly from mainland China and well-trained in TCM, included Drs. Lixing Lao, Jingyuan Gao, Eugene Zhang, and more. “Dr. Lao and Dr. Gao were fantastic teachers and scholars, when I was the president there, I attended their lectures for two years. I should give them my heartfelt praise,” Dr. Coan said. The first graduates were twelve students in December 17, 1994. MITCM was very sound in its academic and financial condition. It was a prestigious TCM school on the east coast. However, it closed at the end of 2002.

During the 1980s to 1990s, Drs. Coan, Wong, Lao and Bob Duggan (the founder of Tai Sophia Institute) worked as the main board members in the Acupuncture Board of Maryland for many years. The Board is a state government agency that is in charge of acupuncture licensing and administrates acupuncturists’ practice.

5 The founder of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine

Almost ten years passed from the opening of the first acupuncture center of the United States in 1972. In more and more states, such as Nevada, Maryland and Massachusetts, acupuncture legislation got passed. More and more patients considered acupuncture as an option, and more and more students studied acupuncture and Oriental medicine in the United States and became acupuncturists. These led to the birth of a national organization for the acupuncture profession[2].

Dr. Coan and Louis Gasper, PhD, were co-founders of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM). Dr. Gasper, who died in 2004, was a professor at Los AngelesInternationalUniversity. They sent letters nationally to invite people to attend the first AAAOM meeting at the Los AngelesInternationalUniversity on June 27, 1981. Neither Dr. Coan nor Dr. Gasper practiced acupuncture; however, they are acupuncture believers. The 75 attendees included MDs and dentists who used acupuncture, acupuncturists (non-MDs), and MDs who did not use acupuncture themselves but supervised acupuncturists, like Dr. Coan, as well as friends of acupuncture or those with interest in acupuncture, like Dr. Gasper. The first board was elected at that meeting, and consisted of seven members: two MDs, four acupuncturists, and another doctor without indicating designation. Dr. Coan served as the treasurer. At that time, MDs were the largest groups represented at that meeting. The second AAAOM meeting, held at the Del Coronado Hotel in San Diego in March, 1982, had a much higher attendance than the first. Most of attendees were acupuncture and Oriental medicine (AOM) practitioners. In the third AAAOM meeting, held at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. in May, 1983, non-MD AOM practitioners strongly protested MD members’ intentional delay of AOM development, tension between the MD acupuncturists or supervisors, and the non-MD practitioners surfaced without resolution, resulting in all of the MD members walking out of AAAOM except for Dr. Coan. In that difficult time, Dr. Coan was elected as the new president of the AAAOM, which just became AOM practitioners’ own organization. “I was president of the second board and then vice-president of AAAOM for over ten years. During those years, I helped thirteen states finalize acupuncture legislations,” Dr. Coan said.

“I gave testimonies in person in twelve states’ hearings for acupuncture legislation, gave testimony over the phone for Alaska (I did not go there, it is too far),” Dr. Coan said. He wrote the name of thirteen states for us on a paper with his hand, slight-shaking due to the stroke: Alaska, Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.

“In Utah, there were twelve MDs who were strongly against acupuncture that attended the acupuncture legislation hearing. A representative of the AMA came too. The side that is in favor of acupuncture had only two people in attendance: one acupuncturist and me. The MDs tried to make the law to block all non-MD acupuncturists to perform acupuncture. The reason is that such non-MD acupuncturists had not had the appropriate medical education as MDs. I asked, ‘In your MDs’ clinics, there are nurses who use needles. How many years were these nurses required to study in Nurse Schools?’ They replied, ‘Three years.’ ‘Acupuncturists have education and training for four to six years, longer than the nurses. If the nurses have right to use needles, acupuncturists should be overqualified to use the needles under the supervision of a MD.’ I protested. And then, a MD stood up and said, ‘acupuncture is not useful to treat carcinoma. Acupuncture will cause carcinoma patients delay in getting the right treatments. So, acupuncture will harm patients.’ I stood behind the sponsor who wanted to introduce the acupuncture legislation and gave him the reply of our side. He responded according to my words, ‘Okay, you said acupuncture harms patients. Could you call your clinic and let your secretary use expedited mail to mail me a real medical record which indicates that acupuncture harmed your patients by tomorrow? I will pay the shipping fee.’ The doctor could say nothing. So we won the hearing, and acupuncture legislation passed.” Dr. Coan smiled, “Acupuncturists should remember, never say you could treat cancer (by acupuncture only, although you may help such patients to some extent). In the hearings, the MDs always used this as an example to block acupuncture legislations.”?Regarding Vermont, Dr. Coan said, “During the hearing there were also only two people in favor of acupuncture: a local acupuncturist and me. We won. The weather there that year was extremely cold, and this lady (the acupuncturist) had no money to pay for a hotel for me. So, I stayed in her house, without any heating, for one night. I used ten cotton blankets. That is an unforgettable experience.”

“In 1988 in Virginia, there were five surgeons in attendance who tried to block legislation which allows acupuncturists to practice acupuncture; I went there with In-Su Kim, a Korean acupuncturist, to fight with them,” Dr. Coan recalled. According to a report from a newspaper[7], at that time in VirginiaState, the law made by MDs only allowed licensed MDs to practice acupuncture. Such MDs only had 100 hours of study and 100 hours of practice in acupuncture training. The acupuncturists, mostly with 4 to 6 years extensive training, could not practice acupuncture. Dr. Coan protested in the statehouse, “This law is unjust, unfair, and immoral.”

Per the arrangement of Dr. Coan, on June 22, 1979, George Brown, Jr., an acupuncture skeptic, had acupuncture during a hearing in Congress of the United States. Dr. Grace Wong, Dr. Coan’s partner, did acupuncture on him for smoking cessation; it was very successful. At that time, Brown was the Chairman of the House Science, Research, and Technology subcommittee. It was a breaking news, reported in many newspapers[8].

As another pioneer in the acupuncture profession, Dr. Finando, commented on Dr. Coan[9], “He campaigned and lobbied anywhere and everywhere to lobby for acupuncture.” Not only did he campaign and lobby for acupuncture anywhere and everywhere, his mother influenced by him, also became a volunteer lobbyist for acupuncture.

It is true that Dr. Coan is a great hero of the acupuncture profession, even though he did not insert an acupuncture needle in any patient. He is an MD, but he has contributed his dedication and whole life to support and promotion of acupuncture; all of this as a volunteer.

6 Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Lixing Lao, Dr. Yick-chong Chan, Dr. Sherman Cohn, Ms. Judy Coan-Stevens and Mr. John Coan who provided some detail information about Dr. Ralph Coan, and Ms. April Enriquez for English editing. The interviewer was Dr. Arthur Yin Fan.

7 Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


1.         Fan AY. The first acupuncture center in the United States: an interview with Dr. Yao Wu Lee, WashingtonAcupunctureCenter[J] J Chin Integr Med, 2012, 10(5) : 481-492.

2.         Cohn S. Acupuncture, 1965-85: birth of a new organized profession in the United States (pt. 2). Am Acupuncturist. 2011; Spring: 22-25, 29.

3.         Superior Court of the District of Columbia Civil Division. Civil action No. 11005-74. Urie, Coan v. Washington. cited by the records: Lewis v. District of Colombia Court of Appeals (1978). [2012-06-26]. http://www.tx.findacase.com/research/wfrmDocViewer.aspx/xq/fal.19780427-0003.dc.htm/qx.

4.         Sawislak AB (UPI). Two-third of 36 patients treated with acupuncture had pain relief. Williamson Daily News, 1973-09-20 (15).

5.         Coan RM, Wong G, Ku SL, Chan YC, Wang L, Ozer FT, Coan PL. The acupuncture treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled study[J]. Am J Chin Med, 1980, 8(1-2) : 181-189.

6.         Coan RM, Wong G, Coan PL. The acupuncture treatment of neck pain: a randomized controlled study[J]. Am J Chin Med, 1981, 9(4) : 326-332.

7.         Criticism of acupuncture laws called racist by Asian groups. Afro-American. 1988-08-16(3C). [2012-06-26]. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=LEpAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WvUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2980,674502&dq=ralph+coan+in+su+kim&hl=en.

8.         How to prevent mildew. The Spokesman Review. 1979-06-23(10). [2012-06-26]. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=yeURAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ie4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=5438,3626027&dq=wong+grace+acupuncture&hl=en.

9.         Finando S. AOM pioneers and leaders 1982-2007, a commemorative book of challenge and courage. Vol. 1. AAAOM, NCCAOM, CCAOM & ACAOM. 2007: 29-32. [2012-06-26]. http://www.aaaomonline.info/docs/pioneers_and_leaders_vol1.pdf.

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只能称针灸师 美国加州业者推立法为中医师正名

2012年09月10日 10:48 来源:中国新闻网  http://www.chinanews.com/hr/2012/09-10/4171203.shtml

  中新网9月10日电 据美国《世界日报》报道,美国加州中医界将州参、众议会通过的SB628法案视为一大胜利,在该法案下,拥有博士(Dr.)学位的合格针灸师可改称为针灸医师。中医界表示,他们下一步是推动“中医师”头衔,中医师在美国一直以针灸师名义行医。








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[日期:2012-06-20] 来源:  作者: http://book.th55.cn/a/201206/8138.html ]






哈维.库兴(Harvey Cushin9,1869~1939年)在《奥斯勒传》中提到,美国现代医学教育之父奥斯勒医生曾尝试用针灸为一位加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)的董事治疗腰痛,结果失败,没能争取到这位蒙特利尔富有的糖业加工大亨为学校的捐款[216]





《观察》画报于1957年10月1日发表了摄影记者菲利浦·哈瑞顿 (Phillip Harrington)的配图文章,题目为“红色中国墨守古老医学”,其中提到作者在访问北京儿童医院时,看到中国医生使用针灸治疗疾病,文中还刊出针灸照片[88]

第一位赴新中国采访的美国电视记者罗伯特·科恩(Robert Carl Cohen)于1958年拍摄了一部题为“红色中国的内幕”纪录片,在介绍中国医疗状况时,其中有现代医院和传统针灸的内容[219]





1971年5月,耶鲁大学的高尔斯顿(Arthur Galston)教授和麻省理工学院的西格纳(Ethan Signer)教授在访问越南时,获得访问中国的邀请,成为新中国第一批应邀访华的美国科学家,2人在访华期间参观了针刺麻醉手术[21]


1971年6月7日,美国《新闻周刊》报道了耶鲁大学的高尔斯顿教授和麻省理工学院的西格纳教授访问中国,参观了针刺麻醉手术。文章刊登了经络穴位图,解释为“神经中心图” [21]


1971年7月17 日,《纽约时报》记者赖斯顿于北京“反帝医院”(协和医院)因阑尾炎住院并接受常规阑尾切除手术,第二天(18日),赖斯顿因术后腹胀腹痛接受了李占元医生的针刺和艾灸治疗。赖斯顿住院期间,将自己的治疗经历写成“现在让我告诉你们我在北京的阑尾切除手术”一文,发表在1971年7月26日的《纽约时报》上,此文被公认为美国针灸热的导火索[9]


1971年9月,应中国中华医学会邀请,由4位知名美国医生及他们的夫人组成的美国医学代表团首次访问新中国,受到中国医学界的高规格接待。4人是美国前总统艾森豪威尔的私人医生,世界著名的心脏病专家,麻省总医院和哈佛大学的教授怀特(Paul Dudley White)医学博士;密苏里大学健康科学院院长达蒙德(Grey Dimond)医学博士;纽约爱因斯坦医学院社区健康教授赛尔德(Vietor Sidel)医学博士;纽约西奈山医学院耳鼻喉科退休名誉教授罗森(Samuel Rosen)医学博士。代表团在中国多家医院参观了针刺麻醉手术[29]




美国科学界的顶级学术杂志《科学》于1972年1月发表关于中国针灸和针刺麻醉的报道[54]。《科学》杂志在1972~1975年间至少发表过9篇关 于针灸的报告和评论文章。




美国第一次针刺麻醉试验手术于l972年4月由专业麻醉医师刘医生(wei Chi Liu)在芝加哥威斯医院(Weiss Memorial Hospital)完成。患者是一位31岁的麻醉护士,他自愿请医生采用针刺代替常规药物麻醉切除自己的扁桃体,手术十分成功。手术病例报道发表于l972年《美国医学会会刊》[222]


《美国针灸》杂志(American Journal ofAcupuncture)于1973年创刊。


《美洲中医》杂志(American Journal of Chnese Medicine)于1973年创刊。










1972年香港医生温祥来(Hsian9—Lai wen)等首先发明耳针戒毒疗法,其研究论文于l973年发表于《亚洲医学》杂志。1974年纽约林肯医院史密斯(Michael 0.Smith)医学博士建立了第一个设立在美国医院的耳针戒毒中心。


美国第一个针灸学校“新英格兰针灸学校”(New England School of Acupuncture)于1975年创办。








美国国家健康研究院于l997首次召开“针灸听证会”(Concensus conference,即“共识讨论会”),对针灸疗法作出了科学评估。专家评审委员会最后得出结论:针灸治疗一些病症确实有效[165]


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【大纪元2012年08月31日讯】(大纪元记者盛元洛杉矶报导)40年前,《纽约时报》名记者詹姆斯访华,期间因阑尾炎手术后腹部胀痛而接受了中医的针灸和艾灸治疗。奇特的治疗效果使他对中医产生了兴趣,回国后他将自己在华接受中医药治疗的经历写成报导发表在《纽约时报》头版上,从此,美国大众知道了在西医之外还有这样一种古老而神奇的疗病方法。中药和针灸也开始在美国传播并热俏起 来。近日,著名中医药专家、加州中医工会创会会长陈炯明先生接受本报记者采访,介绍了中医药发展的相关情况和他的见解。


《纽约时报》记者詹姆斯关于中医药介绍的报导发表后,中药针灸开始在美国成为一种风行治疗方法,但那时没有立法,中医师还不能合法行医。使用 一根小小的银针和一把草药能治病,在许多洋人看来多少还有点天方夜谭。但许多痛症吃止痛药不起作用的却通过针灸治好,这使喜欢实证的美国人渐渐喜欢和接受了中医。

1975年,新任的年轻加州州长杰瑞‧布朗 (Jerry Brown)签署了中医合法化的第一个法案。当时,加州和内 华达州是美国最早为中医立法的两个州。之后美国各州陆续立法承认中医针灸合法化,目前已超过45个州立法承认中医。时光流转37年,杰瑞‧布朗 又再次当选为加州州长,成为中医药在美国发展的见证人。为此他也被业界称为“美国加州针灸之父”。

疑难病及痛症 中医针灸靠疗效说话


经过9天的抢救,第三脑室仍然充满积水。存活的希望仅 剩3%。在各种抢救方法都用尽的情况下,医院准备拔管放弃救治。那时孩子已经满脸发黑,眼白上翻。孩子的父亲提出能否请中医师再试一下,经医院同意找到了陈炯明医师。陈医师为孩子调好中药从胃管里灌进去,同时为其针灸。6小时后孩子排出了一堆又臭又黑的大便,情况开始好转。一个月后孩子醒过来脱离了危险,继续用中医针灸治疗一个月后做CT检查,脑淤血化掉90%。儿童医院的专家也对中医的神奇疗效感到不可思议和惊奇。这名女孩住院花掉了近50万美金的西医治疗费,而陈炯明为其治疗24次,仅收4500美元的费用。


中医针灸在美国受欢迎是因为其独特的疗效和低廉的收费。然而,由于目前美国医疗体制的限制使中医药在走俏发展中遇到瓶颈。在美国,看病都要通过保险公司。而保险有PPO和HMO两种。PPO病人可根据自己的喜欢选择医生,但这种病人的保 险公司80%不包含中医针灸,只有不超过20%的公司可报销中医针灸费。像以上列举的小女孩, 虽然在医院花掉近50万美金,但保险公司可予以报销,而中医虽然只花4500美元治好了病,却不能报销。

HMO是通过管理公司来管理病人和医生,病人看病要通 过家庭医生介绍。一方面有的家庭医生习惯于介绍西医,另一方面即使介绍中医,收费也要通过中介管理公司来管理和分配,中介管理公司通常给中医师的费用尽量少,这样使中医的生存空间变得局限和窄小。


据陈医师介绍,中华传统医药分为中药和针灸两部分,针灸治疗是由外到内,而中药治疗是由内到外,两者结合收到的疗效甚好。而西医作为实证科学,很难理解源于中华传统文化、有着深厚哲学思想内涵的中医。陈医师认为,中医和西医是两个不同的理论体系,站在西医的角度去研究理解不 了。国外曾有学者想通过科学的实验来检测中医却根本检测不了。中国大陆花费天文数字的钱去研究中西医结合,耗时几十年,结果是牛头不对马嘴,耗财耗力无进展。而根植于中华大地的传统中医却以其自身的实力传遍全球。


南加州约有10万名执照西医师,中医师仅有1万3千名。好在加州拥有16所中医针灸大学,可源源不断为中医输送人才。在这些大学完成3200学时课程并获得学士学位后,就有资格参加州政府 的执照考试,获得执照后就可加入到美国中医队伍,成为用中华传统医学救人的白衣天使。

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已有 1089 次阅读 2009-9-28 10:50 |个人分类:生也有涯|系统分类:人文社科



The Nation : Acupuncture in Nevada

Monday, Apr.23 ,1973

The Nevada state legislature last week became the first in the nation to declare traditional Chinese medicine “a learned profession.” By nearly unanimous vote, the lawmakers legalized acupuncture, herbal medicine and other Chinese practices. What sold them was neither Nixonian detente nor the thoughts of Mao, but a free Chinese clinic that, by special permission, was opened for three weeks across from the statehouse in Carson City.

Half of Nevada’s 60 lawmakers have put themselves under the needles of one Lok Yee-kung. There have been several claimed cures and even more conversions. Assemblyman Robert Hal Smith reported that his 20-year sinus condition disappeared after needles were stuck in his forehead and alongside his nose. Equally as gratifying to his wife, the treatment silenced his snoring. Another legislator said that he had been cured of the pain of a childhood knee injury, and a third claimed to have been relieved−though only temporarily−of a number of leg ailments. Scores of constituents begged their representatives to get appointments for them at the clinic. Said one legislator’s secretary: “It looked like a little Lourdes around here.”

Skeptics questioned the propriety of legislators accepting free treatment and noted that the clinic−and a hard lobbying effort for the legalization bill−had been organized by the so-called American Society of Acupuncture, a corporation that stands to earn pin money if Governor Mike O’Callaghan signs the bill. Justifying the freebie treatments, Senator William Raggio explained: “None of us knew much about this thing, and we supposed this was the best way to find out.” It is refreshing to know that even legislators in Nevada check the deck before dealing.






怀疑者质疑接受免费治疗的立法者,并指出,诊所和一个合法化的法案艰辛的游说努力,是由一个叫做美国针灸协会推动的,而这个公司能在州长Mike O’Callaghan签署法令后赚点零花钱。参议院William Raggio为这次免费义诊辩护说:“我们对这件事并没有了解那么多,但我们觉得这是最好的证明途径。”令人耳目一新的是,内华达州立法者在通过立法之前先以身试药。

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1972年2月21日至28日,美国总统尼克松访华,随行记者500名。记者中詹姆斯·罗斯顿(Jame Reston)患阑尾炎,在北京协和医院做阑尾切除术,应用针灸疗法消除术后疼痛,取得成功。在华期间詹姆斯还参观了针刺麻醉,回国后即在7月2日《纽约时报》撰写有关报道,以大幅醒目标题刊于头版,在美引起了轰动效应,从而促使国立卫生院(NIH)注意到中国的针灸疗法。


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Monday, October 6, 2008;


James Tin Yau So

Dr. James Tin Yau So, N.D., LAc., also known as Dr. So, was one of the most influential individuals of the 20th Century in bringing acupuncture to the United States.

Dr. So’s teacher was Tsang Tien Chi who studied under Ching Tan An. He graduated from Dr. Tsang’s College of Scientific Acupuncture in , China, in 1939. During the same year Dr. So opened his medical office in Hong Kong. In 1941 he opened his own school, The Hong Kong College Acupuncture. For the next thirty years, Dr. So established himself as one of the most successful and well-respected acupuncturists throughout Asia. Practitioner came from all over Asia and Europe to study at his college.

Several acupuncturists from the National Acupuncture Association sought Dr. So’s assistance in 1972. At the time the NAA offered Dr. So a position as acupuncturist at the UCLA Acupuncture Pain Clinic, the only legal acupuncture clinic in California at that time. Dr. So accepted and joined the NAA staff of acupuncturists and the UCLA Acupuncture Pain Clinic in 1973.

In 1974, Dr. So was part of the NAA group that traveled to Massachusetts and opened the first acupuncture clinic in Boston and a second clinic in Worcester. In the fall of 1974, Dr. So founded the New England School of Acupuncture. Karen Freede and John V. Braga assisted Dr. So in the translation of his three books on the points of acupuncture, the techniques acupuncture and treatment of disease by acupuncture. . Dr. So, with the help of his students Arnie Freiman and Steven Breeker, founded the first school of acupuncture in the US, the New England School of Acupuncture , in 1974 With his approval Dr. Gene Bruno and Dr. Steven Rosenblatt founded a second school in the US, which became the California Acupuncture College, located in West Los Angeles.

A majority of the acupuncture schools in the U.S. were founded by students of Dr. So. This legacy of acupuncture in North America is unparalleled.

Dr. So was awarded the Acupuncturist of the Year in 2001 by the American Association of Oriental Medicine. In 2007, Dr. So Tin Yau was among the first four acupuncturists to be inscribed on the Founders of the Profession Honor Roll by the American Association of Oriental Medicine.

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加 州 中 医 立 法 历 史 年 表       加州中醫歷史文獻館 陳 大 仁 教授(撰稿)
一九九九年十月初搞; 二零零五年十月定稿 二零一零年八月補訂.(原文http://www.caam.us/resources/califonria_legislation082510.pdf)
AB 1500 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州西醫學會(CMA)策劃
AB 976 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容同 AB 1500,但增加一項條款即針灸治療除了可以在核准的醫學院校之內進行,還可在該醫學院校的“校園以外"地方進行。雷根州長予以否決。
AB 1841 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容同 AB 976。同時要求撥款四十萬元供作針灸研究之用。雷根州長再次予以否決。
AB 1691 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
要求在醫療職業中增加一種新的醫師助手資格,稱為“針灸醫助"(PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT—ACUPUNCTURE)。承認這種非西醫人員可以在西醫的直接監督之下進行針灸治療,但必須以科學研究為目的。同時規定成立針灸顧問委員會,專司管理“針灸醫助"事務。本案受到針灸界人士的強烈反對,雷根州長亦予以否決。 

SB 2117 (Mascone, 1973) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃

SB 2118 (Mascone, 1973) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃

SB 86 (Moscone, 1975) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容與 SB2117 及 SB-2118 兩案基本相同。這是加州第一個成功的由中醫界自行推動的針灸職業合法化提案。布朗州長七月十二日簽署成為法律。
AB 2424 (Keysor, 1978) —— 加州針灸聯合總會策劃
AB 3105 (Suitt, 1978) —— 加州針灸顧問委員會策劃

AB 3568 (Torres, 1978) ——加州針灸顧問委員會策劃
SB 1488 (Sieroty, 1978) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
SB 1106 (Song, 1978) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
SB 1790 (Campbell, 1978) —— (法案策劃者待查)
AB 1391 (Torres, 1979) ——加州針灸顧問委員會策劃
AB 3040 (Knox, 1980) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
AB 538 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
AB 901 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
AB 837 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
加州議會第一項涉及針灸醫療保險的提案。根據保險業界的建議,議案規定患者每一種疾病每年可以接受 24 次針灸治療。後來由于業界人士不同意數目限制,此提案被撤銷。

AB 3601 (Rosenthal, 1982) ——(法案策劃者待查)
AB 3806 (Rosenthal, 1982) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
SB 1158 (Torres, 1983) ——(法案策劃者待查)
AB 3827 (Filante, 1984) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
SB 314 (Rosenthal, 1984) ——(法案策劃者待查)

規定針灸師必需每兩年修有 30 個學時的繼續教育學分,提案獲得通過并由杜美津州長簽署成為法律。 

SB 2179 (Torres and Rosenthal, 1984) —— 加州針灸大同盟策劃
AB 272 (Filante, 1985) ——美國針灸協會策劃
SB 1642 (Rosenthal, 1986) ——加州針灸大同盟策劃
SB 839 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
SB 840 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
將針灸師在工傷保險系統中列為醫師(PHYSICIAN),有權治療受傷雇員。該案排除針灸師對患者作殘障評估,此外還附有四年期限的“日落條款"。杜美津州長於 1988 年 9 月簽署成為法律。
SB 841 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
SB 1362 (Rosenthal, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
SB 1544 (Marks, 1987) ——(法案策劃者待查)
AB 4671 (Elder, 1988) ——(法案策劃者待查)

AB 2367 (Filante and Rosenthal, 1989) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
SB 633 (Rosenthal, 1989) ——(法案策劃者待查)
要求針灸考試委員會聘請獨立專家對現行針灸學徒制度以及國外訓練的針灸考生資格進行分析評估。同時要求所有 1988 年 1 月 1 日以 前獲得執照的針灸師在 1993 年 1 月 1 日前完成包括各中西醫學科目的 40 學時繼續教育。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 654 (Torres, 1989) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
提案規定健保組織(HMO)或自身保險或殘障保險計劃以外的醫療保險計劃,包括非營利醫院等集體性的醫療保險計劃都必需自 1990 年 1 月 1 日起一律提供針灸醫療福利。此案未獲成功。
AB 3836 (Eastin, 1990) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定將隸屬于加州醫務部屬下之輔助醫療職業處的針灸委員會升格為獨立的加州針灸局(ACUPUNCTURE BOARD)。此案未獲成功。
AB 4368 (Filante, 1990) ——(法案策劃者待查)
所有針灸委員會核准的教育課程必需在 1992 年 12 月 31 日以前,或在針灸委員會核准後 5 年內,再獲得公共教育總監的批准。
AB 400 (Margolin, 1992) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
ACR 150 (Burton, 1993) ——(法案策劃者待查)
AB 2494 (Conroy, 1994) ——(法案策劃者待查)
SB 1279 (Torre, 1994) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
規定執照針灸醫師可以建立針灸專業仲裁委員會(PEER REVIEW COMMITTEE)。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1002 (Burrton, 1995) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持

AB 1003 (Burrton, 1995) —— CSOM 策劃
SB 1360 (Watson, 1996) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
要求廢除現行勞工法中有關針灸師醫師身份的 “日落條款”。此案未獲成功。
SB 863 (Lee, 1997) ——法案策劃者待查,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
SB 212 (Burton et al, 1997) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 174 (Napolitano 1997) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 410 (Gallegos et al, 1997) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
SB 1255 (Polanco, 1997) —— 加州整脊醫師公會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 2120 (Cedillo, 1998) —— CAAOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 2721 (Miller, 1998) ——(法案策劃者待查)

SB 1980 (Greene, 1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定將隸屬于加州醫務部之輔助醫療職業處管轄下的針灸委員會升格為獨立的加 州針灸局。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 204 (Migden, 1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
在工傷法中明確規定雇主及管制醫療組織向工傷雇員提供的醫療服務中都必須加上針灸福利項目;規定雇員有權選定自己的 “私人針灸醫師";規定工傷患者在要求轉換主治醫師時有權選擇針灸師。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1185 (Baugh,1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 1252 (Wildman, 1999) —— 加州足醫公會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 1252 法案案的內容之一是規定在加州工傷補償處的產業醫務委員會中增加四名委員,包括兩名西醫、一名足醫和一名針灸醫師。戴維斯州長將之簽署成為法律。並於 2000 年一月任命聯合總會名譽會長楊自國醫師為首位中醫委員。
AB 231 (Battin, 1999) —— 外州利益團體策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
SB 466 (Perata, 1999) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《中醫師行醫規範提案》,明確並擴大中醫師可以使用的行醫手段。 例如可以使用營養物品、草
AB 1751 (Kuehl, 1999) ——(法案策劃者待查)
即《保障患者訴訟權力法案》。禁止保險公司在合約中強行病家在糾紛中接受仲裁,賦予患者必要 時采取法庭訴訟的權力。這是年來眾多旨在對付管制醫療體制的法案之一。該案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 2764 (Knox, 2000) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,内容同 AB410 (Gallegos et al, 1997)。此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 341 (Perata, 2001) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
泊拉塔參議員重新提出《中醫師行醫規範提案》,内容大致同去年的 SB 466。新法案還要求增加一項磁療法。戴維斯州長於二零零一年九月將之簽署成為法律。
AB 208 (Frommer, 2001) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,内容同 AB410 (Gallegos et al, 1997) 及 AB 2764 (Knox, 2000)。此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 249 (Matthews, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。AB410 在一九九八年失敗後,AB 2764 在二零零零年再失敗,AB 208 二零零一年也未能通過議會。二零零二年改由馬修斯眾議員重新提出,即 AB 249 法案,終於順利完成了參、眾兩院的全部審議程序。但是戴維斯州長最後以財政短缺為由否決了此項提案。至此,中醫界努力運作近五年的《 豁免中藥銷售稅提案》再次受到挫折。
抗議刪除針灸醫療補助 (2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
戴維斯州長在其財政預算中曾一度將針灸醫療補助(MEDI-CAL)在於預算中予以刪除。后經廣大同業的努力遊說,參眾兩院聯合預算委員會曾將此決定否決,使針灸福利得以保留至 2003 年 7 月。
SB 573 (Burton, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
內容是將目前只要求商業醫療保險具備“可供選購"( OFFER ) 的針灸福利條款,改成規定所有保險公司都“需要提供"( PROVIDE ) 針灸福利。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 1951 (Figueroa, 2002) —— 外州利益團體支持,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
即“修理加州針灸局提案"。該案給加州針灸局設定諸多苛刻條件,例如謹批准給予針灸局兩年的再復審期限(按慣例應為四年)、要求針灸局召開會議至少必需有五名委員出席方為有效(但針灸局尚有多位委員名額空缺)、要求針灸局必需有一名委員是中醫院校教師( 針灸局為避免利益沖突,歷來不得任用現職教師)等。此外提案還要求由消費者事務廳對加州針灸局工作進行全面審查﹕包括中醫師職業規範、中醫師教育標準、 要求 對外州私人團體的考試權及中醫院校審批權進行評估其適用于加州的可能性,等等。全部評估過程所需之費用要由針灸局支付(來自中醫師的執照費)。戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1705 (Burton, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 1943 (Chu, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃並參與修訂,外州利益團體反對。
《中醫專業教育改革法案》規定目前加州官方有關中醫 針灸事務的法律文件一律統稱之為『針灸與東方醫學』,較為符合中醫師的臨床實踐。 AB1943 的最主要條款是對中醫院校的教學大綱及教育課程提出了明 確的要求: 2003 年至 2007 年間入學的新生必需完成 3200 學時專業教育,而從2007 年開始中醫專業教育課程將增加至 4000 學時。由於外州利益團體的強力反對,本案被大幅刪改后通過,(如刪除有關專業名稱之規定,將必修學時減為 3000 等)戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 582 (Speier, 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
根據中醫政治聯盟提出的修正案,SB582 將添加兩項豁免條款:(1)執照醫務工作者在其行醫規範内的治療過程中可以開麻黃處方或配藥。(2)含有麻黃成分的食物補充產品只能銷售給執照醫務工作者作為治療之用。如此,中醫師繼續使用麻黃的專業權力遂得以保全。戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 228 (Alarcon, 2003) —— 加州保險業界策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
由參議員阿拉坎提出的 SB228 提案強行將工傷醫療服務的收費標準和明顯低於市場價格的『聯邦醫療照顧』(MEDICARE) 支付標準直接挂鉤。更有甚者,凡聯邦醫療照顧並不提供的醫療項目,例如針灸,其收費則只能和用來救濟低收入家庭的『加州醫療補助』(MEDI-CAL)的支付標準直接挂鉤。
SB 867 (Burton 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
內容是要求商業醫療保險 提供針灸福利。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 907 (Burton, 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
根據最新版本的 SB907 修正案 ,自然療法醫師的行醫規範有了更加明確的限制:即自然療法醫師
將不得從事執照中醫師根據加州商業及職業法第 4927(c) 條授權從事的各種醫療項目,包括針灸,
小胡佛委員會評估加州中醫行業 (2003-2004) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟積極參與
SB 899 (Poochigian, 2004) —— 加州商會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟堅決反對並參與修訂
SB 356 (Alarcon, 2004) ——AIMS 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
SB 840 (Kueh, 2004) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 681 (Vargas, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
要求將當前工商補償醫療費用標準延長三年(及至 2007 年。)此案未能通過議會。
AB 1549 (Koretz, 2005) —— AIMS 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
SB 233 (Figueroa, 2005) ——外州利益團體支持,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
AB 871 (Keene, 2005) —— 由保險業者策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
AB 1113 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 1114 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
增加中醫師繼續教育提案;將每兩年需要 30 學時繼續教育增加至 50 學時。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1115 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 1116 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 1117 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
用『亞洲醫學』代替 『東方醫學』提案。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長簽署成為法律。
SB 248 (Figueroa, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
AB 2287 (Chu, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 2152 (Chan, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
眾議院衛生委員會主席陳煥英議員提出的『針灸師執照行醫法案』(AB2152),將使用明確的法律條文重申任何人必須擁有加州中醫執照方可施行針灸治療的規定。這項由加州中醫政治聯盟策劃的,專門為保障中醫師基本行醫權益的提案對確保加州公眾獲得安 全可靠的中醫服務意義十分重大。 由於『針灸師執照行醫法案』牽涉到其他醫療職業者的既得利益,特別是勢力強大的西醫界的既得利益,因此我們很清楚:這是一項極具挑戰性的法案。審議一開始就面臨西醫牙醫足醫三大反對勢力強大的聯合攻勢,形勢十分嚴峻。更遺憾的是,業界中又有少數人持有相反意見:以白人針灸師為主体的加州中醫協會(CSOMA)對此案表示不支持,還斷言此案將絕對不會成功。而針灸產業醫學專家協會(AIMS)的米勒醫師則在聽證會上宣稱他希望本提案失敗。所幸絕大多數中醫專業團體(包括華裔,韓裔,日裔,越南裔等職業公會)都認為這項提案完全合情、合理、合法,它宣示了中醫界要維護病家利益及保衛自身權力的堅定決心,明知有難度和風險,但還是要堅決推行。由於外州利益團體的強力反對,本案未能通過議會。
AB 2821 (Huff, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
AB 3014 (Koretz, 2006) —— 針灸與綜合醫學專家協會策劃
SB 840 (Kuehl, 2006) —— 加州全民醫療保險法案 提案人:庫尤爾參議員
SB1476 (Figueroa, 2006) —— 醫療職業局日落條款案 提案人:費格洛亞參議員
AB 54 (Dymally, 2007) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
爭取豁免中藥銷售稅 (1997 – 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟與北加州中藥聯商會共同推動
1997年,加州中醫界曾委托加州眾議員格里高斯醫師提出《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,編號為AB410案。但未獲成功。後來在1999年,加州中醫政治聯盟又委托加州眾議員諾克斯提出了內容相同的 AB2764 法案作為繼續,也宣告失敗。中醫界再接再厲,在2001年又委托加州眾議員法魯
莫重新提出此案,編號 AB208 。可惜法案第三度被擱置。2002年由加州眾議員馬修斯接手辦理此案,改編號 AB249 。該法案雖然順利完成了參、眾兩院的全部審議程序,但是當年的州長戴維斯卻以財政短缺為由否決了此項提案,最後還是以失敗告終。2008年,中藥課稅問題的不合理性得到平等稅務局(BOARD OF EQUOLIZATION)趙美心局長和余淑婷副局長的關注,終于取得突破性的進展:二零零八年九月四日,中醫藥界代表與平等稅務局官員以及平稅局法律部門和稽查部門的負責人在沙加緬度進行了一次很有成果的會議。隨後,在二零零八年十二月,平等稅務局修改條例,不再將“聲稱有治療疾病功效的中藥定位為藥品"而予以課稅,並宣佈:既然中藥材在加州一向被列為“食物",就應當按食物免徵銷售稅,立即生效。至於“加工后中藥"(如粉劑、片劑、膠囊等產品)的食品定義問題,經過加州中醫政治聯盟的進一步交涉,平稅局法律部門最近提出了新的法律補充解釋:加工過的中藥材只要在其包裝或説明標簽上沒有“SUPPLEMENT”或“ADJUNCT”等字樣,則平稅局將認定此等產品仍然屬於“食品”,免予課稅。至此,抗爭多年的豁免中藥銷售稅問題終于獲得圓滿解決。 

AB 1260 (Huffman, 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟反對
意圖修改加州針灸局職能的 AB1260 法案提出取消對考生臨床實習的要求,以及要讓外州的認證機構參與加州針灸局對中醫院校的審批工作等項,有可能降低加州中醫師素質,從而對加州中醫事業帶來負面影響。加州中醫政治聯盟予以反對。作者賀弗曼眾議員后來對本案條文作出重大的修訂—僅保留原提案的第一部分,(即將七人加州針灸局的議事法定人數由五名降為四名,包括至少一名針灸師);其餘不利加州中醫事業的條款已經全部予以刪除。
AB 1391 (Eng, then McLeod, 2010) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
允許加州針灸局繼續運作至2013年的 AB1391 提案由伍國慶眾議員提出,其內容後來納入麥克利歐的 SB294.目前該案已經通過參眾兩院,等待州長的簽署。
爭取農夫保險公司支付針灸 (Eng, 2010) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與推動
加州針灸合法化以來,作為美國最大汽車保險公司之一的農夫保險公司 (FARMER INSURANCE COMPANY) 數十年來堅持不支付汽車意外受傷者針灸醫療費用。伍國慶眾議員通過和農夫保險公司高層領導人的多次直接溝通、協商、交涉,終於獲得公司方面的讓步,同意改變公司的理賠政策,

1973 – 1975年間,針灸在美國許多州已經取得合法地位。但是,政治上的合法化并不等于學銜上的被承認。代表西醫界的美國醫學會直到1996年還不承認針灸的醫學價值。其官方立場是“針灸在美國還屬實驗性質”。基于這種立場,負責管制醫療器械的美國食品及藥物管理局(FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION)只能勉強將針灸針列為“三級醫療器具”,即所謂的“實驗研究用器具”(INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE),規定只能用于科學研究目的。1994年,針灸界人士委托華盛頓的斯萬金-陀諾(SWANKIN & TURNER)律師事務所,采取公民請願(CITIZEN PETETION)的法律程序嚴正要求藥管局根據專家們提出的研究報告,重新考慮針灸針在美國醫療保健體系中的地位,將之從三級器具提升為二級即 “核准醫療器具”(APROVED MEDICAL DEVICE)。藥管局的專家們足足用了近一年半時間對針灸界提出的研究報告進行分析評估,終于在1996年3月作出了裁決。
HR1038 (Hinchey, 1996) ~ HR646 (Hinchey, 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
聯邦健保改革法案(FEDERAL HEALTH CARE REFORM ACT, 2009-2010)—— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持


陳大仁:完善中醫教育 才是正名根本

加州中醫師聯合總會榮譽會長陳大仁嘆 SB628法案正名僅是「贈予」地位而非認同 提昇中醫專業教育進一步為中醫正名才是中醫界所樂見




但可惜的是,目前博大精深的中醫只能被侷限在「針灸局」(Acupuncture Board)底下,中醫師也只能稱針灸技師,醫術方面也受到限制,有多種中醫方濟還有正骨手法不可使用。因此陳大仁表示,現在最急迫的其實是趕快對中醫正名,並且提昇中醫的專業教育。他說,連眼鏡驗光師都得是博士學位,中醫當然更要是具有完備的教育體制。

陳大仁一家幾乎都是醫生,對中醫尤其專精,他說,針灸師其實早已超出針灸的範圍,是真正在行使中醫職業的專業人士,廣大中醫師都期望以中醫(Chinese Medicine)或東方醫學( Oriental Medicine)來取代針灸(Acupuncture)一詞。但在2002年及2006年分別有提出立法,都遭到西醫的阻撓而失敗。




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Cheng Danan


Cheng Danan (1898-1957).

Cheng Dan’an:a famous acupuncturist (1899-1957), who set up a society of acupuncture research and then a special school for training acupuncturists. His chief writings include the Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Zhi Liao Xue  (Chinese Acupuncture-Moxibustion Therapy)the Zhen Jiu Jing Hua  (Quintessence of Acupuncture and Moxibustion),and the Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Xue (Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion).
“In the early 1930s, Cheng Danan, a Chinese scholar-physician, used Euroamerican anatomy to rehabilitate acupuncture as a respectable skill. In Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion Therapeutics, Cheng (1932) insisted that acupuncture must be an effective medical therapy, because its mechanism of action was the stimulation of the nerves described in European medical theory. Cheng insisted that the acupuncture points be redefined in light of this insight; in his book, he repositioned them away from blood vessels (where previously they might have been used for bloodletting) and toward the nerve pathways. He illustrated his revisions by painting the new acupuncture pathways onto the skin of volunteers and then photographing them, a technique that gave his book a greater air of modernity and reflected the increasingly common use of photographic illustrations in European medical books of the time. Cheng’s new scientific acupuncture was a great success in China. His book went through many editions from 1930 to 1960, and he set up his own college of acupuncture. Cheng achieved such prominence in the Chinese medical community that after the Communist takeover in 1949, he was asked to serve on several national committees in charge of medical policy and education. Chengs work helped acupuncture regain sufficient credibility to be reincorporated into the teaching and practice of the new Chinese medicine. In the 1950s, however, Cheng abandoned his own earlier insistence that acupuncture must work through the nerves alone. Instead, he attributed its efficacy to the power of qi and the doctor-patient relationship, in addition to the physical stimulation of the nerves”.
Acupuncture and the Reinvention of Chinese MedicineAndrews BJ. APS Bulletin. 1999;9(3).Cheng Danan. [Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion therapeutics] Zhongguo zhenjiu zhiliaoxue. Shanghai: Quanqingtang shuju. 1932.1935 : un premier écho chinois d’une acupuncture française. Franzini S. Revue Française d’Acupuncture. 1992;70:21-4.
L’auteur fait une traduction et un commentaire d’un article  chinois de 1935 de Cheng Danan, tiré du premier périodique chinois  d’acupuncture, où il apparaît que l’acupuncture était alors  menacée de disparition en Chine même, et que pour la défendre on  s’est appuyé sur l’intérêt européen pour la discipline, tout  particulièrement sur le travail de George Soulié de Morant.

Cheng Dan’an. Faguoren relie yanjiu Zhongguo zhi zhenjiu shu [engouement français pour l’acupuncture chinoise]. Zhenjiu zazhi [Revue d’acupuncture]. Wuxi; 1935;3(1):32-4.

Acupuncture & Moxibustion Formulas & Treatments by Dan'An Cheng (Translator), Cheng Dan-An (Editor), Wu Ming (Translator), Ming Wu, Bob Flaws Publisher: Blue Poppy Press; 1 edition (January 1, 1996) ISBN: 0936185686<br /><br />
            Cheng Dan-an was the single most important Chinese acupuncturist of the mid-20th century. He created the modern acupuncture college curriculum in China and rescued acupuncture and moxibustion from oblivion in its native land. As a teacher of many other famous teachers of acupuncture, such as the late Dr. James Tin Yau So, Cheng Dan-an is the father of modern Chinese acupuncture. This book is a collection of his formulas and treatments for a wide range of traditional Chinese diseases, such as cold damage, warm heat diseases, wind stroke, mania, diarrhea and dysentery, cough, phlegm rheum, panting & wheezing, the five accumulations, and more. This is a seminal book in the development of modern acupuncture which should not be overlooked by any Western practitioner. We chose to publish this book even though most Westerners have never heard of Cheng Dan-an because, if one does know a little something about the modern Chinese history of acupuncture, one has to know about the tremendous role Cheng played throughout the entire middle part of this century. This book can either be used as a stand alone treatment manual, or it can be read as a seminal transition text from premodern to modern Chinese acupuncture. In particular, students of Dr. James Tin Yao So in the early days of the New England School of Acupuncture will find this book extremely enlightening, since it is the source for many of their teacher's treatments and ideas.<br /><br />
Acupuncture & Moxibustion Formulas & Treatments by Dan’An Cheng (Translator), Cheng Dan-An (Editor), Wu Ming (Translator), Ming Wu, Bob Flaws Publisher: Blue Poppy Press; 1 edition (January 1, 1996) ISBN: 0936185686

Cheng Dan-an was the single most important Chinese acupuncturist of the mid-20th century. He created the modern acupuncture college curriculum in China and rescued acupuncture and moxibustion from oblivion in its native land. As a teacher of many other famous teachers of acupuncture, such as the late Dr. James Tin Yau So, Cheng Dan-an is the father of modern Chinese acupuncture. This book is a collection of his formulas and treatments for a wide range of traditional Chinese diseases, such as cold damage, warm heat diseases, wind stroke, mania, diarrhea and dysentery, cough, phlegm rheum, panting & wheezing, the five accumulations, and more. This is a seminal book in the development of modern acupuncture which should not be overlooked by any Western practitioner. We chose to publish this book even though most Westerners have never heard of Cheng Dan-an because, if one does know a little something about the modern Chinese history of acupuncture, one has to know about the tremendous role Cheng played throughout the entire middle part of this century. This book can either be used as a stand alone treatment manual, or it can be read as a seminal transition text from premodern to modern Chinese acupuncture. In particular, students of Dr. James Tin Yao So in the early days of the New England School of Acupuncture will find this book extremely enlightening, since it is the source for many of their teacher’s treatments and ideas.

Elèves de Cheng Danan
Gao Zhenwu
Shao Jingming
Xie Xiliang
Yang Jiasan
Zhao Erkang
Zheng Zhuoren
Zhong Yueqi
1- gera: 80046/di/ra
[CHENG DANAN (1898-1957) -A BRILLIANT PIONEER OF CHINA’S MODERN ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION. ZHAO ERKANG ET AL.chinese acupuncture and moxibustion.1989;9(5):46-8 (chi*).
2- gera: 65659/di/ra
[TALKING ABOUT QIGONG BY MR CHENG DAN-AN].LI JUN-LONG.qigong. 1991;12(8):357 (chi).
3- gera: 64631/di/ra
[ON FAMOUS ACUPUNCTURIST CHENG DANAN’S SCHOLARLY WORKS].LIN HUI ET AL.jiangsu journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;12(12):32 (chi).
4- gera: 152398/di/ra
[INTRODUCTION TO MR CHENG DAN-AN AND HIS WORKS].WANG Y, HUANG LX.acupuncture research. 2008;33(5):348-50 (chi).
Mr CHENG Dan-an is a famous educationist and acupuncturist in modern China. He established the earliest acupuncture correspondence institution named Chinese Research Society of Acu-moxibustion. Meanwhile he founded the earliest professional magazine, Journal of Acu-moxibustion which played an important role in promoting redevelopment of acu-moxibustion. Mr CHENG Dan-an wrote many famous works. Research on CHENG’sacademic thoughts and works will help a lot in knowing the development and evolution of modern acupuncturology in the period of the Republic of China. The present paper introduces it by the help of 7 books including Zhenjiu Zhiliao Xue (Chinese Acu-moxibustion Therapeutics).

Astrology with needles

Published by  under Acupuncture,History


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Now, Let Me Tell You About my Appendectomy in Peking…

An article triggered American Acupuncture Fever, published in July 1971, before the President Nixon’s journey to China.

James Reston

Many people have heard of the 1971 New York Times article by James Reston about his experience with acupuncture in his recovery from an emergency appendectomy. Reston was in China at the time, which was quite unusual in the first place. In 1971 China was in the grip of the Cultural Revolution, and very few foreigners were allowed into the country. He had an appendectomy the standard biomedical way, but for post-surgical pain was treated with acupuncture and moxibustion:

However, I was in considerable discomfort if not pain during the second night after the operation, and Li Chang-yuan, doctor of acupuncture at the hospital, with my approval, inserted three long thin needles into the outer part of my right elbow and below my knees and manipulated them in order to stimulate the intestine and relieve the pressure and distension of the stomach.

That sent ripples of pain racing through my limbs and, at least, had the effect of diverting my attention from the distress in my stomach. Meanwhile, Doctor Li lit two pieces of an herb called ai, which looked like the burning stumps of a broken cheap cigar, and held them close to my abdomen while occasionally twirling the needles into action.

All this took about 20 minutes, during which I remember thinking that it was a rather complicated way to get rid of gas in the stomach, but there was noticeable relaxation of the pressure and distension within an hour and no recurrence of the problem thereafter.

Reston’s article provoked great interest in acupuncture. In 1976 California became the first state (Dr.Fan notes: California actually was no.8 State to license the acupuncture, in 1975, see the official article of my last article posted) to license acupuncture, where just two years earlier pioneering acupuncturist Miriam Lee was arrested for practicing medicine without a license. My martial arts teacher Dr. Alex Feng was one of the first acupuncturists licensed in California (his license number is 297 – mine is 13299).

In 2006 a Chinese publication, the People’s Daily, wrote a follow-up which had an interview with some of the original doctors mentioned in Reston’s article.

Hope you enjoy this bit of acupuncture history: Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking… (full article)

This article was from online, written by Jonah Ewell L.Ac, Kang Dao Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine, 405 Kains Ave Suite 101.510-516-3478, jonah.ewell@gmail.com


Of pins, needles and pain relief
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It is commonly believed that acupuncture went mainstream in the United States after President Richard Nixon’s visit to China in 1972.

However, after years of research, Dr Li Yongming, president of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Association in the United States, has overturned this general consensus and announced recently that the “acupuncture fever” in the United States got started a bit earlier.

The man who started it was journalist James Reston, with his 1971 New York Times story, said Dr Li, who is organizing a series of events to mark the 35th anniversary of this incident.

Unique experience

In June 1971, Reston, a columnist and editor of The New York Times and winner of two Pulitzer Prizes, received an invitation from the Chinese Government to visit China. He arrived in Guangzhou on July 8. However, his trip was delayed and he did not set foot in Beijing until July 12.

On July 15, Reston suddenly felt a stab of pain in his groin. The next day, he checked into the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, which was then named Anti-Imperialist Hospital.

In his story entitled “Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking,” Reston blamed Henry Kissinger for his pain.

As Nixon’s National Security Adviser at that time, Kissinger arrived in Beijing on July 9 to secretly negotiate with the Chinese Government the date of President Nixon’s visit to China, and left on July 11.

As an experienced journalist, Reston felt great regret and anger at having missed a golden chance to cover such breaking news.

Reston was diagnosed as suffering from acute appendicitis and had to undergo an appendectomy.

Though the operation went off well, Reston was in considerable discomfort during the second night after the surgery. Li Zhanyuan, a doctor of acupuncture at the hospital, with Reston’s approval, inserted three long thin needles into his right elbow and below his knees.

The needles sent twinges of pain through Reston’s limbs and diverted his attention from the distress in his stomach.

Meanwhile, Dr Li lit two pieces of a herb called ai (Chinese mugwort), which looked like the burning stumps of a broken cigar, and held them close to his abdomen, while occasionally twirling the needles into action. Reston later learned that this was the procedure called moxibustion.

“All this took about 20 minutes, during which I remember thinking that it was a rather complicated way to get rid of gas in the stomach, but there was noticeable relaxation of the pressure and distension within an hour and no recurrence of the problem thereafter,” he wrote in his article.

Reston’s story appeared on the front page of The New York Times along with the Apollo 15 lift-off, on July 26, 1971.

Dr Li Yongming calls the acupuncture treatment that Reston underwent “an oriental Apollo.”

Though acupuncture had been practised in North America ever since the first immigrants came to the continent from China, it never entered the mainstream before the early 1970s, according to Li.

Reston’s article was the first genuine American experience in acupuncture to appear in the mainstream Western media.

“Several years later, after Reston’s death, I got in contact with his three sons, who remembered that their father received a lot of letters from readers to inquire about acupuncture,” said Li. He graduated from the Liaoning Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute in 1982 and has been researching both Chinese and Western medicine as attending physician at the Warren Hospital in New Jersey.

Dr Li began tracking down the persons involved in Reston’s operation, and it took him more than five years to finally locate Dr Li Zhanyuan, who retired from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 1995. The delay was caused by Reston who used the old Western way to spell the Chinese names.

Li Zhanyuan, who is in his 70s, retains his love for acupuncture, training young practitioners in a vocational skills education centre in Beijing.

Interestingly, even while telling his students the story of acupuncture’s spread to the United States, he ignored the Reston story.

“I never expected Reston’s experience with the silver needles to evoke such a strong response in America,” he said.

Thousands of young acupuncturists like Dr Li Zhanyuan were trained after the founding of the People’s Republic of China to provide inexpensive medical care for the vast rural population. Owing to the strong support of the government, acupuncture enjoyed its strongest development in those years in China.

Viable alternative

“Research on acupuncture anaesthesia has played an important role in the spread of acupuncture in the US. It has attracted people’s attention to its pain-relieving effects,” said Dr Li Yongming.

Although the acupuncture fever cooled after the initial burst of enthusiasm, the treatment retained its influence in the United States. In the 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest, as more Americans began paying greater attention to alternative medicine.

“People started to get sick of the side-effects of Western medicine and turned to effective and safe non-medicinal therapies,” said Dr Li.

In 1997, the US National Institute of Health (NIH) concluded that acupuncture provided effective therapy for certain medical conditions, especially post-operative nausea and pain as well as vomiting. It said acupuncture was remarkably safe, with less side effects than many well-established therapies.

Cao Xiaoding, director of the Research Department of Acupuncture under the WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, has been studying acupuncture analgesia since 1964.

She was one of the three Chinese acupuncture experts invited to take part in the 1997 hearing on acupuncture conducted by the US NIH.

She said acupuncture was being applied widely in Western countries to alleviate pain. As acupuncture also helps regulate body functions, it can help conditions such as high blood pressure, arthritis, myasthenia and paralysis.

According to Dr Li Yongming, allocations of research funds for acupuncture from the USNIH have been increasing every year. It now accounts for nearly half of TCM research funds, which in turn account for a quarter of the total funds earmarked for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine.

Currently, the US has about 20,000 acupuncturists and 5,000 physician acupuncturists. More than 30 states have laws dealing with acupuncture.

“One can find acupuncture advertisements in the yellow pages in any hotel in the United States,” said Dr Li.

Reston himself might have never imagined that one day acupuncture would find such wide acceptance in his country while penning his article from a hospital bed 35 years ago.

Source: China Daily    http://english.people.com.cn/200602/16/eng20060216_243273.html


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