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A comment paper on dry Needling to Board of Physical Therapy, Virginia, From: http://www.townhall.virginia.gov/L/viewcomments.cfm?commentid=47915

Commenter: Mark Seem, PhD, LAc *                                                     12/28/15

Oppose ‘Dry Needling’ by Physical Therapists

I am a licensed Acupuncturist in the States of New York and Maryland for the past three decades and more. I developed a classical Chinese acupuncture approach to integrating acupuncture needling of myofascial pain and related disorders, where release of tight knotted muscles, often called ‘trigger points’ after the work of Dr. Janet Travell. I shared this classical acupuncture technique with her by treating a complex old whiplash syndrome for her Myotherapy traveling companion and friend who was an expert at acupressure to release such trigger points, when Travell taught with Maryland neurologist Robert Gerwin, MD in 1990, who had never seen acupuncture needling of trigger points before, nor had Dr. Travell. He wondered what he was doing lecturing to a group of half acupuncturists, and I asked contrariwise how he felt comfortable teaching physical therapists, who had no required training in the use of such solid filiform needles in their entry-level programs there. He was not able to make the demonstration I did that night for Dr.Travell and her trigger-point bodywork expert colleague as he had a dinner to go to. Whenever I successfully needled in classical Chinese style muscle channel shallow technique, with a 1 inch needle inserted half way into the soft tissue that I had compressed with my non-needling hand as the Japanese often do, easing up now and again to give the deeper muscle room to react, it would twitch often dramatically that was visible to Dr. Travel and me and very palpably experienced by her colleague who even remarked that it felt just like deep trigger point injections done by Dr. Gerwin who directed the training in the Travell  Seminar Series when elderly Dr. Travell was no longer able. Myotherapists ran the parallel training for physical therapists in the manual therapy technique sections of that course, where physicians taught the trigger point  injection techniques. Physical therapists, according to Travell’s instructions, who are licensed to practice ischemic compression that can be almost as effective as trigger point injections, and much less risky than using thick 3-5 inch long syringes, were very pleased with these powerful manual techniques hey are licensed to practice based on the same manuals. Medicare and Medicaid standards for coding for trigger point injections call for coding for a few, or multiple, trigger point injection sites; as well as coding for what medication filled the syringe – usually lidocaine or even cortisone as the case may be, and sometimes homeopathic solutions that medical doctors and their ‘physician extenders’ use as well.

Travell and Simons’ 2 volume seminal text on this practice always provide manual therapy ‘ischemic compression’ technique options, so there is no reason for any well trained physical therapist who takes such a 50-75 hour program practicing on peers to ever need to learn needling techniques, which Travell did not favor ever being taught to other than medical doctors, dentists and osteopathic physicians given the danger of hitting nerves and also important organs when needling over the torso on the front, back or side.

After Dr. Gerwin heard Dr. Travell and her colleague report on the similarity in efficacy of my one acupuncture session to trigger point injection, and he saw the thin short Japanese Serein needles I gave him to check out, he looked for externs and found an osteopathic resident trained in such acupuncture release of trigger points. Subsequently he met and partnered eventually with a physical therapist who claims to have learned such needling with acupuncture needles in the Netherlands where he is from. I taught that technique to physical therapists in the Netherlands who were the main licensed providers, along with physicians in my classical acupuncture seminars for the Anglo-Dutch Institute comprehensive acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine program, as well as to physical therapists and physicians in rehabilitative medicine in the UK, and they all concurred no one should do acupuncture treatment of such myofascial conditions without proper acupuncture training. They also agreed that ‘dry needling’, which is to say the use of an empty syringe with no medication was nonsensical, even though Dr. Hong, an acupuncturist who like Dr. Gunn went on to become a physical and rehabilitation medicine physician, dropping any reference to that earlier acupuncture training as Dr. Baldrey in the UK, and Dr. Ma in Colorado have done, to cover up their original comprehensive acupuncture training. Hong’s research study had 3 options – actual trigger point injections of lidocaine into myofascial trigger points; injection of saline solution instead; and dry needling with no fluid injected. While no insurance company would ever provide coverage for such dry-needling, Hong was able to show that all 3 techniques worked equally well, with post-injection soreness the mildest as expected in those who received lidocaine, an anesthetic, and greater for those who were injected with cortisone, and the greatest with those injected with a ‘dry’ syringe.

Travell and Simons had already come to the conclusion that the twitching evoked in acute myofascial trigger point conditions was the actual therapeutic mechanism, as the twitching stretched the tight contracted muscle fibers [trigger points] within the sorest part of such muscles, and so stretching created by the injection, accompanied by some soothing fluid, even saline solution, with lidocaine seeming to make that stretching release last the longest, explained the mechanism for such often dramatic relief.

While a more time consuming technique, ischemic compression release which all entry-level physical therapists have learned, allows them to approximate the release from the more risky trigger point injections, at a fraction of the cost of such surgically coded injections. They can also use electro-stimulation techniques on such trigger points conditions with equally good results, and there are even ultra-sound, and laser devices hey are licensed to use.

The only reason physical therapists could possibly have for wanting to use acupuncture needles, then, since they are not at a loss for their own manual therapy techniques and FDA legal regulated devices, is to be able to tell their patients who ask if what they do is as effective as the ever more popular 2000 year old originally Chinese acupuncture, where no potentially harmful medications are ever ‘injected’, making it a primary nonpharmacological therapy among those physical and occupational therapists are licensed to practice, as appeared for pain management conditions in the accreditation manual update of the Joint Commission that accredits some 20,500 mainstream and integrative medicine hospital and integrative medicine outpatient facilities and programs, where acupuncture was also on that list, where physical therapy does not figure, for behavioral healthcare, mood and mental disorders, including psychosomatic and organ functional problems like IBS or Reflux that physical therapists are not trained to treat.

In short, unless the Board would consider it appropriate for licensed acupuncturists to be able to practice all of the licensed manual therapy techniques a trained physical therapist may practice, since we learn our own East Asian acupressure-related techniques, or the same licensed chiropractic and osteopathic manipulations those providers may practice, if we learn far simpler release techniques within our acupuncture scope of practice, without the same level of osteopathic or chiropractic training in their required entry-level well supervised training treating the public that the short trigger point [acupuncture] dry-needling courses may never provide for legal reasons, I submit that the approval for physical therapists to practice using FDA regulated medical devices known as acupuncture needles, for those licensed in acupuncture to use such needles or for licensed surgeons, is irresponsible in the extreme and opens the Pandora’s box for all licensed therapists to start using other licensed therapist’s FDA regulated techniques and devices.

Finally, the high likelihood that the 20,000 licensed acupuncturists in this country will have had enough, and will file a federal class-action suit with the FDA to penalize these poorly trained self-professed trigger point ‘dry-needlers’ [illegal acupuncturists] is high and poses a serious risk for the Board and for each physical therapist the state licenses, where the implicit final determination of entry-level competence in physical therapy does not include national or state training, standards or assessment of any level of competence in such lucrative CEU short courses that are only good for the course owners themselves.

I suspect that passing such a bill will leave licensed acupuncturists no choice but to mount a powerful full disclosure public relations attack on your Board and on any physical therapists who practice such shoddily learned acupuncture techniques without a license in acupuncture. And the door will be open for them to advertise that they practice physical therapy acupuncture and trigger point needling, beating the physical therapists at their own game while legally billing for what physical therapists must be illegally checking off as a manual [rather than intramuscular] therapy, which is another kind of fraud altogether that your Board would do well to investigate.

I thank you for considering these comments based on 38 years teaching, supervising and practicing licensed acupuncture, after what is now a master’s degree accredited 3 year program of some 1906 hours of training minimum, with 500 hours in the practice of acupuncture.

Sincerely,

Mark Seem, PhD, LAc.

Founder and Past President, Tri-State College of Acupuncture

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Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969–1979) — acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture | PDF |

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我进中南海教太极拳

[复制链接]http://www.xiaojiacn.net/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1992

 

摘自:《档案春秋》200503期 作者:顾留馨

【相关链接】

顾留馨,上海人,生于1908,早年参加革命。上海解放后,曾任黄浦区第一任区长。他还是一位享誉海内外的武术师,在历届全国武术比赛中,多次任副总裁判、总裁判。除此之外,他曾担任《中国大百科全书》体育卷编委、上海市体育宫主任、上海市体育科研所副所长,以及市武术协会主席、中国武术学会委员。11957年应邀赴越南为胡志明主席以及越南军委、体委干部教授过太极拳;著有多部太极拳专著。1990617,顾留馨同志因患癌症在华东医院病世,享年83岁。本文系顾留馨同志的儿子顾元庄根据其父1985年的录音整理。

初会江膏

19587月中旬,国家体委调我去北京教授首长太极拳,当时我正在业余整理武术理论和史料,就随身携带了两箱武术书和工具书立即启程。17日到了北京。 

第二天,中南海李志绥大夫来联系,:“首长是女性,因长期工作紧张,致神经极度衰弱,日夜不能合眼,怕吵声,怕深呼吸,但头脑是清楚的,做过大手术,曾去苏联治病两年,情况未改善,医生已失去信心,劝做气功疗法,她又不耐静坐,现在劝她练太极拳,同意了,才请你来教,主要使她情绪稳定,有所寄托。李大夫希望我能够注意运动量,订出学习计划。
我随即翻阅一些书籍作笔记,订出个月的教学计划,送到中南海去。后来据国家体委干部司反映,李志绥大夫认为我的教学方案很科学,因材施教,不像上次有位老师那么蛮干,我才知道有人去中南海教过拳。隔天,李大夫又来联系,约定明天开始教拳,并讲明要教的是毛主席夫人江青。到了那天,李志绥大夫和护土于丽姜接我到中南海毛主席家中,中医章次公也同去诊病。 

江青接见时精神甚好,她首先表示欢迎,又说由于身体不好,今天才开始练拳。江青先说了自己的病晴病源,说对静坐没多大耐性,因此听从医生的劝告学太极拳。江青要求讲讲太极拳有哪几种流派,哪一种流派较好?我说各派太极拳各有特点,仅形式繁简不同,锻炼原则是一致的。以杨式太极拳为舒展大方,流行较广。简化太极拳是国家体委根据杨式而简化的,这次准备用一个月时间教简化太极拳江青听了摇头说要学就学杨式老套路,不要简化的,时间长一些动作复杂些不要紧。” 

这样计划打乱了,我就教她杨式太极拳,江青拿出笔记本一点一点记。但时间一长,江青就显得疲倦了。 

开头几次,因江青体弱,腿部无力,仅能练3分钟,即需坐下休息。江青说:“我只能维持20分钟谈话,就要躺在沙发上休息,因此多年来不能接见宾客。” 

这样每次都由李志绥大夫或保健局黄树则局长接送我出入中南海,一般上午11时或下午3时练习,李志绥和护士吴旭君、于丽姜起陪练,有时去江青的疗养处万寿路别墅中练习。 

练了一段时间后,江青对我说:“西洋舞蹈光是旋转动作,体操机械化,不如中国太极拳心静用意,整体细致,练起来兴趣好。太极拳比较柔和,全身内外各部位协调,我决定以后要把太极拳改编成舞蹈,不但拳操改成舞蹈,就是你们的推手方法,也可以改成舞蹈动作。我听了就想,怎么刚学了不久,就想发明创造呢?有一次护土笑着说江青练太极拳入了迷,连昨天打杜洛克的时候也在做太极拳手势呢!” 

有一次,江青留黄树则和我午餐,江青谈到《静静的顿河》小说和电影都有问题;丑化了革命者,宣扬了坏蛋。主席和她都有这看法。江青还介绍黄树则在延安时也搞文艺、写文章,现改行为卫生工作者。江青接着说:“主席多少年来一直在考虑重大问题,从未空闲过,不但考虑国内问题,还考虑国际共运问题。许多同志对主席思想,不很好研究,因此不理解,我对主席的思想,还不能紧紧跟上。主席说过,自然界生存竞争,物竞天择是很残酷的。” 

江青开始只能练三分钟,后来能坚持五分钟,虽然运动量很小,但到五分钟,还是坚持不住躺在沙发上休息了。练了十多次,还未学完第,江青已有两次感到不舒服。李志绥大夫和我商量是不是江青不适宜练拳,才又发病了?我认为既然别的疗法都试过了,我对太极拳疗效还是有信心的,只要坚持练下去,会有效果;我们应从运动量上、动作简化上研究一下。我向江青提出为适应她的体力条件想把动作变通一下,但江青说:“那不必,不要听医生的,我身体不行,但意志是坚强的,会坚持下去的。” 

终于有一天练拳后,江青坐在沙发上休息时说:“老师,我这个学生身体太不争气,如果在几年前,我可以当个好学生把太极拳练好,现在不行,病又发了,练拳后觉得很有趣,但又觉得腰脚很酸。你不要误会,这不是练拳的原因,现在我想休息几天,目前只能暂停,但我的心是不死的,以后还会请你来教;我很感激你的认真负责,很对不起你远道而来,回去替我向荣高棠致谢,也向上海市体委致谢。”(她不知道国家体委已留我下来)当时,我极为不安,我没教好,教失败了!我只能说:“等你身体好些,再通知我。我回去还得好好研究教法和生理学的书。、接着,江青请我、李大夫、护士起吃午饭,席间,她表示一定要把太极拳学会、练好。 

 

 

2#

  楼主| 发表于 2008-1-2 09:26:35 | 只看该作者
见到邓大姐和叶帅

87,李志绥大夫来电说,江青今日去北戴河,请我明天也动身。第二天我带了一箱书乘火车去北戴河,到车站一位女青年来接我,一定要帮我提箱子。我说重得很,你拿不动的。她坚持提箱子。看得出她的体力不错。后来才知道她是邓颖超的护士,叫郑淑云。 

我到北戴河第二天,保健局通知我去看电影。在个礼堂里,我一看场中到的人还不多,都坐在后面,我这个人平时看戏看电影都喜欢坐在前面和中间,所以就按习惯坐在第二排中间坐下。但我看到医生、保健局长等人都坐到后面去,感到很奇怪:他们为什么不坐前面来?等了一会儿,人多了,最后刘少奇进来了,他向中间的座位走过来,看到我一个人坐在那儿,向我点点头打了招呼,坐在我前面排座位。这时我才想到,这是首长的座位,但既然已坐下了也就看下去吧。散场后,我问黄树则局长:“你们怎么直往后走也不招呼我一声?”他说:“看戏嘛,这个没问题。我说今后要跟你们在起。他讲这是党中央在召开中央委员会议。我说今后再也不能坐到前面去了。以后看戏时,我跟黄局长,医生就坐到楼上,有一次遥见毛主席进场看京戏。 

第三天上午十点半,护士了曼丽接我去河边一处休息室里,见到江青与她的女儿。江青介绍说她的女儿叫李讷,今年十八岁,现在放暑假,她有头痛病,所以也要她学拳。这次江青的精神好多了,江青诜我已打定主意,学完全套后,将把太极拳改为舞蹈形式,舞蹈也可以吸收太极拳的锻炼要领,医疗睦的拳套,可改为对称运动,打架的动作可改掉。当天下午四点钟,我正在看针炙书时,护士陪李讷来,又继续练简化太极拳。她想一天练二遍,快点把太极拳练好。李讷走后,我仍然看书,过了刽儿,郑淑云陪了一位年纪大的女同志来访。这位女同志自我介绍说我叫邓颖超,是来请教太极拳的。她提出一些问题,询问怎样练疗病效果比较好,我一一作了回答。邓颖超说你的文章我们都看过了,觉得你对太极拳很有研究,文笔很好,知识也广博。我想请你教太极拳,但目前你在教江青,我先让郑淑云跟你练,她学过简化太陂拳,你认真纠正她的动作,她再来纠正我,以后有时间再当面请教,纠正姿势。总理夫人谦和慈祥的话语,使我十分感动。 

邓颖超看到我案头有四本陈鑫著《陈氏太极拳解说》,就随手翻阅。我介绍这是陈家沟陈氏太极拳的经验积累,到第八代的陈鑫才有著作阐发。邓颖超便向我借去看,并对郑淑云说:“你拜顾老师为师,学好简化太极拳。郑淑云当场向我鞠一躬,称我顾老师。邓颖超说:“我曾扭伤过,请大夫按摩,也练过个月太极拳,是郑淑云教的,过去受过寒,有时发冷颤病。有一次,我正在练拳,一位身材魁梧的军人走上来说:“我是叶剑英,打扰你了,我想请教你一下太极拳。能结识久闻大名的叶帅,是令人高兴的事。有两次他专门找我谈太极拳。他认为太极拳很的医疗体育项目,太极拳的好处是呼吸与动作协调。他练静坐盘坐,精神上虽好,但对增强体质没什么帮助,因此体质仍弱。在北戴河时期,每天清晨,我还教黄树则局长、机关管理局赖局长、吴洁大夫、谭书田等十来人打拳,邓颖超也时常来观看,并关照我纠正郑淑云的姿势。他们常常喜欢问动作的技击作用,我跟他们试了几下攻防方法,出手发劲,他们感到很惊奇,也很高兴。有一次,李志绥大夫对我讲:“江青练拳以后,觉得腰酸,她恐怕练拳有问题,最好能将拳操适应她的体质。我便把运动量放得到、些,针对腰疼,把转腰的动作改成不转腰。这样江青再来练时,我就讲了新的锻炼方法:用移动步子代替转腰,把架子改得小一点,运动量随洲、了。江青不以为然地说:“李大夫误会了,腰痛不是主要的问题,问题是我的腿没有劲,因此练上三、五分钟就累了。我还是要坚持练下去,把杨式太极拳练到第一节就告个段落,等我温习一段时间再请你继续教下去。” 

下午李讷到我住所来,我问:“你的拳是否给主席看过?”李讷说:“我父亲看我练了拳,笑着说:‘你练得很像舞蹈。”’我说:“这是主席对你的鼓励,也是对你的批评,因为你练习得像舞蹈,不像太极拳。” 

829日晚上,
江青设宴请黄树则、吴洁大夫和我,江青说:“这段时间练拳时有几次腰疼,暂时不练太极拳了,希望北京医院对太极拳、按摩做研究。但是我还是要把太极拳练好,段时间再请顾老师来教下去。江青最后说:“这次很对不起顾老师,要是十年前,一定官能做好学生,但心未死,今后一定要练下去。江青得知我回北京后要参加1958年全国武术运动会的裁判工作,就说:“可以早些回去,做准备工作。第二天,我便离开了北戴河。


全国比赛裁判工作结束后,上海武术集训队队员盼望我回去,体委杜前副主任来信中也说,上海要开展武术工作,希望我教完拳后马上回上海。我考虑再三,就向荣高棠提出此事,荣高棠说:“如果定要回去,那就先去贺龙家教拳后再回去吧!” 

 

3#

  楼主| 发表于 2008-1-2 09:28:52 | 只看该作者
在贺龙元帅家里

19589X日到107,我在贺龙家教拳。那时贺龙住在东交民巷个大院里,离国家体委不远。那是个初秋凉爽的晚上,刚走进大门,就有人引进,走进客厅,贺龙和薛明正从楼梯上走下来,贺龙夫妇同我亲切握手,热情招呼我坐下。薛明很文静,身体看来很弱,话语不多。薛明说:“因为长期工作过累,看文件时突然晕倒,躺在床上有三个月,经过针炙、药物治疗,现在能走路了,但仍然感到很虚弱。我当时就决定教她简化太极拳,而不是杨式。 

我一共去贺龙家八次,有七次贺龙都在边上观看练拳,休息时和我促膝谈心,对武术工作问长问短,极为关心。那天,我们边谈边练近二个小时,贺龙始终认真听,仔细看,临走时,他还十分关心我下次来的交通、吃饭问题,提出要用车子接。第二天上午,我在做太极拳动作时,因结合腹式呼吸运动,腹中咕咕作响。待我做完动作,贺龙风趣地说:“练太极拳时腹中能讲话,练气功拳不仅腹中讲话,还要吐气发声。我说陈式太极拳是吐气发声和有发劲动作的。说着,我当场练了半套陈式太极拳。贺龙看后很内行地说这是一种能够打架的拳,是属于气功拳一类。我家祖上几代人都会武术,练的是武当派拳术。武当派是张三丰创造的,一个人对付八,九个人不成问题,连老太婆都欺负不得,可有真本事。我根据自己的考据,:“张三丰是道教领袖,《明史》上没有说他会拳术,到清初才有这说法。贺龙听了,朝我一望,换了话题说:“武术是宝贵的文化遗产,要认真地批判继承下来,要批判江湖上的一套,那是武术的糟粕,技术上的好东西定要继承,不要降低技术水平,要有搏斗的本领。我钦佩贺龙的真知灼见,隆得武术运用在战场上是拼性命的,不是给人看看玩玩的,来不得半点虚假,要讲真功夫。 

有一次,我们坐在客厅的长沙发上,兴致勃勃地交谈着,贺龙说:“我年轻时绦鞘艮猛,后来搞军队工作,受了伤,现在膝关节有病,转动时不稳,腰转不过来,要转身就得蹦起来大翻身。说着,他就从沙发上站起来,摆成高架子骑马势,双足一蹦,做了个原地纵跳的转身动作,由面南变成面北的姿势。贺龙体格魁梧健壮,这一蹦起势猛快,落地沉着有劲,显示出武术老功夫的底子。当他坐下,又说道:“我现在打网球、乒乓球,腰腿有病,不能练拳,只练太极拳的云手一个式子。” 

我曾经向贺龙提到病人练习技击性强、动作和呼吸能结合的杨式太极拳,在上海三十年来的成就,已为群众公认,现在许多医生对患慢性病者劝练太极拳;中国武术技术性强的拳种太多,国家体委武术科要提倡这类武术也伤脑筋。贺龙听了就说:“疗病的套能不能和技击性强的一套统一起来,可以研究。他又接着说:“中国体育史如果没有民族武术贯串起来,一部体育史就干巴巴了。武术上提倡什么,反对什么,旗帜要鲜明。武术要注意武术化,不要化武术,可以参考舞蹈、体操、技巧,使动作优美,但如果把武术化成舞蹈、体操、技巧,就不是武术了,挂羊头卖狗肉是不行的。” 

护士陈菊陪着薛明起练习简化太极拳,删门常常参照简化太极拳的挂图来研究我所教的动作,所以学得很快,练了八次就完毕了。看来陈菊是学过体操或舞蹈的,她的动作协调优美,掌握要领也快。 

国庆过后,107日下午,我最后一次来到贺龙家作客,贺龙和以往一样,聚精会神地观看我们练习。练习完毕,稍事休息,我起身向贺龙夫妇辞行,虽然我再三请他俩留步,他俩仍笑容满面地一直送我到门口,还几次三番地说:“辛苦了,再见庠苦了,再见!” 

我万万没想到,这是我最后见到贺龙慈祥的面容和聆听他亲切的教导。时光过去近30,每当我回忆贺龙对武术工作独到的见解,积极主张推广实用性武术,为国防服务的观点,我就格外缅怀这位两把菜刀闹革命的老英雄。 

4#

  楼主| 发表于 2008-1-2 09:30:41 | 只看该作者
  请江青带话给毛主席
  
  1959年冬末,我因全运会时生病,正患感冒,体力未恢复。1224北京卫生部王春林来电,要我即去广州,江青在那里等我温习太极拳。此时,我正在大抓上海武术工作,公务繁重,我希望通过组织为好。王春林说:早已通知了。” 

  28日,我到了广州。前来接我的小殷告诉我:江青的身体比以前好些,神经系统的病仍是主要的,怕烦,怕声,怕人讲话罗嗦,因此你见面时讲话要轻,要扼要,江青认为你在上海有工作,常请你来不好,这次考虑再三才请你来的。下次去杭州疗养,江青想要你当天来回,我们认为这样你太辛苦,去杭州时还是希望你住一个时期,省力些。” 

  当天下午五点钟,小殷陪我去招待所湖内江青的住所,摆设十分豪华。江青见了表示欢迎,休息一会儿,她先练给我看,动作不稳,恐怕是影响呼吸的原因之一,体力不能耐久也是一个原因,几个姿势她练了九分钟,然后她看我练了十一分钟。江青说我的架子低,动作是圆形、连贯的,她的动作是方的,有停顿处,架子也高,这是功夫上的问题。准备学个月,到第二个十字手,然后自己练一个时期,再请你教完全套。我当时提出她提腿太高,她说:这样我容易完成动作,如果学你缓缓迈步,体力不够,你的练法是功夫拳,是打架的动作。” 

  晚饭时,江青问道:体育宫是市级还是区级?”我回答说:是市体委直属单位,市级的,我专管武术。江青又问:你有几个孩子?”我说:有五男二女,大儿1946年参军,小女也14岁了。江青笑着说:太多了,生活负担太重了,看不出你已有五十多岁了,这是练拳的好处。我说:头发也白了。江青说:我视力不好,现在不能看书报,当面看人连面孔者怀清楚,头发白不白都看不出。我说:这主要是体力关系,健康恢复后,视力会改善的。” 

  第二天下午五点,再去江青处,江青说:第二天练拳以纠正姿势为目的,过二天元旦放假休息一下,从13开始学新的动作。她觉得练拳时,手硬还发抖,不柔软,也不均匀。我领了她练一遍,是九分钟,这时江青说:腿有些痛。我说:看来还是要降低运动量。江青说:不,要按照你的练法。我觉得江青这个人很要强,一方面知道运动量高了,一方面还是要学我的样子练,因此,我在隔天写了一份江青练太极拳的原则,仍然强调轻松舒服,步子不要太大。 

  第三天是下午一点钟开始练的,江青学了新的动作,她看了我写的锻炼原则表示赞同。此时有一人来找江青,对我寒喧说:我是陶铸,久仰你是太极拳专家。我一时不知说什么好,仅说:陶书记过奖了。江青对我笑笑,她一定看出我是不会讲话的人。 

  第四天下午三点钟,小殷安排我同叶大夫见面,叶大夫是四川人,1956年到北京,有一次贺龙在四川视察时,因右臂不能抬起,请叶大夫用针灸治疗见效,薛明有几个月躺在床上不能动,也由叶大夫针灸治疗,陈云也经过他的针灸,这次专程到广州给江青针灸,陈家康大使曾带叶大夫到也门,给国王,王后等人针灸治病,很有疗效,国王原想把叶大夫留下来……。正在谈话时,郑淑云来了。她说邓颖超一直在坚持练拳,身体很好。郑淑云说:江青身体太差,练太极拳是否适当,要考虑。殷曼丽也说江青昨天起情绪很低落,消化功能也不好。我表示这一段时期江青最好不要看书报,寒假这个时期,让李讷也来这里,可能对她的情绪会好些。我同叶大夫交换了意见,希望大家配合起来,综合治疗,叶大夫也欢迎经常合作。当时我是这样想的,对于江青的治疗是出于对毛主席的尊重,我们一定要想办法通过医疗体育来恢复江青的健康。 

  在此时期,我抽空去参观黄花岗烈士公园,并拜访广州市武术协会几位拳师,还拜访了八十四岁的伤科医生,南拳名家林荫堂老师。 

5#

  楼主| 发表于 2008-1-2 09:31:03 | 只看该作者
  1960年春节前夕,广东省委设宴,江青要我和叶大夫,警卫员去参加。江青,邓颖超,以及广东省党政领导都到了,我与叶大夫同桌,由省长陈郁当主人。陶铸敬酒时向我打了招呼,说你的太极拳打得很好,我也想学,只是工作太忙,将来有机会一定请教。
  宴会上,我意外地与广东省委书记雍文涛重逢。抗日战争前,我在上海从事抗日救亡运动时期,与雍文涛,顾准编在一个党小组。二十年未见,今在广州相遇,甚为欢愉,世事沧桑,也令人感慨不已。 

  宴会上,江青邀请我跳舞,我说:年青时跳过舞,现在都忘了。叶大夫也说不会跳舞,我们要去看电影。江青说:那就各便吧!”隔天,护士讲,江青昨天跳舞甚久,不感疲劳,我很高兴她的体质有所增强。 

  记得刚到广州不久,有一次看电影时,我见到邓颖超在同人讲话,我不便问候,可她见到我就主动走上前来招呼说:老师,我一直想找机会请你纠正简化太极拳的动作。后来,由郑淑云领我到湖内另一座洋楼,邓颖超已等候在住处。我首先谈了太极拳的要点,一边讲一边纠正邓颖超的动作,这样练了二次。邓颖超说我练了四个月的太极拳,腿力和腹肌有所增强,手指有时仍有麻木和针刺的感觉。你的知识和学问是渊博的,希望你多总结经验,写成文章,使学习太极拳者得到教益。” 

  1960118,有好几辆轿车驶进内湖别墅,同时空军多人也住进来,我估计是党内要人来广州,晚上内河的探照灯也电亮了,隔天,飞行员韩海兰、赵彬刚等四人晓得我在教江青,来找我练拳,我很乐意教他们,教了陈式的套路,并跟他们试一下推手的方法,使他们坚定学习的信心。他们要研究散打的方法,我用粘随反侧震弹劲的方法,给他们试打,他们很兴奋。认为太极拳散打另有一功,他们学了几天,因为要去汉口,就来辞行说,将来到上海时会找我继续学习打法。 

  邓颖超和江青住在内河,护士小殷,小韩,小顾等都学简化太极拳。小殷学得较用心,她希望我写出江青练拳时应注意事项,我写了六点意见交给小殷,让她在适当的时候转交江青。一次,邓颖超约我去谈话,说我这几天面色好多了,要我讲解简化太极拳的要领,见我不善言语,她亲切地说:喝点茶,吃糖果,慢慢地讲好了。接着起练了简化太极拳,告别时,邓颖超问:老师,这次你又要快回上海了,有什么想法,对我讲好了。我一时语塞,想不出有什么要求提出,就说:我没有什么想法。” 

  1960130日中午12点半,小殷陪我到江青的住处。江青练杨式第二节,我再练一次第二节给她看。江青说:我现在的记忆很差。也不能多练,多练身体要垮掉。当天晚上,江青请我吃晚饭,警卫员李连成、几位护士一同进餐,小殷的未婚夫来探望小殷,也请来吃饭。江青问我什么时候入党,家里情况怎么样,她听后说:解放以前,你的生活也不容易的。现在已练了牛套拳,你出来一个月了,先回去照顾一下工作,待我练熟些,下次再请你来,我可以学会全套了,这次又辛苦你,我考虑常常请你来,很不安,但是今后还得请你来。你有什么意见或想法,尽管对我说。我说:我没有别的想法,我觉得太极拳疗效很好,也有健身技击作用,全国还没有普遍开展,能不能请你向主席讲一下,主席能讲句话,各省市推行太极拳就不一样,太极拳也能更多更好地为人类健康服务。江青高兴地说:老师,你放心,我一定把你的话带给主席。
  
  我在上海的酸甜苦辣
  
  回上海不久,市体委人事室来人通知,柯庆施要我教太极拳,可先住进衡山饭店,去柯家方便些。我说:柯庆施练拳每次时间不会多,约定时间就行了。这样既不影响工作,又不必住饭店。当时我单纯地为节约和照顾体育宫武术班起见,但这想法错了,柯庆施是市委第一书记,公务繁忙,我住近了,可以随叫随到,我考虑不周,因此柯庆施后来没有学拳。

我在上海的酸甜苦辣

回上海不久,市体委人事室来人通知,柯庆施要我教太极拳,可先住进衡山饭店,去柯家方便些。我说:“柯庆施练拳每次时间不会多,约定时间就行了。这样既不影响工作,又不必住饭店。”当时我单纯地为节约和照顾体育宫武术班起见,但这想法错了,柯庆施是市委第一书记,公务繁忙,我住近了,可以随叫随到,我考虑不周,因此柯庆施后来没有学拳。

隔不多久,陈云副总理的秘书和医生到体委点名要我教拳,陈副总理因神经衰弱去杭州疗养,要我随去三个月。我因另有任务,无法前往。

秘书回去汇报后,对我说“陈副总理讲了,顾老师目前不能随去,他派警卫员留在上海学这套路,回去教他,顾老师有空子,再去教他。”

陈云的警卫员张全福到体育宫从我学习杨式,说要学和江青一样的套路。我问明陈副总理仅为神经极度衰弱,不比江青还有腰痛等病,就讲明拳套要为病人服务,各人的体力条件不同,病情不同,除运动量可调整外,个别动作可适应学者情况变动。张全福练过杨式,学起来较快,约半个月后他去杭州教陈副总理。

这次我用呼口令教分解动作,以便她容易记,江青也很满意,江青原先只能练三分钟,现能持续十分钟,虽然有时练后会出虚汗。据护士介绍,江青情绪时好时坏,教时要轻声,最好少讲话,多做示范动作,但江青情绪好的时候多,每次能练上十分钟,她自己也讲,每天还复习一二次,这说明体力确有进步。

有一次,江青说:“顾老师,有人说你练的是南派太极拳,不是正宗的,是这样么?”我联想到李雪峰的话,很不以为然,就解释说:“杨式太极拳现在是以杨澄甫的架势为正宗,凡是把杨澄甫的架式修改走了样就不是正宗,杨澄甫在北方,南方教了近千名学生,哪有南派北派之分?有些人好吹自己是正宗,说别人不是正宗,无非是名利思想作怪!

在单独教护士练拳时,吴旭君谈到江青认为我这次的动作,有颤动处,个别复杂的动作没有了。我说:“江青很聪明细心,能看出问题,我注意就是。”

练了多次,江青总能坚持十分钟,有几次练到一半,有人来讲,毛主席来了,江青就停下来,到另一间去和毛主席讲话了,有一次,护土嘱我勿走动,因毛主席在庭中休息,我遥见毛主席正安详地坐在藤椅上,毛主席进屋后,我们才练拳。那时,毛主席虽来了几次,但都未和我们见面,据于丽姜说,毛主席曾看江青练的太极拳,也对江青说:“你练的象舞蹈,不象太极拳。”

总的来说,这次江青练拳,情绪不高,但她还是把下半套杨式学完了。531日是最后一课,我看了江青练拳,江青也看我练了一遍,江青说“又把你拖了一个月,套路学完了,但不熟练,以后怎样温习,再说吧!”这样就结束了第四次教学任务,黄树则送我和一位医生至车站,挥手告别!

在我多年的业余教学生涯中,值得一提的是教宋庆龄副主席打太极拳给我留下亲切而难忘的回忆。宋副主席是1960年找我习拳的,她当时住在上海淮海西路一座花园住宅里,一见面,宋副主席用流利的上海浦东话同我亲切交谈,她说:“沈钧儒先生教我的健身法叫‘摇橹法’,动作就跟船夫摇橹—样。”跟宋副主席—起学的还有她的秘书隋某,华东医院派去的医生、护士等。教完“简化太极拳”后不久,她要去外地视察,就结束了教学。

自从向江青提出请毛主席对太极拳讲句话不久,在一次偶然的机会里,我听说毛主席在关于卫生工作的一份批示中写道:“凡能做到的,者腰提倡,做体操,打球类,跑跑步,爬山,游水,打太极拳及各种各色的体育运动。”毛主席又在一次大区工作会议上也讲了:“你们年龄都大了,身体也不好,太极拳这项运动对老年人的强身健康有好处,我希望你们回去以后,有机会的话找个老师跟着学习。”

1961年夏季。时值三年自然灾害时期,我因编写“五式太极拳”,写武术文章,教拳,还要开展上海武术工作,公务十分繁重,因营养不良,睡眠不足,人已瘦得脱形。宋季文副市长找我去他办公室,说:“江青来沪疗病,要你去温习太极拳,那边是新建的别墅,你可住在那里,顺便也休养一下。”在西部一座大花园里,市公安局长黄赤波及保卫处长王济普都在,黄赤波说:“江青今天不在,以后再通知。”以后未通知我去。

1962年秋,我寄太极拳书给江青和邓颖超,信中说我仍在总结太极拳锻炼经验,还在提倡推手比赛,希望能形成体育项目,想不到几年来走上武术专家的道路,五十多岁的人了,能为党做好一件工作,于愿已足!

1966年文革初期,我因1961年在体育报上发表一组武术故事《习文备武——谈我国古代文人学土的武术活动》,被当作“借古讽今”的文字,太极拳源流上又犯了为太极拳名家“树碑立传”,宣扬其技术成就等等,被打成“三反分子”。

回想起当年知道毛主席提倡打太极拳,使我备受鼓舞,这段时间,我忙中偷闲,写了不少文章,以极大的热情宣传、推广太极拳,在体育宫,我邀请太极拳各流派的著名拳师开办武术班、太极拳班,以1963年为例,开办32个班,学员人数全年共1180人。不料,在“文革”也成了一项罪行,那时我已调入上海市体育科学研究所工作,科研所某君,投井下石,在一次批斗会上,竟然血口喷人,诬陷我培养几万名武术打手,为蒋介石反攻大陆作复辟准备。我的处境愈来愈糟。

 

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美國中醫專業正名勢在必行

二零一三年三月十七日

1984年,舊金山市舉行美國第一批中醫博士畢業典禮。(陳大仁提供)
【大紀元2013年05月03日訊】古老的中國醫術早在一百多年以前已經隨著華裔勞工來美而帶到美國來,少數老中醫也一直默默地在華人社會中行醫,不過這些中國醫術從未被主流醫學界所重視或接受。七十年代初,首先是針灸術,後來接著是中醫各科陸續在美洲大陸的公開傳播,這個過程實際上只有近四十年的歷史。一九七一年七月,美國知名記者、《紐約時報》華盛頓分社社長羅斯頓先生應中國周恩來總理的邀請到北京參觀訪問,期間因患急性闌尾炎入住北京協和醫院急診手術,並因術後反應接受過針灸治療。羅斯頓用他在北京的親身經歷,對中國針灸術的神奇療效向美國公眾發了一個十分生動而有說服力的報導。可以說,這是現代西方主流傳媒對東方傳統醫學所作的第一次正式的報導。羅斯頓一九七一年七月二十六日在《紐約時報》頭版發表的這篇特別通訊,立即在美國,隨即也在西方世界,掀起了一股強烈的「針炙熱」,古老的中國針灸醫術開始受到美國公眾的熱烈歡迎,許許多多美國病家爭相到中國城那些簡樸的中醫診所來體驗針灸的神奇,它標誌著美國近代中醫歷史的正式開始……

早期中醫在美國面臨的挑戰

但是中醫在美國畢竟是一種外來文化,必然受到西方傳統勢力的抗衡和壓制。事實上當時在加州行醫的一些老中醫不時會受到某些政客、警察,乃至個別西醫的騷擾、威脅、誹謗。一些前輩甚至以「無牌行醫」的罪名被拘押起訴。因為根據加州當時的法律規定﹕只有執照西醫師才能從事針灸操作(用器具穿刺人體),而任何非西醫人士進行針灸均屬違法。為使非西醫的中醫師可以合法進行針灸治療,必需修改法律。因此,中醫事業的開拓者們首先要解決的就是合法行醫的權利問題。

「竹林七賢」發動艱辛的針灸合法化運動

七十年代初,三藩市地區的中醫前輩們為了保障自己的行醫權利,更好服務美國公眾,開始逐步組織起來,發動了艱辛的針灸職業合法化運動。一九七二至一九七三年間,當時比較活躍的幾位中醫師,如卞伯歧醫師、李衛來醫師、李奈祖醫師、李愈之醫師、黃天池醫師、周敏華醫師和余庚南醫師等開始常常聚會,商議發起籌組一個中醫專業團體,進而有組織地推動立法運動。

他們於一九七四年正式成立了「加州中醫藥針灸學會」,這是加州第一個以華裔中醫師為主體的爭取職業合法化的組織。他們通過病家朋友的協助,主動和政界人士接觸,終於成功委託當時的加州參議員馬斯可尼先生和韓裔宋參議員等在參議院提出由中醫界自己參與策劃的針灸立法SB86法案,並於一九七五年取得成功。這七位前輩後來被大家譽為「竹林七賢」,深受同業們敬重。

「針灸職業合法化提案」

馬斯可尼(MOSCONI)參議員的母親患有坐骨神經痛症,被卞伯歧醫師治癒,使這位政治家決心支持中醫立法。他在一九七三年提出了SB2117法案(允許非西醫的針灸師在西醫的診斷和介紹的條件下從事針灸治療工作。)和SB2118法案(規定在加州醫務處中設立一個新的行政機構,稱為「針灸顧問委員會」,專司檢核註冊針灸師的考試和管理。)經過中醫界和針灸病家們的努力遊說,這兩個法案在一九七四年初先後通過參、眾兩院,但是最後被當年的雷根州長予以否決,宣告失敗。

新法案雖然沒有成功,但期間激烈的議會辯論和繁重的政客遊說,使大家認識到組織起來的必要性,許多早期在加州地區行醫的前輩們紛紛加入「加州中醫藥針灸學會」的隊伍,進一步擴大了推動中醫立法運動的聲勢。中醫界人士當時在三藩市著名大律師格羅司門先生、灣區工會領袖莫利思列斯先生和吉姆瓊斯先生、病家海倫美爾女士、沙加緬度著名僑領鄧世發先生等十分知名的社會人士的公開協助下,積極團結病家、聯絡媒體、爭取政要,要求針灸行醫的合法地位。


1980年,布朗州長簽署AB3040法案,執照針灸師開始合法從事傳統中醫師業務。(陳大仁提供)

一九七五年州長布朗先生簽署歷史性法案一九七四年十二月六日,中醫界成功委託馬斯哥尼參議員再次在參議院提出針灸法案。參議員將一九七三年的SB2117和SB2118兩案的內容合併為『針灸職業合法化提案』SB86,規定中醫師在一定條件下合法從事針灸治療。該案在一九七五年一月開始辯論,經過長達近半年時間的曲折歷程,直到六月二十七日才成功地通過了上下議院的全部審議過程,並於六月三十日上午十時送交州長辦公室。七月十二日,當時剛剛上任不久的民主黨藉州長布朗先生終於將這條歷史性法案簽署成為法律,並立即生效,開創了中醫在加州合法行醫的新紀元。


1975年,布朗競選州長獲勝,隨即簽署針灸合法化法案,開創公開傳播中醫新紀元。(陳大仁提供)

針灸能代替中醫嗎?

但是當時有關新立法的所有法律文件一律都用「針灸」(ACUPUNCTURE)一詞來表述中醫,這給今天的專業定位在社會上造成相當大的混淆,也在專業內、外遺留爭議。不過今天我們從歷史的觀點理解,當年這種有意識的「誤導」實際上體現了中醫前輩和立法顧問們的政治智慧。

其實,在草擬新立法文本時,多數業者,特別是卞伯岐、李衛來和周敏華等醫師都曾堅持要用「中醫」一詞立法,並向律師格羅司門先生解釋其深遠影響。不過律師經過慎重考慮,鑒於社會上存在著不同族裔的行醫者,建議用「針灸」一詞替代「中醫」,便於被當時各族醫師們所接受。這是一個很有策略性的決策,它不僅大有助於化解「無牌行醫」的訴訟,也順利消除了不同族裔之間的嚴重分歧,既引導我們打贏了官司,也帶領我們爭取職業立法取得成功。用「針灸」一詞替代「中醫」當時有一個重要的原因,那就是要迴避當時韓國人要稱韓醫,日本人要稱漢醫的嚴重紛爭。針灸一詞不帶種族標籤,各族醫師都可以接受,因而彼此合作,有力地推動當時的針灸合法化運動。

但是正如格羅司門(GROSSMAN)大律師於一九七六年在《少年中國報》上公開發表的歷史性文獻〈中醫師在加州的搏鬥〉一文中指出:「針灸職業合法化提案」「還不是絕對的完美」,在當時的歷史條件下,它僅僅為中醫事業在加州的發展打開了門戶。由於必須接受一些必要的妥協,不合理的限制還有待我們逐步加以克服。經過全體中醫師和各族裔中醫針灸組織數十年的共同努力,今天我們已經完全改變了加州中醫事業的面貌。

從中醫立法的發展歷史可以清楚看到名義上的「針灸師」是如何逐步演變成為事實上的「中醫師」的過程:

一九七九年的AB1391取消針灸師診治病人必需先經西醫,牙醫,足醫或整脊醫師診斷或轉診的規定,使針灸師成為獨立的醫務工作者。

一九八〇年的AB3040將針灸執業範圍擴充至包括電針療法,東方式按摩(推拿)及艾灸療法,並授權針灸師開中藥處方。此提案還將針灸顧問委員會升格為針灸考試委員會。

一九八四年的SB2179 提案規定健保組織(HMO)或自身保險或殘障保險計畫以外的醫療保險計畫,包括非營利醫院等集體性的醫療保險計畫都必需具備供選購的針灸福利。

一九八七年的SB840將針灸師在工傷保險系統中列為醫師(PHYSICIAN),有權診治因工受傷的雇員。

特別是一九九九年的SB466 和 2001年的SB341,明文界定並擴大中醫師可以使用的行醫手段。例如:可以使用營養物品、草藥以及膳飲輔助食品等,特別註明中醫師在臨床治療中可以處方使用各種植物、動物及礦物產品。除了過去已經取得合法地位的電針療法、艾灸療法與拔罐療法,以及使用東方式按摩(推拿)、呼吸技術(氣功)、醫療體育(太極拳等)等各治療手段等項外,再增加一項磁療法。


1997年,舊金山市舉行美國第一批中醫骨傷專科醫師畢業典禮。(陳大仁提供)

 從中醫專業教育課程和執照考試制度的發展歷史也可以清楚看到名義上的「針灸師」 是如何逐步演變成為事實上的「中醫師」的過程:

美國的正規中醫教育開始於七十年代初,基礎比較薄弱。加州的中醫教育一直走在全國的最前列,隨著加州中醫專業地位的不斷提高,(例如:成為完全獨立的專科醫療職業,成為第一線醫務工作者,後來在工傷補償系統中被列為醫師等項進步。)社會對中醫師的學術要求也自然逐步提高,而加州的中醫院校多年來也一直在逐步提高教育程度。教學總學時的要求從七十年代的不足2,000學時,到八十年代的2,348學時,乃至九十年代的3,000學時左右。目前許多院校開始提供博士學位課程 (總學時在4,000學時以上),其質素已經達到國際上中醫專業高等教育的同等水平。

同時,加州針灸局核准的所有中醫院校都被要求必須提供中醫師必須修讀的的全套課程,包括:西醫基礎學科的生物化學、人體解剖學、生理學、病理學等,以及中醫基礎學科的中醫基礎理論課、各家學說、中藥學、方劑藥、針灸學、氣功等。臨床學科則必須有內科、外科、骨傷科、婦產科、兒科、皮膚科、眼科、五官科、針灸、推拿、物理治療、運動鍛鍊等。

加州針灸局主持的針灸執照考試,其內容完全按照傳統中醫師資格的要求,包括:中醫理論、診斷、治療,方藥,以及內、外、婦、兒、骨傷和五官等臨床科目,還包括相當一部分的西方生物醫學,甚至醫學法律、臨床法規、倫理等內容。這就是一個中醫全科考試,實際上和中國大陸的中醫高等教育相當的一種資格。

中醫專業至今仍然無法正名的兩大障礙:

正如我們多年來一再強調﹕美國一直沿用的「針灸師」(ACUPUNCTURIST)這一職業名稱具有相當大的誤導成分,因為它在很大程度上不能正確反映當前中醫師服務的實際業務,因而造成社會,尤其是西方社會的許多混淆。隨著中醫立法逐步完善,專業教育逐步提高的同時,我們在專業正名方面的努力也從未放鬆。

就中醫界內部而言,雖然韓裔和日裔中醫師也都認識到「針灸」一詞在加州有明顯的局限性和誤導性。但是出於他們的民族主義的理念,至今無法接受「中醫」一詞。好在我們的華裔前輩具有寬大的胸懷,並沒有用中國的民族主義來與之對抗。他們用智慧的妥協解決了這個矛盾。大家都同意使用「東方醫學」(ORIENTAL MEDICINE)一詞來表達我們的專業,從而維護了團結,共同推動立法和教育的進步。

八十年代開始的中醫博士學位教育使用的就是DOCTOR OF ORIENTAL MEDICINE或 OMD。雖然ORIENTAL一詞多少隱含有對東方民族的歧見,不過三十多年來各族中醫業者,包括白人業者,對此並未曾提出過非議,這一名稱或頭銜也得到官方或中醫教育系統的接受。多數中醫團體和院校,包括華裔和非華裔的組織或機構,現在都還在延用這個名詞,例如:CAOMA, CSOMA, AAAOM, OCOM, PCOM, ECTOM, NCCAOM, ACAOM, CCAOM等等。目前,在主流媒體、在民間、在中醫院校、特別是在華裔中醫團體的英文文件中一般都直接用CHINESE MEDICINE來代替「東方醫學」,或與東方醫學互換使用。不過在有關中醫針灸的法律文件中正式使用CHINESE MEDICINE 或TCM一詞目前尚無法被其他亞洲族裔所接受。這個問題看來還有待通過世界衛生組織水平的國際協商才有機會最終解決。

近年來隨著中醫藥國際化進程日益加快,中醫藥學正在各國迅速發展,目前已傳播到160多個國家和地區,逐漸形成一支數量可觀、涵蓋多個學科、以中醫醫師為主體的中醫藥專業技術人員隊伍。為適應中醫藥國際化的發展趨勢和要求,世界中醫藥學會聯合會參照世界衛生組織的要求,特別制定了《國際中醫醫師專業技術職稱分級標準》,為中醫正名提供了一個權威性的規範。基於中醫起源於中國的世界共識和中國國際地位的日益提高,隨著全世界業界同仁,尤其是美國華裔中醫師們的不懈推動,中醫正名的目標應該在不久的將來可以得到解決。

其實,中醫正名還有一個更大的關卡,那就是來自西醫公會的阻力,因為他們基本上壟斷了「MEDICINE」一詞,不准其他醫療專業使用。2002年,加州中醫界曾委託趙美心議員提出的AB1943,只不過規定加州官方有關中醫針灸事務的法律文件一律統稱之為「針灸與東方醫學」ACUPUNCTURE AND ORITENTAL MEDICINE,以反映中醫界的實際現狀,卻立即遭到西醫公會的強力反對。此項要求甚至無法通過衛生委員會的初步審議而被刪除。隨後,於2006年中醫界又委託眾議院教育委員會哈福議員提出「成立亞洲醫學局法案」 AB2821,簡單地要求將目前的『針灸局』改稱「亞洲醫學局」BOARD OF ASIAN MEDICINE。然而西醫公會還是堅持不讓中醫界使用「醫學」一詞,提案很快就被封殺。顯然,一個只有碩士水平的專業要爭取「醫學」的名銜,阻力必然是很大的。

中醫正名的工作任重道遠,還要我們繼續團結奮鬥:

經過業界全體同仁近四十年的辛勤耕耘和各族裔中醫針灸組織的共同奮鬥,加州執照針灸師已經升格成為「第一線醫務工作者」(PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL),甚至在工傷系統中正式列為「醫師」(PHYSICIAN),可以獨立診治內、外、婦、兒、骨傷各科病患。毫無疑問,我們已經是事實上的中醫師。今天加州的中醫事業已經建立起一套比較完善和相當嚴謹的規章條例、教育體制和考試制度;還得到其他醫療職業者,如西醫、整脊醫、心理醫師等的初步肯定;也在廣大消費者中培育起一定的專業信譽。加州中醫正在逐步納入主流醫療體系。這個成果來之不易,應當十分珍惜。為了保證加州中醫事業可持續地健康發展,我們認為極有必要堅定地保持尚未正名的「加州針灸局」的高度專業性。

中醫藥在美國是外來文化,這個專業的力量現在還相當弱小。因此,中醫界不容分裂,我們必須團結一致。同時,中醫學是一門完整的浩瀚系 統,中醫學不容分割。中醫業者要納入主流社會,還必須尊重西方文化,效法西方教育體制和醫療體制的傳統:先修取博士學位,再考取行醫 執照,然後進一步提高成為專科證書醫師。中醫界在當前的立法問題上,在各族裔 中醫業者和中醫團體還有很大的意見分歧的情況下,我們認為應該繼續協商和溝通,沒有達成共識之前似乎不宜匆忙地強行立法。中醫入 主流,教育是關鍵。我們的當務之急是趁布朗擔任州長的寶貴時機, 加緊再次策劃一個中醫專業教育法案,修改入門標準,規定所有中醫從業人員必須修取博士學位後方可參加執照考試,實 現中醫教育與美國其他醫療專業的教育體制相匹配。如此方有利於中醫正名的推動,而全體中醫師的基本權益也才能得到較為可靠的保障。

(責任編輯:鄒宸)

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Toy Avenue

Well-respected Chinese herbalist and landowner Toy Wah Hing was born in Sacramento in 1869.(There also are avenues names Wah and Hing.) The family name, however, was Yee. His father was Yee Fung Cheung, a Chinese herbalist who treated Leland Stanford’s wife, Jane, when she was deathly ill. Stanford called him Dr.Hing, and he came to assume that name, said Melvin Hing, a great-grandson of Yee. Toy Wah Hing also too up the name and herbalist trade, but also invested in large tracts of land, including the land from Auburn in Placer County to areas south of the city of Sacramento. His herbal practice sometime ran afoul of authorities  who accused him of possessing morphine, heroin and opium when he was raided in 1920. Nevertheless, his family, including 16 chilren, was the only Chinese family lived in downtown, and he was the first Chinese man in town to own a car. Grandson Melvin Hing remembers going around to collect rents in the 1930s in an “old jalopy”. Toy Wah Hing’s land holdings included an area now know as Woodbine, where in 1915, he plotted out streets named Toy, Wah and Hing. The streets were plotted on a map. They did not appear on the grounds for years. Song, a street named for his wife, was never built. Three other streets were named Yee, Lock and Sam, the herbalist’s  Chinese names…….(until now, only Lock was built, Fan’notes). Toy Wah Hing’s home was at 725 J street.

Carlos Alcala.Sacramento Street Whys: The Whys Guy’s Wise Guide to Sacramento Street names. Big Tomato Press. Sacramento. 2007 page 71-72.

Yee Fung Chung, Sacramento Pioneer.

Yee Fung Chung came to Sacramento during the gold rush. In 1862,Jane Stanford, the wife of Sacramento businessman and California governorLeland Stanford, became sick…..After moving to Virginia City, Noveda, in 1869, he bagan using his second birth name Wah Hing, a name he utilized until returning to Sacramento. The exact date of his return is unknown, but advertisements for his business at 1209 Third Street, under the name of Yee Wah Hing, appeared in 1901, and he opened an office at 725 J street in 1905. His son, Yee Lok Sam, adopted the name T. Wah Hing in about 1897, continueing his father’s business on third street, but he resumed the name Yee Lok Sam in 1910. Yee Lok Sam’s son Henry grew up in the United States and later continued the family tradition of herbal medicine at another office on J street.

William Burg. Sacramento’s K street, where our City was born. The History Press.Charleston.2012.Page 37-38. (03/25/13 searched)

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Dr. Ralph Coan: a hero in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States

Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 11, 2013   Issue 1

http://www.jcimjournal.com/jim/FullText2.aspx?articleID=jintegrmed2013007

1.         Arthur Yin Fan (McLeanCenter for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC. Vienna, VA22182, USA )

2.         Ziyi Fan (McLeanCenter for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC. Vienna, VA22182, USA )

DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013007 Fan AY, Fan Z. Dr. Ralph Coan: a hero in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States. J Integr Med. 2013; 11(1): 39-44. Received July 23, 2012; accepted August 25, 2012. Open-access article copyright ? 2013 Arthur Yin Fan et al. Correspondence: Arthur Yin Fan, PhD, MD, LAc; Tel: +1-703-499-4428; Fax: +1-703-547-8197; E-mail: ArthurFan@ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

Figure 1  A recent photograph of Dr. Ralph Coan This photograph was taken during the interview. He had recently partially recovered from a stroke while also suffering from heart disease.

1 Introduction

Dr. Ralph Coan is not well known to the general public. Originally, we had wanted to interview him as he was the medical director of the first acupuncture center in the United States that opened in the early 1970s[1]. We wanted to know more about that center’s history. Prior to visiting Dr. Coan, we found an article written by Dr. Sherman Cohn that mentioned Dr. Coan. The article noted that Dr. Coan was the founder of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, which is the national association of acupuncturists and Chinese medicine practitioners in the United States[2]. While interviewing Dr. Coan on February 18, 2012, it became apparent that he truly is a leading light in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States.?Dr. Coan is 75 years old and retired several years ago from his busy medical practice in Kensington, Maryland, USA. As he had recently partially recovered from a stroke while also suffering from heart disease, he could not talk much (Figure 1, Dr. Coan was in the interview). To collect further information about him, we also consulted his former colleagues and relatives, and researched articles written about him.

 

2 An acupuncture believer

“I put an advertisement in the Washington Post stating Looking for a Physician Position. To my surprise, I immediately got a call in the same day. He said, ‘Are you interested in working in an acupuncture clinic? If so, please come.’ I was not familiar with acupuncture before this. However, I had to get a job to support my family after I left the United States Army. At that time, most of the medical doctors (MDs) and politicians did not believe in acupuncture; some media treated acupuncture as a ‘quack’ profession. I started the work with great suspicions. It was at the beginning of 1973.” Dr. Coan recalled 40 years later.

Dr. Coan graduated from the Georgetown University School of Medicine in Washington, D.C. in 1963 as an honors student, had a one-year internship in the University of Chicago Hospitals, and completed his residency at WalterReedArmyHospital in Washington, D.C. He joined the United States Special Army and served at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, in the Canal Zone, Panama, at Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado, and Walter Reed in Washington, D.C. In 1972, Dr. Coan left the Army after serving for eight years due to the end of the Vietnam War. He was one of the three earliest staff physicians, with six Chinese medicine doctors or acupuncturists, to work for the Acupuncture Center of Washington, the first legal acupuncture center in the United States[1]. At that time, Western-trained MDs performed the diagnoses and decided which patients needed acupuncture, and the Chinese medicine doctors would perform acupuncture treatment under the MDs’ supervision. The first MD director of the Center was Dr. Arnold Benson, a New York internist and one of the three founders. Dr. Coan became the second MD director a year later, since Dr. Benson was busy and could not work full-time. As the staff director and co-founder, Dr. Yao Wu Lee recalled that Dr. Coan worked part-time initially, then became a full-time doctor, and at last, served as the MD director, while Dr. Chingpang Lee, a Chinese medicine doctor, served as the office manager.

“I was not sure whether acupuncture was safe and effective, so I wanted to do a little research by myself before I finally decided to work there. I collected the contact information of the first 50 contiguous patients and examined them — the Center had an official copy; I collected by myself secretly. Over approximately two months, I called all of those patients. The results were very encouraging: more than 80% of the patients told me that they got better without any obvious adverse effects. I became a believer, so I decided to work full-time there. I stayed in that Center for approximately 10 years.” Dr. Coan said.

At that time, there were very few acupuncture clinics, and patients came from throughout the United States as well as from many other countries. The Center was immensely popular and had to split into two separate clinics: the Acupuncture Center of Washington and the WashingtonAcupunctureCenter. At their peak popularity, both clinics saw about one thousand patients per day. Within one year, there were thirteen acupuncture clinics open in Washington, D.C., leading it to become a capital of acupuncture. The acupuncture business was so successful that buses full of patients came from New York, New Jersey, and other cities daily to visit the Center[1]. Such scenes and the effectiveness of acupuncture amazed many open-minded MDs like Dr. Coan[2]. However, the booming acupuncture business aroused anxiety and unease within conservative Western style medical institutions and drug manufacturers. In 1974, the Washington, D.C. Board of Medicine gave the Center orders to close acupuncture offices six times. To save the acupuncture profession, as well as the Center, the directors decided to respond. From mid-1974 to the early 1975, they were involved in two lawsuits in the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. The court conducted a serious hearing on acupuncture. Judge Fred Ugast listened to the testimonies of the Washington, D.C. Board of Medicine, the Acupuncture Center of Washington and WashingtonAcupunctureCenter, as well as the public for three months. Dr. Coan was one of the key MDs who attended the hearing and played an important role[2,3].

Dr. Coan remembered very clearly, “One day I was in court. I testified that in Washington, D.C. there were no MDs or dentists trained in acupuncture. It is impossible to get rid of acupuncturists in an acupuncture practice, because they are the experts. Then, Judge Fred Ugast let the doctor who was in charge of the Washington, D.C. Medical Board in. The judge asked him, ‘Dr. Robinson, your regulation wants to limit the right to practice acupuncture to licensed physicians and dentists in Washington, D.C. Do you know how many Western-trained doctors in Washington, D.C. were trained in acupuncture? How many patients need acupuncture everyday?’ The doctor replied, ‘I don’t know.’ Then the judge said, ‘Oh, you can go now.’”

“I predicted that we would win the case. At last, the judge announced that the new Washington, D.C. regulation which wanted to limit the right to practice acupuncture to licensed MDs and dentists is unconstitutional. The rights of physicians to choose proper treatment based on his best judgment, acupuncturists to perform acupuncture, and patients to get professional acupuncture services have been protected. So, acupuncturists could continue to perform acupuncture as long as it is under a MD’s supervision.”

Dr. Coan was a diligent doctor and held at least six qualifications in subspecialties of internal medicine, such as endocrinology and infectious diseases, which is many more than what doctors today may have. He worked with those acupuncturists in his office from 1972 until late 1990s. He said, “I am a believer of acupuncture, although I did not insert any acupuncture needles into any patient. When my family members were sick, I always suggested them to use acupuncture first. Acupuncture works!”

3 A pioneer in acupuncture research

There was very little acupuncture research reported in the 1970s and 1980s, Dr. Coan was one of the pioneers in conducting acupuncture clinical trials. When I mentioned his name to Dr. Lixing Lao, a well-known researcher in acupuncture and Chinese herbology, and a Chinese medicine doctor at the Center for Integrative Medicine of the University of Maryland, he gave Dr. Coan very high praise, “Dr. Coan was an important acupuncture researcher with historical status. His two papers in acupuncture clinical trials on neck pain and low-back pain have been cited by many researchers today.”

In mid-September, 1973, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a special workshop for acupuncture scientific study. Dr. Benson and Dr. Coan reported their clinical observation of acupuncture’s effectiveness in 36 cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)[4] which was conducted by Dr. Coan.

The presentation at this NIH meeting showed that during the first six weeks after the center was established in December 1972, there were 64 patients with RA who were treated with acupuncture. The first follow-up was conducted three months later. They were able to contact 55 patients, of whom 36 had been given 5 to 24 acupuncture treatments (average 6.6). Of the 36, 25 patients (69%) reported improvement, including less need for pain medications and in some cases, reduction of the nodules which occur on arthritis sufferer’s joints. Of 19 patients who had fewer than 5 treatments, only 5 cases (16%) reported improvement. The second follow-up was conducted six months later, which showed continued improvement by 16 of 27 patients (59%) from the original group. The average age of patients in this study was 55 years, and they had been suffering from RA for an average of 11.5 years.

Many newspapers in the United States reported this news, which encouraged more patients to try acupuncture.

An article entitled The acupuncture treatment of low back pain, a randomized controlled study[5] was reported by Dr. Coan and his colleagues in 1980. The study was conducted within the Acupuncture Center of Washington and Acupuncture Center of Maryland.

Acupuncture treatment was effective for the majority of patients with lower back pain, which was shown by the use of short-term controls and long-term controls, although the latter were not intended in the study design. After acupuncture, there was a 51% pain reduction in the average pain score in the immediate treatment group. The short-term controls and the delayed treatment group showed no reduction in their pain scores at the comparable follow-up period. Later, the patients in the delayed treatment group were also treated by acupuncturists, and 62% of patients reported less pain. When these two treatment groups were compared at 40 weeks with long-term controls (inadequate treatment group), the inadequate treatment group still had the same pain scores, on the average, as when they enrolled in the study. Both treatment groups, on average, had 30% lower pain scores. Furthermore, 58% of patients in the treatment groups felt that they had definitely improved at 40 weeks, while only 11% of the inadequate treatment group felt definite improvement at 40 weeks. There was a significant difference between the groups.

Another article entitled The acupuncture treatment of neck pain, a randomized controlled trial[6] was reported in 1981 by Dr. Coan and his colleagues.

Thirty patients with cervical spine pain syndromes, course of disease 8 years on average, were assigned randomly equally into treatment and control groups. After 12 weeks, 12 of 15 (80%) of the treatment group felt improvement, some dramatically, with a mean 40% reduction of pain score, 54% reduction of pain pills, 68% reduction of pain hours per day and 32% less limitation of activity. Two of 15 (13%) of the control group reported a slight improvement after 12.8 weeks. The control group had a mean 2% worsening of the pain score, 10% reduction in pain pills, no lessening of pain hours and 12% less limitation of activity.

Such study design may be seen as flawed if judged by today’s criteria. However, they were considered impressive by the researchers at that time, especially the studies were the first time in history endorsed by NIH, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the American Medical Association (AMA), whichis the main stream medical society. The reports had been documented in the United States Congress in 1979 and was one of key documents used for FDA relabeling acupuncture needle as a medical device from an investigational device in 1994. The later two studies were conducted by local acupuncturists and MDs using their own money, time and labor, with great difficulty, and totally followed the restrict NIH clinical trial rule (control, and random) at that time, which might be the only case in the United States medical research history. Dr. Coan was invited to give lectures throughout the United States. Such studies do therefore have some value. Dr. Coan said, “Acupuncture is a process of a needle piercing the body, to some extent, it is similar to a small operation. As a clinical doctor, I strongly believe it cannot be compared with so-called ‘sham’ acupuncture (which is used as a placebo, mimicking that in medication’s clinical trials; however, it is a real piercing or similar to that). We used the methods of comparing the effectiveness and adverse effects before and after acupuncture in the same patient group, or between the treatment group and waiting-list group. Like an operation, how can we compare the cut of a scalpel with the ‘sham scalpel cut’?”

I agree with him. Indeed, acupuncture is very different from medication; the design of the study should not be the same as the drug model, the so-called “golden criteria”.

4 A key person in establishing acupuncture as a profession in Maryland

“I was an MD who had witnessed so many patients getting better after acupuncture treatment and became an acupuncture believer. In the 1970s, I had strong motivation — I felt that I should do something to push the acupuncture profession forward in the United States. I decided to change something at the local level first. I convinced ten more local acupuncturists, and established a professional organization Acupuncture Association of Washington Metropolitan (AAWM). I was its president for more than 10 years. We met every Saturday morning to share news with each other and discuss the role of the acupuncturists. One day, we met in SuburbanHospital (which was the affiliated hospital of NIH). We were aware that the first quarter of each year is the legislation season in every state, so we decided to remove the obstacle in law for acupuncture in Maryland.” Dr. Coan recalled.

The members of AAWM included local acupuncturists mainly from Hong Kong and Taiwan of China and Korea, such as Grace Wong, In-Su Kim, Hansheng Gu (Hanson Koo) and Sumei Zhang. They met once a month in China Garden Restaurant on Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland. The basic procedure was: ate lunch together (about half hour), and then discussed something new and what needed to be done — like most societies today but we met more often and sometimes held seminars. Maryland was one of the earliest states that allowed acupuncturists to practice acupuncture (Fan notes: similar to the nurses working under the supervision of MD, without license) in the United States in 1973. However, in the early 1980s the Board of Medicine with the conservative Western-trained doctors did not want acupuncturists to have a license and wanted to deprive the acupuncturists’ rights. During 1981 to 1982, Dr. Coan and his colleagues were involved in acupuncture licensing legislation in Maryland.

“At that time, there was a five-person committee representing the Governor and State of Maryland in the hearing. The MD’s representative who attended that hearing was a very, very famous neurosurgeon from JohnHopkinsHospital, a ‘top guy’ in the Western medical field, who did not like acupuncture and tried to block the acupuncture licensing legislation.” Dr. Coan reminisced about the great achievement, “I am a nasty person. I knew him well and I knew he would oppose acupuncture. So I brought three local patients who had surgery from him, which is a secret weapon I used later all the time.” The neurosurgeon told the committee: “acupuncture is just a no-use therapy, especially for neurological issues, such as spinal disc problems that cause back pain and sciatica; only surgery could cure such disorders.” Then it was Dr. Coan’s turn. Dr. Coan brought out patients and asked them, “Do you know that doctor (the neurosurgeon)?” The patients replied, “We were patients of his and had operations from him.” “Did the operations help?” Dr. Coan asked. “No, after the operation, the pain got worse. However, acupuncture stopped the pain.” one of patients replied. The surgeon felt embarrassed and left the hearing immediately. And then Dr. Grace Wong, Dr. Coan’s partner and a well-known acupuncturist, made testimonies for acupuncture. So, acupuncture licensing legislation was passed very smoothly and successfully in Maryland in 1982 [Fan notes: due to the special political environment in Maryland, the Acupuncturist Licensing Act was changed to Acupuncturist Registering Act in 1982. So, the legislation passed in that year was the Acupuncturist Registering Act. The Acupuncturist Licencing Legislation was passed at last in 1994, 12 years later].

“You should understand it is so important to bring patients with you when you try to make testimonies in court and convince people about acupuncture. The patients will give you great support,” Dr. Coan said.

Dr. Lixing Lao once was Dr. Coan’s colleague. He recalled, “I participated in the events of AAWM, because I taught a point-locating class for National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) acupuncture examination preparation for the Tai Sophia Institute in 1986 as a part-time job, while I was a PhD candidate of physiology in the University of Maryland. Tai’s teaching, focusing on five-element acupuncture from England, is very different in content from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the main stream of current Chinese medicine. Dr. Yin-sue Kim attended that class and invited me to participate in Dr. Coan’s monthly events. I actually joined them in 1987. One day, we got interest to start an acupuncture school with focus on TCM in Maryland. So, several people became involved in this topic. After the normal meeting completed and other acupuncturists left, we discussed the school issue. The school was started in late 1991, and the first class was in 1992.”

The school was called the Acupuncture School of Maryland, and later, Maryland Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine (MITCM). After eight years of preparation, the school was initially started in a Catholic elementary school where it held lectures in the evening. After several years, it moved into a professional building in Bethesda, Maryland, which was very close to a metro station, and had all lectures during normal hours. “I was the founder and the first president of the school, and ran the school by myself for two years. My daughter worked there as a secretary.” Dr. Coan said. According to Dr. Lao, Dr. Coan spent a lot of energy, time, and even his own money for the school. Before the school could become financially independent, Dr. Coan lent his money to the school for support. The teachers at the school, mostly from mainland China and well-trained in TCM, included Drs. Lixing Lao, Jingyuan Gao, Eugene Zhang, and more. “Dr. Lao and Dr. Gao were fantastic teachers and scholars, when I was the president there, I attended their lectures for two years. I should give them my heartfelt praise,” Dr. Coan said. The first graduates were twelve students in December 17, 1994. MITCM was very sound in its academic and financial condition. It was a prestigious TCM school on the east coast. However, it closed at the end of 2002.

During the 1980s to 1990s, Drs. Coan, Wong, Lao and Bob Duggan (the founder of Tai Sophia Institute) worked as the main board members in the Acupuncture Board of Maryland for many years. The Board is a state government agency that is in charge of acupuncture licensing and administrates acupuncturists’ practice.

5 The founder of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine

Almost ten years passed from the opening of the first acupuncture center of the United States in 1972. In more and more states, such as Nevada, Maryland and Massachusetts, acupuncture legislation got passed. More and more patients considered acupuncture as an option, and more and more students studied acupuncture and Oriental medicine in the United States and became acupuncturists. These led to the birth of a national organization for the acupuncture profession[2].

Dr. Coan and Louis Gasper, PhD, were co-founders of the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM). Dr. Gasper, who died in 2004, was a professor at Los AngelesInternationalUniversity. They sent letters nationally to invite people to attend the first AAAOM meeting at the Los AngelesInternationalUniversity on June 27, 1981. Neither Dr. Coan nor Dr. Gasper practiced acupuncture; however, they are acupuncture believers. The 75 attendees included MDs and dentists who used acupuncture, acupuncturists (non-MDs), and MDs who did not use acupuncture themselves but supervised acupuncturists, like Dr. Coan, as well as friends of acupuncture or those with interest in acupuncture, like Dr. Gasper. The first board was elected at that meeting, and consisted of seven members: two MDs, four acupuncturists, and another doctor without indicating designation. Dr. Coan served as the treasurer. At that time, MDs were the largest groups represented at that meeting. The second AAAOM meeting, held at the Del Coronado Hotel in San Diego in March, 1982, had a much higher attendance than the first. Most of attendees were acupuncture and Oriental medicine (AOM) practitioners. In the third AAAOM meeting, held at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. in May, 1983, non-MD AOM practitioners strongly protested MD members’ intentional delay of AOM development, tension between the MD acupuncturists or supervisors, and the non-MD practitioners surfaced without resolution, resulting in all of the MD members walking out of AAAOM except for Dr. Coan. In that difficult time, Dr. Coan was elected as the new president of the AAAOM, which just became AOM practitioners’ own organization. “I was president of the second board and then vice-president of AAAOM for over ten years. During those years, I helped thirteen states finalize acupuncture legislations,” Dr. Coan said.

“I gave testimonies in person in twelve states’ hearings for acupuncture legislation, gave testimony over the phone for Alaska (I did not go there, it is too far),” Dr. Coan said. He wrote the name of thirteen states for us on a paper with his hand, slight-shaking due to the stroke: Alaska, Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.

“In Utah, there were twelve MDs who were strongly against acupuncture that attended the acupuncture legislation hearing. A representative of the AMA came too. The side that is in favor of acupuncture had only two people in attendance: one acupuncturist and me. The MDs tried to make the law to block all non-MD acupuncturists to perform acupuncture. The reason is that such non-MD acupuncturists had not had the appropriate medical education as MDs. I asked, ‘In your MDs’ clinics, there are nurses who use needles. How many years were these nurses required to study in Nurse Schools?’ They replied, ‘Three years.’ ‘Acupuncturists have education and training for four to six years, longer than the nurses. If the nurses have right to use needles, acupuncturists should be overqualified to use the needles under the supervision of a MD.’ I protested. And then, a MD stood up and said, ‘acupuncture is not useful to treat carcinoma. Acupuncture will cause carcinoma patients delay in getting the right treatments. So, acupuncture will harm patients.’ I stood behind the sponsor who wanted to introduce the acupuncture legislation and gave him the reply of our side. He responded according to my words, ‘Okay, you said acupuncture harms patients. Could you call your clinic and let your secretary use expedited mail to mail me a real medical record which indicates that acupuncture harmed your patients by tomorrow? I will pay the shipping fee.’ The doctor could say nothing. So we won the hearing, and acupuncture legislation passed.” Dr. Coan smiled, “Acupuncturists should remember, never say you could treat cancer (by acupuncture only, although you may help such patients to some extent). In the hearings, the MDs always used this as an example to block acupuncture legislations.”?Regarding Vermont, Dr. Coan said, “During the hearing there were also only two people in favor of acupuncture: a local acupuncturist and me. We won. The weather there that year was extremely cold, and this lady (the acupuncturist) had no money to pay for a hotel for me. So, I stayed in her house, without any heating, for one night. I used ten cotton blankets. That is an unforgettable experience.”

“In 1988 in Virginia, there were five surgeons in attendance who tried to block legislation which allows acupuncturists to practice acupuncture; I went there with In-Su Kim, a Korean acupuncturist, to fight with them,” Dr. Coan recalled. According to a report from a newspaper[7], at that time in VirginiaState, the law made by MDs only allowed licensed MDs to practice acupuncture. Such MDs only had 100 hours of study and 100 hours of practice in acupuncture training. The acupuncturists, mostly with 4 to 6 years extensive training, could not practice acupuncture. Dr. Coan protested in the statehouse, “This law is unjust, unfair, and immoral.”

Per the arrangement of Dr. Coan, on June 22, 1979, George Brown, Jr., an acupuncture skeptic, had acupuncture during a hearing in Congress of the United States. Dr. Grace Wong, Dr. Coan’s partner, did acupuncture on him for smoking cessation; it was very successful. At that time, Brown was the Chairman of the House Science, Research, and Technology subcommittee. It was a breaking news, reported in many newspapers[8].

As another pioneer in the acupuncture profession, Dr. Finando, commented on Dr. Coan[9], “He campaigned and lobbied anywhere and everywhere to lobby for acupuncture.” Not only did he campaign and lobby for acupuncture anywhere and everywhere, his mother influenced by him, also became a volunteer lobbyist for acupuncture.

It is true that Dr. Coan is a great hero of the acupuncture profession, even though he did not insert an acupuncture needle in any patient. He is an MD, but he has contributed his dedication and whole life to support and promotion of acupuncture; all of this as a volunteer.

6 Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Lixing Lao, Dr. Yick-chong Chan, Dr. Sherman Cohn, Ms. Judy Coan-Stevens and Mr. John Coan who provided some detail information about Dr. Ralph Coan, and Ms. April Enriquez for English editing. The interviewer was Dr. Arthur Yin Fan.

7 Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

1.         Fan AY. The first acupuncture center in the United States: an interview with Dr. Yao Wu Lee, WashingtonAcupunctureCenter[J] J Chin Integr Med, 2012, 10(5) : 481-492.

2.         Cohn S. Acupuncture, 1965-85: birth of a new organized profession in the United States (pt. 2). Am Acupuncturist. 2011; Spring: 22-25, 29.

3.         Superior Court of the District of Columbia Civil Division. Civil action No. 11005-74. Urie, Coan v. Washington. cited by the records: Lewis v. District of Colombia Court of Appeals (1978). [2012-06-26]. http://www.tx.findacase.com/research/wfrmDocViewer.aspx/xq/fal.19780427-0003.dc.htm/qx.

4.         Sawislak AB (UPI). Two-third of 36 patients treated with acupuncture had pain relief. Williamson Daily News, 1973-09-20 (15).

5.         Coan RM, Wong G, Ku SL, Chan YC, Wang L, Ozer FT, Coan PL. The acupuncture treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled study[J]. Am J Chin Med, 1980, 8(1-2) : 181-189.

6.         Coan RM, Wong G, Coan PL. The acupuncture treatment of neck pain: a randomized controlled study[J]. Am J Chin Med, 1981, 9(4) : 326-332.

7.         Criticism of acupuncture laws called racist by Asian groups. Afro-American. 1988-08-16(3C). [2012-06-26]. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=LEpAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WvUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2980,674502&dq=ralph+coan+in+su+kim&hl=en.

8.         How to prevent mildew. The Spokesman Review. 1979-06-23(10). [2012-06-26]. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=yeURAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ie4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=5438,3626027&dq=wong+grace+acupuncture&hl=en.

9.         Finando S. AOM pioneers and leaders 1982-2007, a commemorative book of challenge and courage. Vol. 1. AAAOM, NCCAOM, CCAOM & ACAOM. 2007: 29-32. [2012-06-26]. http://www.aaaomonline.info/docs/pioneers_and_leaders_vol1.pdf.

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只能称针灸师 美国加州业者推立法为中医师正名

2012年09月10日 10:48 来源:中国新闻网  http://www.chinanews.com/hr/2012/09-10/4171203.shtml

  中新网9月10日电 据美国《世界日报》报道,美国加州中医界将州参、众议会通过的SB628法案视为一大胜利,在该法案下,拥有博士(Dr.)学位的合格针灸师可改称为针灸医师。中医界表示,他们下一步是推动“中医师”头衔,中医师在美国一直以针灸师名义行医。

 

在SB628法案下,凡取得针灸师执业资格前,已获得博士学位者,其正式职衔可改为“针灸医师”。无博士学位者则续称为“针灸师”,在回学校进修取得博士学位后,职衔可改为“针灸医师”。

事实上,从针灸师升格为针灸医师的背后是中医界十几年的努力。中医政治联盟主席刘美嫦表示,过去西医批评中医教育水平不够,所以中医界逐步推动硕士和博士学位,并且同时从立法角度为医师正名。她说,根据目前加州针灸管理局的规定,针灸师完成硕士学位即可获发针灸师执照,要提高为医师就得通过更高的学位考试。

全美有3万合格针灸师,一半在加州。

针灸与东方医学学院院长巫文硕说,据他了解,美国之所以用针灸师而非中医师的头衔,是因为在尼克松访问中国前一年,一名纽约时报记者到中国采访时,染上肠胃炎开刀,当地医师以针灸为他麻醉,他回到美国后大篇幅报导针灸,所以美国人对中医的概念就是针灸。

巫文硕指出,美国针灸师的行医范围包括中药、推拿、太极、气功,这都是法律允许的,实质上等同于中医师。他认为,名正言顺固然重要,但提升中医的内涵更重要,与其争取正名,还不如努力将学生水平提高。(赖至巧)

 

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美国针灸大事年表

[日期:2012-06-20] 来源:  作者: http://book.th55.cn/a/201206/8138.html ]

    图书馆目录中的针灸记载

美国l802~1871年的医学杂志目录中曾经列出过针灸[213]

早期针灸临床试验记载

1825年在宾夕法尼亚州的监狱里,针灸曾经作为实验治疗方法,用于治疗犯人患者的各种疼痛病症,取壬导较好的疗效。当时监狱的犯人还经常接受药物实验疗效,此类临床试验后来被抨击为违反人权的典型事件,受到广泛的批评[214]。1826年出版的《费城医学和物理科学》杂志曾经发表过针灸治愈风湿性心脏病的病例报道[215]

早期使用针灸著名案例

哈维.库兴(Harvey Cushin9,1869~1939年)在《奥斯勒传》中提到,美国现代医学教育之父奥斯勒医生曾尝试用针灸为一位加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)的董事治疗腰痛,结果失败,没能争取到这位蒙特利尔富有的糖业加工大亨为学校的捐款[216]

早期美国医学教科针灸书记载

1876年,詹姆斯.哈亲森在费城出版的名为《医学理论和实践》的教科书中提到针灸疗法[217]

1892年,奥斯勒医生曾经在他编著的《内科教科书》中建议用针灸治疗坐骨神经痛和腰痛[218]

最早报道中国针灸的美国记者

《观察》画报于1957年10月1日发表了摄影记者菲利浦·哈瑞顿 (Phillip Harrington)的配图文章,题目为“红色中国墨守古老医学”,其中提到作者在访问北京儿童医院时,看到中国医生使用针灸治疗疾病,文中还刊出针灸照片[88]

第一位赴新中国采访的美国电视记者罗伯特·科恩(Robert Carl Cohen)于1958年拍摄了一部题为“红色中国的内幕”纪录片,在介绍中国医疗状况时,其中有现代医院和传统针灸的内容[219]

真正第一篇实地报道中国广泛使用针灸治疗各种疾病的,是美国记者杜尔丁,他在采访美国乒乓球队访华的同时,于l971年4月24日在《纽约时报》发表了“天津医生说他用针灸治好了很多病”一文[220]

  第一个美国记者发自新中国的针刺麻醉报道

托平于1971年5月24日在《纽约时报》发表了“中国人使用针刺麻醉进行心脏手术”的报道[221]

第一个美国科学家代表团访问新中国并参观针灸

1971年5月,耶鲁大学的高尔斯顿(Arthur Galston)教授和麻省理工学院的西格纳(Ethan Signer)教授在访问越南时,获得访问中国的邀请,成为新中国第一批应邀访华的美国科学家,2人在访华期间参观了针刺麻醉手术[21]

第一个美国杂志报道针刺麻醉

1971年6月7日,美国《新闻周刊》报道了耶鲁大学的高尔斯顿教授和麻省理工学院的西格纳教授访问中国,参观了针刺麻醉手术。文章刊登了经络穴位图,解释为“神经中心图” [21]

第一个美国记者在新中国接受针灸治疗

1971年7月17 日,《纽约时报》记者赖斯顿于北京“反帝医院”(协和医院)因阑尾炎住院并接受常规阑尾切除手术,第二天(18日),赖斯顿因术后腹胀腹痛接受了李占元医生的针刺和艾灸治疗。赖斯顿住院期间,将自己的治疗经历写成“现在让我告诉你们我在北京的阑尾切除手术”一文,发表在1971年7月26日的《纽约时报》上,此文被公认为美国针灸热的导火索[9]

第一个美国医生代表团访问新中国并参观针刺麻醉

1971年9月,应中国中华医学会邀请,由4位知名美国医生及他们的夫人组成的美国医学代表团首次访问新中国,受到中国医学界的高规格接待。4人是美国前总统艾森豪威尔的私人医生,世界著名的心脏病专家,麻省总医院和哈佛大学的教授怀特(Paul Dudley White)医学博士;密苏里大学健康科学院院长达蒙德(Grey Dimond)医学博士;纽约爱因斯坦医学院社区健康教授赛尔德(Vietor Sidel)医学博士;纽约西奈山医学院耳鼻喉科退休名誉教授罗森(Samuel Rosen)医学博士。代表团在中国多家医院参观了针刺麻醉手术[29]

《美国医学会会刊》第一次报道针刺麻醉

1971年12月,达蒙德医生在《美国医学会会刊》(JAMA)发表了“针刺麻醉”一文,美国正统医学杂志首次报道中国针刺麻醉[26]

《科学》杂志第一次报道针刺麻醉

美国科学界的顶级学术杂志《科学》于1972年1月发表关于中国针灸和针刺麻醉的报道[54]。《科学》杂志在1972~1975年间至少发表过9篇关 于针灸的报告和评论文章。

 美国第一家针灸中心

由纽约执照西医师本森(Benson)医生于1972年夏在纽约曼哈顿开设名为“曼哈顿针灸中心”。中心雇用了数位亚裔针灸师,当时需求针灸的患者众多,来自美国及世界各地的患者预约排到一年之后。但因为当时针灸师在纽约州尚未取得合法地位,政府管理部门以“非法行医”下令取缔,“曼哈顿针灸中心”于当年ll月关闭[69]

 美国第一次针刺麻醉手术

美国第一次针刺麻醉试验手术于l972年4月由专业麻醉医师刘医生(wei Chi Liu)在芝加哥威斯医院(Weiss Memorial Hospital)完成。患者是一位31岁的麻醉护士,他自愿请医生采用针刺代替常规药物麻醉切除自己的扁桃体,手术十分成功。手术病例报道发表于l972年《美国医学会会刊》[222]

第一本针灸杂志

《美国针灸》杂志(American Journal ofAcupuncture)于1973年创刊。

第一本中医杂志

《美洲中医》杂志(American Journal of Chnese Medicine)于1973年创刊。

第一个中医针灸立法

1973年4月内华达州通过了美国第一个法案承认中国医学为“专业职业”,州立法委员会几乎全票通过将针灸、中草药及其他中医疗法合法化。此法案出自州参议院448号提案,经由参众两院通过,州长签字生效。法案要求成立独立的州中医管理委员会,允许没有医生执照的专业人士申请针灸、中草药和中医执照,合法行医[115,116]

第一个官方机构承认针灸为医学治疗方法

在美国各官方机构中,国家税务局(IRS)最先于1973年承认针灸治疗为医学治疗方法,规定纳税人用于针灸治疗的费用可以作为医疗花费报税。

 美国针灸热的最高潮

美国大众画报《人物》周刊于1974年4月15日图文并茂刊登了一组包括电影明星、节目主持人和大牌运动员在内的多位美国家喻户晓的名人照,文章的题目为:“名人和平民都得到了针灸的帮助”,《人物》荟萃名人针灸故事的报道被认为是美国针灸热历史最高潮的标志[118,119]

 美国第一个针刺麻醉评估报告

“美国针刺麻醉研究组”于l974年5月1日赴中国参观考察3周,访问了北京、上海、广州等城市,参观了l6家中国医院,考察观摩了48台针刺麻醉外科手术。1976年,美国科学院正式出版了题为《针刺麻醉在中华人民共和国》的评估报告[124]

第一个针灸戒毒中心

1972年香港医生温祥来(Hsian9—Lai wen)等首先发明耳针戒毒疗法,其研究论文于l973年发表于《亚洲医学》杂志。1974年纽约林肯医院史密斯(Michael 0.Smith)医学博士建立了第一个设立在美国医院的耳针戒毒中心。

第一个美国针灸学校

美国第一个针灸学校“新英格兰针灸学校”(New England School of Acupuncture)于1975年创办。

第一个全美针灸资格考试

美国第一个被广泛接受的全国统一针灸资格考试由非盈利机构“全国针灸资格考试委员会”(NCCA)举办,该机构创办于1982年,后更名为“全国针灸及东方医学资格考试委员会”(NCCAOM)。

 第一次官方承认针灸针为医疗器具

美国国家食品药品管理局(FDA)于1996年正式将针灸针列为医疗器具,在此之前,针灸针被归为医疗实验用器具。

第一个国家补充替代医学机构

按照美国国会的要求,美国国家健康研究院于l991年成立替代补充医学办公室(OCAM),是美国建国以来第一个官方补充替代医学机构。该机构于l991年升级为补充替代医学中心(NCCAM),在中心资助和研究的项目中,中医针灸和中药一直占有很大比例。

第一次国家科学评估——健康研究院针灸听证会

美国国家健康研究院于l997首次召开“针灸听证会”(Concensus conference,即“共识讨论会”),对针灸疗法作出了科学评估。专家评审委员会最后得出结论:针灸治疗一些病症确实有效[165]

 

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【大纪元2012年08月31日讯】(大纪元记者盛元洛杉矶报导)40年前,《纽约时报》名记者詹姆斯访华,期间因阑尾炎手术后腹部胀痛而接受了中医的针灸和艾灸治疗。奇特的治疗效果使他对中医产生了兴趣,回国后他将自己在华接受中医药治疗的经历写成报导发表在《纽约时报》头版上,从此,美国大众知道了在西医之外还有这样一种古老而神奇的疗病方法。中药和针灸也开始在美国传播并热俏起 来。近日,著名中医药专家、加州中医工会创会会长陈炯明先生接受本报记者采访,介绍了中医药发展的相关情况和他的见解。

加州州长为中医药在美发展见证人

《纽约时报》记者詹姆斯关于中医药介绍的报导发表后,中药针灸开始在美国成为一种风行治疗方法,但那时没有立法,中医师还不能合法行医。使用 一根小小的银针和一把草药能治病,在许多洋人看来多少还有点天方夜谭。但许多痛症吃止痛药不起作用的却通过针灸治好,这使喜欢实证的美国人渐渐喜欢和接受了中医。

1975年,新任的年轻加州州长杰瑞‧布朗 (Jerry Brown)签署了中医合法化的第一个法案。当时,加州和内 华达州是美国最早为中医立法的两个州。之后美国各州陆续立法承认中医针灸合法化,目前已超过45个州立法承认中医。时光流转37年,杰瑞‧布朗 又再次当选为加州州长,成为中医药在美国发展的见证人。为此他也被业界称为“美国加州针灸之父”。

疑难病及痛症 中医针灸靠疗效说话

洛杉矶儿童医院是全美乃至世界的儿童顶级医院,每年都有许多外地患者从世界各地乘飞机前来就诊。然而两年多前,有一例疑难病症被儿童医院宣布救治无望的情况下,靠中医救活生命。那是一位两岁多的患儿,因先天性血管瘤破裂在幼儿园突然昏迷被送儿童医院急救。

经过9天的抢救,第三脑室仍然充满积水。存活的希望仅 剩3%。在各种抢救方法都用尽的情况下,医院准备拔管放弃救治。那时孩子已经满脸发黑,眼白上翻。孩子的父亲提出能否请中医师再试一下,经医院同意找到了陈炯明医师。陈医师为孩子调好中药从胃管里灌进去,同时为其针灸。6小时后孩子排出了一堆又臭又黑的大便,情况开始好转。一个月后孩子醒过来脱离了危险,继续用中医针灸治疗一个月后做CT检查,脑淤血化掉90%。儿童医院的专家也对中医的神奇疗效感到不可思议和惊奇。这名女孩住院花掉了近50万美金的西医治疗费,而陈炯明为其治疗24次,仅收4500美元的费用。

中医药在美发展有瓶颈

中医针灸在美国受欢迎是因为其独特的疗效和低廉的收费。然而,由于目前美国医疗体制的限制使中医药在走俏发展中遇到瓶颈。在美国,看病都要通过保险公司。而保险有PPO和HMO两种。PPO病人可根据自己的喜欢选择医生,但这种病人的保 险公司80%不包含中医针灸,只有不超过20%的公司可报销中医针灸费。像以上列举的小女孩, 虽然在医院花掉近50万美金,但保险公司可予以报销,而中医虽然只花4500美元治好了病,却不能报销。

HMO是通过管理公司来管理病人和医生,病人看病要通 过家庭医生介绍。一方面有的家庭医生习惯于介绍西医,另一方面即使介绍中医,收费也要通过中介管理公司来管理和分配,中介管理公司通常给中医师的费用尽量少,这样使中医的生存空间变得局限和窄小。

中医药愈显优势

据陈医师介绍,中华传统医药分为中药和针灸两部分,针灸治疗是由外到内,而中药治疗是由内到外,两者结合收到的疗效甚好。而西医作为实证科学,很难理解源于中华传统文化、有着深厚哲学思想内涵的中医。陈医师认为,中医和西医是两个不同的理论体系,站在西医的角度去研究理解不 了。国外曾有学者想通过科学的实验来检测中医却根本检测不了。中国大陆花费天文数字的钱去研究中西医结合,耗时几十年,结果是牛头不对马嘴,耗财耗力无进展。而根植于中华大地的传统中医却以其自身的实力传遍全球。

加州是美国拥有中医诊所最多的地方,被称为针灸重镇。目前南加州约有2800个持证中医诊所。约占全美中医诊所的40%。这些诊所为无数的病人治好了顽症,解除了痛苦。随着西药毒副作用的显露和医药费用的昂贵,中医愈加显出优势。但目前在美中医师还远远少于西医。

南加州约有10万名执照西医师,中医师仅有1万3千名。好在加州拥有16所中医针灸大学,可源源不断为中医输送人才。在这些大学完成3200学时课程并获得学士学位后,就有资格参加州政府 的执照考试,获得执照后就可加入到美国中医队伍,成为用中华传统医学救人的白衣天使。

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时代杂志1973年关于内华达州通过中医及针灸合法化的报道

已有 1089 次阅读 2009-9-28 10:50 |个人分类:生也有涯|系统分类:人文社科

时代杂志1973年关于内华达州通过中医及针灸合法化的报道

原文地址:http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945215,00.html

The Nation : Acupuncture in Nevada

Monday, Apr.23 ,1973

The Nevada state legislature last week became the first in the nation to declare traditional Chinese medicine “a learned profession.” By nearly unanimous vote, the lawmakers legalized acupuncture, herbal medicine and other Chinese practices. What sold them was neither Nixonian detente nor the thoughts of Mao, but a free Chinese clinic that, by special permission, was opened for three weeks across from the statehouse in Carson City.

Half of Nevada’s 60 lawmakers have put themselves under the needles of one Lok Yee-kung. There have been several claimed cures and even more conversions. Assemblyman Robert Hal Smith reported that his 20-year sinus condition disappeared after needles were stuck in his forehead and alongside his nose. Equally as gratifying to his wife, the treatment silenced his snoring. Another legislator said that he had been cured of the pain of a childhood knee injury, and a third claimed to have been relieved−though only temporarily−of a number of leg ailments. Scores of constituents begged their representatives to get appointments for them at the clinic. Said one legislator’s secretary: “It looked like a little Lourdes around here.”

Skeptics questioned the propriety of legislators accepting free treatment and noted that the clinic−and a hard lobbying effort for the legalization bill−had been organized by the so-called American Society of Acupuncture, a corporation that stands to earn pin money if Governor Mike O’Callaghan signs the bill. Justifying the freebie treatments, Senator William Raggio explained: “None of us knew much about this thing, and we supposed this was the best way to find out.” It is refreshing to know that even legislators in Nevada check the deck before dealing.

 

 

翻译:(翻译不是很到位,勉强看看罢)

上周内,华达州议会成为全国率先宣布中医为“一个专门职业”的州。立法者们以几乎全票通过的表决结果使针灸草药和其他中国医药手段在该州合法化。经过特别许可,一个既不贩售尼克松主义,也不传递毛泽东思想的自由的中国诊所,在卡森市州议会大厦前开办了三个星期。

内华达州的60个国会议员,有一半接受了针灸大师陆易公为自己施针。除了有一些已经一些声明自己自己得到治愈,更多的表示得到了改善。众议员罗伯特史密斯哈尔报告说,当所有针扎进他前额和鼻子,困扰他20年的鼻窦消失了。同样令人高兴的是他的妻子,针灸治愈了她打鼾的毛病。另一位立委说,他童年时的膝盖伤痛已经得到治愈,三分之一的人称虽然只是暂时的,但是他们腿部的伤病得到了缓解。大量的选民乞求他们的代表代他们在诊所预约。一个立法者的秘书说:“这就像在这里有圣玛丽亚神迹(lourdes)一样。”

怀疑者质疑接受免费治疗的立法者,并指出,诊所和一个合法化的法案艰辛的游说努力,是由一个叫做美国针灸协会推动的,而这个公司能在州长Mike O’Callaghan签署法令后赚点零花钱。参议院William Raggio为这次免费义诊辩护说:“我们对这件事并没有了解那么多,但我们觉得这是最好的证明途径。”令人耳目一新的是,内华达州立法者在通过立法之前先以身试药。

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http://zhongyibaodian.com/zs/21870.html

针灸在美国的流行是20世纪70年代。此前在美国华盛顿、洛杉矶、旧金山等地虽然有不少中医,但精通针灸者未曾有闻。文献记载,早在30年代,有无钖中国针灸研究社社员方复兴移民美国,在罗州开展针灸活动。1947年美国医学界曾在学术讨论中论及中国的针灸术。1955年斯坦福大学曾邀请日本针灸专家赴美讲演,但尚无针灸研究。

1972年2月21日至28日,美国总统尼克松访华,随行记者500名。记者中詹姆斯·罗斯顿(Jame Reston)患阑尾炎,在北京协和医院做阑尾切除术,应用针灸疗法消除术后疼痛,取得成功。在华期间詹姆斯还参观了针刺麻醉,回国后即在7月2日《纽约时报》撰写有关报道,以大幅醒目标题刊于头版,在美引起了轰动效应,从而促使国立卫生院(NIH)注意到中国的针灸疗法。

美国政府批准的第一个针灸诊所于1973年7月在华盛顿特区正式成立,由格里戈里奥·柯斯医生当主任,澄江学派传人苏天佑被聘为这家诊所针灸治疗的主持人。苏天佑原名苏佐仁,1911年生于广东阳江县,幼年随父到香港受教育,后来受业于曾天治学习针灸。曾天治是澄江学派创始人承淡安的高足。苏天佑除行医外,还开办学习班,培训针灸人员。1975年3月,苏天佑和美国弟子在波士顿创办“纽英伦针灸学传到美国以后,又与美国的科学文化相结合而有所创新。

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Monday, October 6, 2008;

 

James Tin Yau So

Dr. James Tin Yau So, N.D., LAc., also known as Dr. So, was one of the most influential individuals of the 20th Century in bringing acupuncture to the United States.

Dr. So’s teacher was Tsang Tien Chi who studied under Ching Tan An. He graduated from Dr. Tsang’s College of Scientific Acupuncture in , China, in 1939. During the same year Dr. So opened his medical office in Hong Kong. In 1941 he opened his own school, The Hong Kong College Acupuncture. For the next thirty years, Dr. So established himself as one of the most successful and well-respected acupuncturists throughout Asia. Practitioner came from all over Asia and Europe to study at his college.

Several acupuncturists from the National Acupuncture Association sought Dr. So’s assistance in 1972. At the time the NAA offered Dr. So a position as acupuncturist at the UCLA Acupuncture Pain Clinic, the only legal acupuncture clinic in California at that time. Dr. So accepted and joined the NAA staff of acupuncturists and the UCLA Acupuncture Pain Clinic in 1973.

In 1974, Dr. So was part of the NAA group that traveled to Massachusetts and opened the first acupuncture clinic in Boston and a second clinic in Worcester. In the fall of 1974, Dr. So founded the New England School of Acupuncture. Karen Freede and John V. Braga assisted Dr. So in the translation of his three books on the points of acupuncture, the techniques acupuncture and treatment of disease by acupuncture. . Dr. So, with the help of his students Arnie Freiman and Steven Breeker, founded the first school of acupuncture in the US, the New England School of Acupuncture , in 1974 With his approval Dr. Gene Bruno and Dr. Steven Rosenblatt founded a second school in the US, which became the California Acupuncture College, located in West Los Angeles.

A majority of the acupuncture schools in the U.S. were founded by students of Dr. So. This legacy of acupuncture in North America is unparalleled.

Dr. So was awarded the Acupuncturist of the Year in 2001 by the American Association of Oriental Medicine. In 2007, Dr. So Tin Yau was among the first four acupuncturists to be inscribed on the Founders of the Profession Honor Roll by the American Association of Oriental Medicine.

Posted by at 8:27 PM

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加 州 中 医 立 法 历 史 年 表       加州中醫歷史文獻館 陳 大 仁 教授(撰稿)
一九九九年十月初搞; 二零零五年十月定稿 二零一零年八月補訂.(原文http://www.caam.us/resources/califonria_legislation082510.pdf)
美國的中醫藥事業當首推加州,這里的醫師人數、學術水平及政治潛力均遙遙領先于其他數十個州,成為發展美國中醫的主要推動力量。而加州的中醫事業,則首先受惠于前輩們的英勇奮斗,成功立法,開創了在異鄉公開傳播這門古老醫學的新紀元;再加上三十多年來廣大中醫師的辛勤耕耘,通過活躍而又艱辛的政治行動,進一步取得了顯著的進步。其中為數眾多的華人中醫師為在海外傳播中華文化更是作出了不可磨滅的貢獻。中醫今天已經成為美國社會最受歡迎的替代醫學之一。
請看近四十年來加州中醫界所策動的一百多項立法動議或者是立法抗爭所經歷的坎坷事實。這些轟轟烈烈的政治行動對確保加州中醫師的基本行醫權益和廣大病家的合法福利都具有非常重要的意義。以下就是近代加州中醫師們組織起來爭取權益,服務人民的動人歷史﹕
AB 1500 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州西醫學會(CMA)策劃
加州第一個針灸立法﹕規定沒有西醫執照的人員(稱之為“醫師助手")可以進行針灸治療。但是醫師助手必須在西醫的直接監督之下施術,而且針灸治療必須在核准的醫學院校之內進行,並以科學研究為目的。本案由加州西醫師公會策劃,雷根州長簽署成為法律。
AB 976 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容同 AB 1500,但增加一項條款即針灸治療除了可以在核准的醫學院校之內進行,還可在該醫學院校的“校園以外"地方進行。雷根州長予以否決。
AB 1841 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容同 AB 976。同時要求撥款四十萬元供作針灸研究之用。雷根州長再次予以否決。
AB 1691 (Duffy, 1972) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
要求在醫療職業中增加一種新的醫師助手資格,稱為“針灸醫助"(PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT—ACUPUNCTURE)。承認這種非西醫人員可以在西醫的直接監督之下進行針灸治療,但必須以科學研究為目的。同時規定成立針灸顧問委員會,專司管理“針灸醫助"事務。本案受到針灸界人士的強烈反對,雷根州長亦予以否決。 

SB 2117 (Mascone, 1973) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃

承認針灸師資格,規定非西醫的針灸師可以獨立進行針灸治療,但事先必須有西醫或牙醫的診斷和介紹。提案順利通過參、眾兩院,但繼續被雷根州長予以否決。
SB 2118 (Mascone, 1973) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
規定成立有七名成員的針灸顧問委員會,專司管理針灸事務。提案順利通過參、眾兩院,但同樣被雷根州長予以否決。

SB 86 (Moscone, 1975) —— 加州中醫藥針灸學會策劃
內容與 SB2117 及 SB-2118 兩案基本相同。這是加州第一個成功的由中醫界自行推動的針灸職業合法化提案。布朗州長七月十二日簽署成為法律。
AB 2424 (Keysor, 1978) —— 加州針灸聯合總會策劃
授權加州醫療補助計劃(Medi-Cal)提供針灸福利,布朗州長簽署成為法律。
AB 3105 (Suitt, 1978) —— 加州針灸顧問委員會策劃
本案取消根據經驗頒發針灸師證書的條例。規定要對所有申請針灸師證書者實行考試。本提案還規定考試要包括有實際操作的口試。布朗州長簽署成為法律。 

AB 3568 (Torres, 1978) ——加州針灸顧問委員會策劃
取消針灸師診治病人必需先經西醫、牙醫、足醫或整脊醫師診斷或轉診的規定。此案由加州針灸針灸顧問委員會主席丘德陽醫師開始策劃。當時并未得到西醫公會的諒解,審議中遇到很大阻力,此提案未得通過。
SB 1488 (Sieroty, 1978) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
法案允許持有證書的針灸師注冊成立針灸公司。布朗州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1106 (Song, 1978) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
規定針灸顧問委員會的工作細則﹕包括委員會中增加四名公眾委員,建立針灸學徒制度,建立繼續教育制度,診所必需展示針灸師證書,證書每兩年更新一次,五年沒有更新證書者要重新考試等。並規定針灸顧問委員會的行政關係直接隸屬於加州醫療品質保障部屬下的輔助醫療職業處,專施管理針灸師執業的問題。布朗州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1790 (Campbell, 1978) —— (法案策劃者待查)
允許西醫以外的醫療職業者從事營養及輔助食品咨詢,但必需聲明並非診斷或治療等醫療行為。布朗州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1391 (Torres, 1979) ——加州針灸顧問委員會策劃
取消針灸師診治病人必需先經西醫,牙醫,足醫或整脊醫師診斷或轉診的規定。此案主要由加州針灸針灸顧問委員會主席丘德陽醫師策劃,后獲得西醫公會的諒解,并取得州長的支持。該案交由托里斯眾議員提出,布朗州長簽署成為法律。
AB 3040 (Knox, 1980) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
將針灸執業範圍擴充至包括電針療法,東方式按摩及艾灸療法,並授權針灸師開中藥處方。此提案還將針灸顧問委員會升格為針灸考試委員會,授予更大的權力。此案主要由美國針灸協會策劃,諾克斯眾議員提出,布朗州長簽署成為法律。
AB 538 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
規定牙醫和足醫必需接受針灸訓練方能施行針灸。布朗州長簽署成為法律。
AB 901 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
建議設立針灸戒酒試驗計劃。該提案因過去類似計劃之結果不夠滿意而未通過。
AB 837 (Rosenthal, 1981) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
加州議會第一項涉及針灸醫療保險的提案。根據保險業界的建議,議案規定患者每一種疾病每年可以接受 24 次針灸治療。後來由于業界人士不同意數目限制,此提案被撤銷。

AB 3601 (Rosenthal, 1982) ——(法案策劃者待查)
要求醫療保險支付針灸治療費用。曾在議會舉行廣泛聽證,包括向議會人士及西醫示范針灸技術。
此提案未得通過。
AB 3806 (Rosenthal, 1982) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
允許不持有針灸師證書的外國或外州針灸專家在教學或示範中從事針灸治療。布朗州長簽署後立即生效。
SB 1158 (Torres, 1983) ——(法案策劃者待查)
規定針灸師可以使用“東方醫學博士"的名銜以提高針灸專業的地位。由于加州西醫學會強力反對,此提案未得通過。
AB 3827 (Filante, 1984) —— 美國針灸協會策劃
建立針灸戒酒戒毒試驗計劃的第二個提案。此提案曾獲得議會通過,但杜美津州長將其否決。
SB 314 (Rosenthal, 1984) ——(法案策劃者待查)

規定針灸師必需每兩年修有 30 個學時的繼續教育學分,提案獲得通過并由杜美津州長簽署成為法律。 

SB 2179 (Torres and Rosenthal, 1984) —— 加州針灸大同盟策劃
提案規定健保組織(HMO)或自身保險或殘障保險計劃以外的醫療保險計劃,包括非營利醫院等集體性的醫療保險計劃都必需具備供選購的針灸治療福利。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
AB 272 (Filante, 1985) ——美國針灸協會策劃
取消國外訓練的針灸師需在加州先做住院醫師的要求,但規定他們必須在美國內至少住滿九個月才能參加針灸執照考試。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1642 (Rosenthal, 1986) ——加州針灸大同盟策劃
將針灸師在工傷保險系統中列為醫師(PHYSICIAN),有權治療受傷雇員。另外規定要向州政府和公立校區之雇員提供針灸醫療福利。此案未獲成功。
SB 839 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定針灸治療必須由持有法定合格證書的針灸師執行。禁止無執照者進行針灸。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 840 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
將針灸師在工傷保險系統中列為醫師(PHYSICIAN),有權治療受傷雇員。該案排除針灸師對患者作殘障評估,此外還附有四年期限的“日落條款"。杜美津州長於 1988 年 9 月簽署成為法律。
SB 841 (Torres, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
要求所有的健保服務計劃,非營利性醫院服務計劃和集體殘障保險提供針灸治療福利。此案未獲成功。
SB 1362 (Rosenthal, 1987) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
要求針灸考試委員會每年舉行兩次針灸執照考試,委員會必需向考生提供筆試及口試有關內容範圍(包括中藥的內容範圍)的書面通知,考生可查詢自己所考各科成績,設立考生的上訴程序。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1544 (Marks, 1987) ——(法案策劃者待查)
將針灸師證書法令改為針灸師執照法令,即針灸師需持有執照方能行醫。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
AB 4671 (Elder, 1988) ——(法案策劃者待查)
修訂批准針灸考試委員會所提的教育和訓練計劃。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。

AB 2367 (Filante and Rosenthal, 1989) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
針灸考試委員會舞弊案引發之機構改組提案,規定將針灸考試委員會改稱針灸委員會,取消執行執照考試之權力;針灸師委員資格從十年經驗改為五年經驗;委員會中針灸師委員要反映族裔比例。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 633 (Rosenthal, 1989) ——(法案策劃者待查)
要求針灸考試委員會聘請獨立專家對現行針灸學徒制度以及國外訓練的針灸考生資格進行分析評估。同時要求所有 1988 年 1 月 1 日以 前獲得執照的針灸師在 1993 年 1 月 1 日前完成包括各中西醫學科目的 40 學時繼續教育。杜美津州長簽署成為法律。
SB 654 (Torres, 1989) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
提案規定健保組織(HMO)或自身保險或殘障保險計劃以外的醫療保險計劃,包括非營利醫院等集體性的醫療保險計劃都必需自 1990 年 1 月 1 日起一律提供針灸醫療福利。此案未獲成功。
AB 3836 (Eastin, 1990) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定將隸屬于加州醫務部屬下之輔助醫療職業處的針灸委員會升格為獨立的加州針灸局(ACUPUNCTURE BOARD)。此案未獲成功。
AB 4368 (Filante, 1990) ——(法案策劃者待查)
所有針灸委員會核准的教育課程必需在 1992 年 12 月 31 日以前,或在針灸委員會核准後 5 年內,再獲得公共教育總監的批准。
AB 400 (Margolin, 1992) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
將四年前通過的針灸工傷保險法案(SB840)延長四年。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
ACR 150 (Burton, 1993) ——(法案策劃者待查)
建立有十六名成員的傳統中草藥顧問委員會,專施管理中草藥品的有關事務。此議案未獲通過。
AB 2494 (Conroy, 1994) ——(法案策劃者待查)
規定針灸師使用中草藥為藥用。此案未獲成功。
SB 1279 (Torre, 1994) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
規定執照針灸醫師可以建立針灸專業仲裁委員會(PEER REVIEW COMMITTEE)。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1002 (Burrton, 1995) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
要求廢除現行勞工法中有關針灸師醫師身份的”日落條款”。此案被修訂為將日落條款再延長兩年。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。 

AB 1003 (Burrton, 1995) —— CSOM 策劃
要求針灸師可以在工傷保險系統中作殘障評估。由于阻力太大,作者後來主動將此案撤消。
SB 1360 (Watson, 1996) ——加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
要求廢除現行勞工法中有關針灸師醫師身份的 “日落條款”。此案未獲成功。
SB 863 (Lee, 1997) ——法案策劃者待查,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
規定西醫不必取得針灸執照即可進行針灸治療;同時規定將針灸委員會改為針灸局。此案未能通告議會。
SB 212 (Burton et al, 1997) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
廢除現行勞工法中有關針灸師醫師身份的”日落條款”,使針灸師得以醫師資格永久保留在工傷醫療保險系統之中。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 174 (Napolitano 1997) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定禁止其他醫務人員(諸如整脊醫師、護士、理療師等)未經正規訓練就從事針灸治療,目的在於保障中醫師的基本行醫權利,並確保病家獲得可靠專業治療。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 410 (Gallegos et al, 1997) —— CSOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》。此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 1255 (Polanco, 1997) —— 加州整脊醫師公會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
規定有執照的醫務工作者有權對及時付款的患者以及對無力購買醫療保險的患者給予折扣優惠。此案由加州整脊醫師公會策劃,威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 2120 (Cedillo, 1998) —— CAAOM 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
規定針灸醫師有權擁有其他醫療職業公司的股權。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 2721 (Miller, 1998) ——(法案策劃者待查)
制裁任何涉及色情活動的醫療職業者。針灸醫師必須向加州針灸局注冊診所地址。威爾遜州長簽署

SB 1980 (Greene, 1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
規定將隸屬于加州醫務部之輔助醫療職業處管轄下的針灸委員會升格為獨立的加 州針灸局。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 204 (Migden, 1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
在工傷法中明確規定雇主及管制醫療組織向工傷雇員提供的醫療服務中都必須加上針灸福利項目;規定雇員有權選定自己的 “私人針灸醫師";規定工傷患者在要求轉換主治醫師時有權選擇針灸師。威爾遜州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1185 (Baugh,1998) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
在加州工傷補償處產業醫務委員會中添加一名針灸醫師委員,同時允許針灸師經過規定的專業訓練及考核後可以對工傷患者進行殘障評估。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 1252 (Wildman, 1999) —— 加州足醫公會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
AB 1252 法案案的內容之一是規定在加州工傷補償處的產業醫務委員會中增加四名委員,包括兩名西醫、一名足醫和一名針灸醫師。戴維斯州長將之簽署成為法律。並於 2000 年一月任命聯合總會名譽會長楊自國醫師為首位中醫委員。
AB 231 (Battin, 1999) —— 外州利益團體策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
試圖立例允許非執照人員從事戒毒耳針治療。此案遭到加州中醫界的強烈反對,因而遭到挫敗。
SB 466 (Perata, 1999) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《中醫師行醫規範提案》,明確並擴大中醫師可以使用的行醫手段。 例如可以使用營養物品、草
藥以及膳飲輔助食品等,特別注明中醫師在臨床治療中可以處方使用各種植物、動物及礦物產品。
除了過去已經取得合法地位的電針療法,艾灸療法與拔罐療法,以及使用東方式按摩(推拿)、呼
吸技術(氣功)、醫療體育(太極拳等)等各治療手段等項外,新法案還要求增加小能量激光療法
和磁療法。此案順利通過議會,但被戴維斯州長予以否決。
AB 1751 (Kuehl, 1999) ——(法案策劃者待查)
即《保障患者訴訟權力法案》。禁止保險公司在合約中強行病家在糾紛中接受仲裁,賦予患者必要 時采取法庭訴訟的權力。這是年來眾多旨在對付管制醫療體制的法案之一。該案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 2764 (Knox, 2000) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,内容同 AB410 (Gallegos et al, 1997)。此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 341 (Perata, 2001) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
泊拉塔參議員重新提出《中醫師行醫規範提案》,内容大致同去年的 SB 466。新法案還要求增加一項磁療法。戴維斯州長於二零零一年九月將之簽署成為法律。
AB 208 (Frommer, 2001) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,内容同 AB410 (Gallegos et al, 1997) 及 AB 2764 (Knox, 2000)。此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 249 (Matthews, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》此案目的在於爭取豁免中醫師發售中藥的零售稅,如同其他醫務人員銷售維他命等時免收零售稅一樣。AB410 在一九九八年失敗後,AB 2764 在二零零零年再失敗,AB 208 二零零一年也未能通過議會。二零零二年改由馬修斯眾議員重新提出,即 AB 249 法案,終於順利完成了參、眾兩院的全部審議程序。但是戴維斯州長最後以財政短缺為由否決了此項提案。至此,中醫界努力運作近五年的《 豁免中藥銷售稅提案》再次受到挫折。
抗議刪除針灸醫療補助 (2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
戴維斯州長在其財政預算中曾一度將針灸醫療補助(MEDI-CAL)在於預算中予以刪除。后經廣大同業的努力遊說,參眾兩院聯合預算委員會曾將此決定否決,使針灸福利得以保留至 2003 年 7 月。
SB 573 (Burton, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
內容是將目前只要求商業醫療保險具備“可供選購"( OFFER ) 的針灸福利條款,改成規定所有保險公司都“需要提供"( PROVIDE ) 針灸福利。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 1951 (Figueroa, 2002) —— 外州利益團體支持,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
即“修理加州針灸局提案"。該案給加州針灸局設定諸多苛刻條件,例如謹批准給予針灸局兩年的再復審期限(按慣例應為四年)、要求針灸局召開會議至少必需有五名委員出席方為有效(但針灸局尚有多位委員名額空缺)、要求針灸局必需有一名委員是中醫院校教師( 針灸局為避免利益沖突,歷來不得任用現職教師)等。此外提案還要求由消費者事務廳對加州針灸局工作進行全面審查﹕包括中醫師職業規範、中醫師教育標準、 要求 對外州私人團體的考試權及中醫院校審批權進行評估其適用于加州的可能性,等等。全部評估過程所需之費用要由針灸局支付(來自中醫師的執照費)。戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 1705 (Burton, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
授權通過附加培訓的中醫師參加合格醫療評估醫師資格考試後從事殘障評估工作。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
AB 1943 (Chu, 2002) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃並參與修訂,外州利益團體反對。
《中醫專業教育改革法案》規定目前加州官方有關中醫 針灸事務的法律文件一律統稱之為『針灸與東方醫學』,較為符合中醫師的臨床實踐。 AB1943 的最主要條款是對中醫院校的教學大綱及教育課程提出了明 確的要求: 2003 年至 2007 年間入學的新生必需完成 3200 學時專業教育,而從2007 年開始中醫專業教育課程將增加至 4000 學時。由於外州利益團體的強力反對,本案被大幅刪改后通過,(如刪除有關專業名稱之規定,將必修學時減為 3000 等)戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 582 (Speier, 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
根據中醫政治聯盟提出的修正案,SB582 將添加兩項豁免條款:(1)執照醫務工作者在其行醫規範内的治療過程中可以開麻黃處方或配藥。(2)含有麻黃成分的食物補充產品只能銷售給執照醫務工作者作為治療之用。如此,中醫師繼續使用麻黃的專業權力遂得以保全。戴維斯州長簽署成為法律。
SB 228 (Alarcon, 2003) —— 加州保險業界策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
由參議員阿拉坎提出的 SB228 提案強行將工傷醫療服務的收費標準和明顯低於市場價格的『聯邦醫療照顧』(MEDICARE) 支付標準直接挂鉤。更有甚者,凡聯邦醫療照顧並不提供的醫療項目,例如針灸,其收費則只能和用來救濟低收入家庭的『加州醫療補助』(MEDI-CAL)的支付標準直接挂鉤。
中醫政治聯盟成功提出的修正案,中醫師將不受此條款限制。斯瓦玆内格州長簽署成為法律。
SB 867 (Burton 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
內容是要求商業醫療保險 提供針灸福利。此案未能通過議會而失敗。
SB 907 (Burton, 2003) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
根據最新版本的 SB907 修正案 ,自然療法醫師的行醫規範有了更加明確的限制:即自然療法醫師
將不得從事執照中醫師根據加州商業及職業法第 4927(c) 條授權從事的各種醫療項目,包括針灸,
中藥及推拿等。如此,加州中醫師的基本行醫權益終于得以免受自然療法醫師可能的侵犯。戴維斯
州長簽署成為法律。
小胡佛委員會評估加州中醫行業 (2003-2004) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟積極參與
由於加州中醫界和外州利益團體在如何在加州施行中醫服務的基本政策發生尖銳的衝突,州政府決定將矛盾交給小胡佛委員會進行分析評估。中醫界曾經多次總動員,出席聽證會,投寄請願書,力圖協助小胡佛委員更全面地了解加州中醫行業的實際情況。五位聯合總會成員參加了顧問委員會工作。他們是劉美嫦(加州中醫政治聯盟主席),楊自國(國家衛生署輔助醫學顧問委員會委員),屠英(全美華裔中醫組織聯合會主席),羅志長(聯合總會秘書長)以及陳大仁(聯合總會名譽會長)。可惜小胡佛委員會一直忽視乃至排斥中醫專業團體的意見,最後編寫出明顯偏袒一方的報告。
SB 899 (Poochigian, 2004) —— 加州商會策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟堅決反對並參與修訂
治療工傷患者仍必須一律按照《美國職業及環境醫學學院指引》的標準施行。這份完全由西醫編訂出來的指引,完全忽視中醫藥在治療工傷疾病中的價值和療效,嚴重妨礙工傷患者獲得針灸治療的機會。斯瓦玆内格州長簽署成為法律。
SB 356 (Alarcon, 2004) ——AIMS 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
肯定中醫診斷權提案。此案未能通過議會。
SB 840 (Kueh, 2004) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
要求建立『加州健康保險機構』以提供全加州的醫療保險。此案未能通過議會。
AB 681 (Vargas, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
要求將當前工商補償醫療費用標準延長三年(及至 2007 年。)此案未能通過議會。
AB 1549 (Koretz, 2005) —— AIMS 策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟支持
授權通過附加培訓的中醫師參加合格醫療評估醫師資格考試後從事殘障評估工作。此案未能通過議會。
SB 233 (Figueroa, 2005) ——外州利益團體支持,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
“日落"(撤銷)加州針灸局,並取消中醫師診斷權。經加州中醫政治聯盟發動全體同業堅決反對,此案最終被迫被擱置。
AB 871 (Keene, 2005) —— 由保險業者策劃,加州中醫政治聯盟反對
取消針灸師及整脊醫師被工傷患者自選為『指定醫師』的資格。
AB 1113 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
肯定中醫診斷權提案;本案涉及中醫師最基本的行醫權益,至關重要。最終實施余胤良議長的這些提案對提高中醫素質,更好服務社會將起到積極作用。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長以法案措辭含糊為由否決此案。
AB 1114 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
增加中醫師繼續教育提案;將每兩年需要 30 學時繼續教育增加至 50 學時。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長簽署成為法律。
AB 1115 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
針灸師助理提案;要求針灸師助理具備一定的培訓資格。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長否決此案。
AB 1116 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
針灸師臨床訓練提案;要求中醫院校畢業生必須先參加一定期限期臨床實習方有資格參加執照考試。由於外州利益團體的強力反對,本案未能通過議會。
AB 1117 (Yee, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
用『亞洲醫學』代替 『東方醫學』提案。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長簽署成為法律。
SB 248 (Figueroa, 2005) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與修訂
加州中醫政治聯盟為保全針灸局進行了非常艱巨的政治運作。我們不但成功動員了中醫界自己的力量,我們還成功結合了社會各界的力量,形成了一股前所未有的政治勢力。終于和菲格儸阿參議員達成重建針灸局的妥協。本案以壓倒性多數通過議會。斯瓦玆內格州長簽署成為法律。
AB 2287 (Chu, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
要求使用明確的法律條文重申:加州工傷補償系統必須包括中醫治療福利,並將加州中醫政治聯盟負責編訂的『中醫工傷治療指引』納入加州工傷補償系統的執行條款之中。該案以壓倒性多數通過參眾兩院,斯瓦玆内格州長最終在二零零六年十月予以否決。但州長同時明確地強調指出“鑒于針灸治療的重要性,我指示工傷補償處採取任何必要的措施,加速制定一個重新確保針灸合法地位的工傷醫療指引,以便讓工傷患者獲得針灸治療。……"工傷補償處主要官員多次和政治聯盟負責人舉行會談,態度也十分友好,在整個編寫過程中和中醫政治聯盟負責人和諧合作,二零零六年十二月七日,工傷補償處公佈了勞工法修訂草案文本,包括針灸治療在内的新『工傷醫療標準程序』遂于二零零七年六月十五日正式生效。
AB 2152 (Chan, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
眾議院衛生委員會主席陳煥英議員提出的『針灸師執照行醫法案』(AB2152),將使用明確的法律條文重申任何人必須擁有加州中醫執照方可施行針灸治療的規定。這項由加州中醫政治聯盟策劃的,專門為保障中醫師基本行醫權益的提案對確保加州公眾獲得安 全可靠的中醫服務意義十分重大。 由於『針灸師執照行醫法案』牽涉到其他醫療職業者的既得利益,特別是勢力強大的西醫界的既得利益,因此我們很清楚:這是一項極具挑戰性的法案。審議一開始就面臨西醫牙醫足醫三大反對勢力強大的聯合攻勢,形勢十分嚴峻。更遺憾的是,業界中又有少數人持有相反意見:以白人針灸師為主体的加州中醫協會(CSOMA)對此案表示不支持,還斷言此案將絕對不會成功。而針灸產業醫學專家協會(AIMS)的米勒醫師則在聽證會上宣稱他希望本提案失敗。所幸絕大多數中醫專業團體(包括華裔,韓裔,日裔,越南裔等職業公會)都認為這項提案完全合情、合理、合法,它宣示了中醫界要維護病家利益及保衛自身權力的堅定決心,明知有難度和風險,但還是要堅決推行。由於外州利益團體的強力反對,本案未能通過議會。
AB 2821 (Huff, 2006) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
眾議院教育委員會委員哈福議員提出的“成立亞洲醫學局法案"要求將目前的『針灸局』改稱『亞洲醫學局』。正如我們多年來一再強調﹕美國今天一直沿用的『針灸師』(ACUPUNCTURIST)這一職業名稱具有相當大的誤導成分,因為它在很大程度上不能正確反映當前中醫師服務的實際業務,因而造成社會、尤其是西方社會的許多混淆。本提案將有效澄清誤解,有利於中醫事業的繼續發展。非常遺憾的是:西醫公會堅持要壟斷“醫學"(MEDICINE)一詞,不准其它醫療專業使用。『亞洲醫學局』使用了醫學一詞,因此此案已被西醫公會所封殺。
AB 3014 (Koretz, 2006) —— 針灸與綜合醫學專家協會策劃
備受爭議的“亞洲按摩法案"是針灸與綜合醫學專家協會策劃的一項提案。考慮到這個法案有可能限制中醫師的行醫範圍;同時,“亞洲按摩"一詞在社會上與色情行業密切相關,將嚴重破壞中醫專業形象,加州中醫政治聯盟對此一直保持“不支持"的中立立場。該案通過議會後被阿諾州長予以否決。
SB 840 (Kuehl, 2006) —— 加州全民醫療保險法案 提案人:庫尤爾參議員
加州目前尚無全民保健體制,奇尤爾參議員希望建立這樣的新體制已保證低收入家庭也能獲得醫療保險。這個法案引起我們的關注是因為其中有一個條款規定:患者看中醫針灸必須事先得到西醫的介紹或轉診。這是和三十五年前的『針灸職業合法化提案』(SB86)的條款如出一轍,中醫界對此有所保留。該案通過議會後被阿諾州長予以否決。
SB1476 (Figueroa, 2006) —— 醫療職業局日落條款案 提案人:費格洛亞參議員
參議院商業與職業委員會就各醫療職業局或委員會之日落條款生效日期作出延期一年至三年的調整。
加州針灸局僅獲得一年之延期。即有效期從原來的2008年順延至2009年。
AB 54 (Dymally, 2007) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟策劃
加州中醫政治聯盟委託第五十二選區眾議員戴馬力先生在加州衆議院提出新的針灸保險法案要求將現行保險法中的歧視性條款(只要求醫療保險計劃備有“可供選購"的針灸福利)改為“規定提供"針灸福利﹐以保障投保人獲得針灸治療的權利。該案通過議會後被阿諾州長予以否決。
爭取豁免中藥銷售稅 (1997 – 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟與北加州中藥聯商會共同推動
1997年,加州中醫界曾委托加州眾議員格里高斯醫師提出《豁免中藥銷售稅提案》,編號為AB410案。但未獲成功。後來在1999年,加州中醫政治聯盟又委托加州眾議員諾克斯提出了內容相同的 AB2764 法案作為繼續,也宣告失敗。中醫界再接再厲,在2001年又委托加州眾議員法魯
莫重新提出此案,編號 AB208 。可惜法案第三度被擱置。2002年由加州眾議員馬修斯接手辦理此案,改編號 AB249 。該法案雖然順利完成了參、眾兩院的全部審議程序,但是當年的州長戴維斯卻以財政短缺為由否決了此項提案,最後還是以失敗告終。2008年,中藥課稅問題的不合理性得到平等稅務局(BOARD OF EQUOLIZATION)趙美心局長和余淑婷副局長的關注,終于取得突破性的進展:二零零八年九月四日,中醫藥界代表與平等稅務局官員以及平稅局法律部門和稽查部門的負責人在沙加緬度進行了一次很有成果的會議。隨後,在二零零八年十二月,平等稅務局修改條例,不再將“聲稱有治療疾病功效的中藥定位為藥品"而予以課稅,並宣佈:既然中藥材在加州一向被列為“食物",就應當按食物免徵銷售稅,立即生效。至於“加工后中藥"(如粉劑、片劑、膠囊等產品)的食品定義問題,經過加州中醫政治聯盟的進一步交涉,平稅局法律部門最近提出了新的法律補充解釋:加工過的中藥材只要在其包裝或説明標簽上沒有“SUPPLEMENT”或“ADJUNCT”等字樣,則平稅局將認定此等產品仍然屬於“食品”,免予課稅。至此,抗爭多年的豁免中藥銷售稅問題終于獲得圓滿解決。 

AB 1260 (Huffman, 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟反對
意圖修改加州針灸局職能的 AB1260 法案提出取消對考生臨床實習的要求,以及要讓外州的認證機構參與加州針灸局對中醫院校的審批工作等項,有可能降低加州中醫師素質,從而對加州中醫事業帶來負面影響。加州中醫政治聯盟予以反對。作者賀弗曼眾議員后來對本案條文作出重大的修訂—僅保留原提案的第一部分,(即將七人加州針灸局的議事法定人數由五名降為四名,包括至少一名針灸師);其餘不利加州中醫事業的條款已經全部予以刪除。
AB 1391 (Eng, then McLeod, 2010) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
允許加州針灸局繼續運作至2013年的 AB1391 提案由伍國慶眾議員提出,其內容後來納入麥克利歐的 SB294.目前該案已經通過參眾兩院,等待州長的簽署。
爭取農夫保險公司支付針灸 (Eng, 2010) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟參與推動
加州針灸合法化以來,作為美國最大汽車保險公司之一的農夫保險公司 (FARMER INSURANCE COMPANY) 數十年來堅持不支付汽車意外受傷者針灸醫療費用。伍國慶眾議員通過和農夫保險公司高層領導人的多次直接溝通、協商、交涉,終於獲得公司方面的讓步,同意改變公司的理賠政策,
從今年六月十五日起支付汽車意外受傷者的針灸醫療費用。
聯邦層面的立法進展:


針灸針在美國醫療體系中的地位
1973 – 1975年間,針灸在美國許多州已經取得合法地位。但是,政治上的合法化并不等于學銜上的被承認。代表西醫界的美國醫學會直到1996年還不承認針灸的醫學價值。其官方立場是“針灸在美國還屬實驗性質”。基于這種立場,負責管制醫療器械的美國食品及藥物管理局(FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION)只能勉強將針灸針列為“三級醫療器具”,即所謂的“實驗研究用器具”(INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE),規定只能用于科學研究目的。1994年,針灸界人士委托華盛頓的斯萬金-陀諾(SWANKIN & TURNER)律師事務所,采取公民請願(CITIZEN PETETION)的法律程序嚴正要求藥管局根據專家們提出的研究報告,重新考慮針灸針在美國醫療保健體系中的地位,將之從三級器具提升為二級即 “核准醫療器具”(APROVED MEDICAL DEVICE)。藥管局的專家們足足用了近一年半時間對針灸界提出的研究報告進行分析評估,終于在1996年3月作出了裁決。
聯邦針灸保險法案(FEDERAL ACUPUNCTURE COVERAGE ACT)
HR1038 (Hinchey, 1996) ~ HR646 (Hinchey, 2009) —— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
這條稱為『聯邦針灸福利法案』規定聯邦醫療照顧計劃(MEDI-CARE)以及聯邦雇員健康福利計劃都要給有資格的針灸醫師支付醫療費用。本案如果獲得成功,將在全國範圍内有力地推動中醫事業的發展。十幾年來由興奇聯邦眾議員多次提出,至今未獲成功。在全國中醫師,包括加州中醫政治聯盟的積極支持下,本案在國會逐步取得進展。但距離成功還有一段距離。
聯邦健保改革法案(FEDERAL HEALTH CARE REFORM ACT, 2009-2010)—— 加州中醫政治聯盟支持
加州中醫政治聯盟認為歐巴馬總統正在推動的這場醫療改革也是中醫界爭取納入美國主流醫療體制的時機。改革如果成功,則中醫界必須在法案審議過程中確保中醫福利納入其中。政治聯盟聯絡全國中醫界人士發動大規模的請願活動:說服政要們認識到接納中醫不僅可以提高醫療品質,還可以降低以醫藥費用,完全符合醫療改革的目標。相關法案目前仍在國會審議辯論之中。

http://www.caam.us/resources/califonria_legislation082510.pdf

陳大仁:完善中醫教育 才是正名根本

加州中醫師聯合總會榮譽會長陳大仁嘆 SB628法案正名僅是「贈予」地位而非認同 提昇中醫專業教育進一步為中醫正名才是中醫界所樂見

圖:加州中醫師聯合總會榮譽會長陳大仁,他期望加州中醫的正名能在教育上真正著手,獲得西方主流社會的認可。(攝影:李歐/大紀元)

【大紀元2012年08月30日訊】(大紀元記者李歐費利蒙採訪報導)導言:中醫在美國爭取正名幾經波折,SB628今年終於通過加州參眾兩院的投票,並進一步等待州長布朗簽署正式立法。雖然這是一項好消息,但並非所有針灸師都適用,加州中醫師聯合總會榮譽會長陳大仁表示,其實真正提昇中醫的專業教育才能獲得美國主流社會的重視,也才是正名的根本。

加州最早的中醫法案可推溯到1972年,而且還是西醫主張立法,但當時只是西醫的助手,陳大仁說,那時有針灸熱的歷史背景,結果造成中醫的混亂,過後的40年間透過在美中醫師的努力,至今針灸師可以獨立行醫,還可納入保險給付。

但可惜的是,目前博大精深的中醫只能被侷限在「針灸局」(Acupuncture Board)底下,中醫師也只能稱針灸技師,醫術方面也受到限制,有多種中醫方濟還有正骨手法不可使用。因此陳大仁表示,現在最急迫的其實是趕快對中醫正名,並且提昇中醫的專業教育。他說,連眼鏡驗光師都得是博士學位,中醫當然更要是具有完備的教育體制。

陳大仁一家幾乎都是醫生,對中醫尤其專精,他說,針灸師其實早已超出針灸的範圍,是真正在行使中醫職業的專業人士,廣大中醫師都期望以中醫(Chinese Medicine)或東方醫學( Oriental Medicine)來取代針灸(Acupuncture)一詞。但在2002年及2006年分別有提出立法,都遭到西醫的阻撓而失敗。

美國是一個重視教育且術業專精的國家,陳大仁表示,中醫經過這幾十年的努力,終於從原本的不用執照到現今需通過3,200個學時的課程,再通過考試方可成為合格的針灸師,但仍是不足以獲得西方社會的認同,這也立法失敗的主因之一。現在加州中醫師聯合總會主張提升為4,000個學時,並且獲得博士學位才能有中醫考試資格。

儘管現在美國白人學針灸的人數多餘亞洲人,但有鑑於中醫在美仍被是為一門「替補醫學」,陳大仁說其關鍵原因就是──中醫教育制度的缺陷。因此盡快完善中醫教育制度才是根本的正名之道。

而目前的SB628法案僅僅只是讓具有中醫博士學位的針灸師合法使用「Doctor」一詞,陳大仁感嘆這種被「贈予」的地位,並非真正的認同。在教育上的提昇且進一步為「針灸局」改名為「中醫局」或「東方醫學局」才是廣大加州中醫界所樂見。http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/12/8/30/n3670966.htm%E9%99%B3%E5%A4%A7%E4%BB%81-%E5%AE%8C%E5%96%84%E4%B8%AD%E9%86%AB%E6%95%99%E8%82%B2-%E6%89%8D%E6%98%AF%E6%AD%A3%E5%90%8D%E6%A0%B9%E6%9C%AC

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承淡安与《中国针灸治疗学》http://www.tcm-china.info/zjg/mjmz/jxdmz/74562.shtml


一、生平
承淡安(公元1899-1957年),又名启桐。江苏江阴市人,是民国及中华人民共和国初期著名的针灸医家、学者和教育家。

 点击看大图青年承淡安 点击看大图承淡安故居

二、医学事迹

(一)创办针灸学研究社和函授班

兴办学社,弘扬针灸,开展针灸教育,是承淡安最突出的成就。当时的针灸医学自清道光帝下令太医院废止针灸科之后日趋衰落,针灸医生更是寥若晨星。承淡安鉴于此,以振兴针灸医学为己任,积极策划培养针灸人才。1929年他于苏州望亭创办“中国针灸学研究社”,设立针灸函授班,广传薪火。这是中国教育史上最早的针灸函授机构。他亲自编写的教材《中国针灸治疗学》,深入浅出,通俗易懂;自行绘制的《人体经穴图》,经络腧穴清晰可辨,便于学员自学。他还创办了最早的针灸学杂志——《针灸杂志》,扩大了针灸医学在国内外的影响和推广应用。

点击看大图第一届中国针灸学研究社实习生毕业合影 点击看大图《针灸杂志》第一期书影

(二)东渡日本交流针灸学术

针灸医学从六世纪传入日本后,颇受重视,一直盛行不衰,各地举办了多所针灸专业学校。1934年秋,承淡安东渡扶桑,考察日本针灸现状和办学情况。历时8个月,他参观了日本各地针灸学校,与针灸界人士切磋学术,相互交流。在日本他发现了国内早已亡佚的滑寿之作——《十四经发挥》古本,并将之携带回国后校注刊行,为弘扬中医针灸学术,发展对外交流做出了贡献。

(三)创办中国针灸医学专门学校和针灸疗养院

1935年,承淡安从日本回国后,决定以中国针灸学研究社为基础,附设学校,汲取日本办校中有益的经验,结合该社的具体条件,创办了“中国针灸讲习所”。1936年7月,创办“针灸疗养院”,设病房和门诊治疗室,为学员提供了见习和实习基地。翌年,讲习所更名为“中国针灸医学专门学校”。该校培养出一批成绩优异的学员,分散全国各地,为此后针灸事业的发展,播下了种子。

1937年抗日战争爆发以后,承淡安避难西迁。在恶劣处境中,他不忘夙志,独立支撑,依旧坚持行医教学。中华人民共和国成立之后,承淡安受到极大鼓舞,召集旧友积极筹备复社工作。1951年终于在苏州恢复“中国针灸研究社”。1954年,江苏省人民政府聘任他为江苏省中医学校校长。

承淡安呕尽心血,培养后学,数十年来他的授业门生达数千人,函授学员逾万人,遍及国内各省和港澳、东南亚、欧美地区,为中国针灸事业的振兴和中国针灸走向世界做出了卓越的贡献。

点击看大图 点击看大图
承淡安诊所 承淡安江苏省中医进修学校校长任命书
点击看大图 点击看大图

承淡安弟子在港澳及海外影响

三、主要著作

承淡安在教学医疗之余从事著述,毫不懈怠。他一生撰写论文数十篇,出版医著12种,译作4种,主要著作有《中国针灸治疗学》、《针灸治疗实验集》、《中国针灸学》、《校注十四经发挥》、《铜人经穴图考》、《针灸精华》、《伤寒论新注》等,为弘扬中国针灸提供了大量有价值的文献资料。

《中国针灸治疗学》是他编撰的具有代表性的一部针灸专著,成书于1928年,刊行于公元1931年。该书的主要特点就是能够将新旧学说融会贯通,大量引进近代生理学、病理学、解剖学知识,特别是在阐述腧穴定位时,既有现代解剖部位作解释,又有人体照片实录,使初学者易于掌握。书中还总结了二百多种疾病的针灸治疗方法,涉及内、外、妇、儿、五官等各科。

点击看大图 点击看大图 点击看大图
《中国针灸治疗学》书影 《中国针灸学》书影 《校注十四经发挥》书影

四、 学术特点

(一)主张衷中参西,强调临床实践

承淡安认为中西医各有所长,亦各有所短。如何取长补短,相互充实与提高,是发展医学的正确方向。他所著《中国针灸治疗学》和《伤寒论新注》就充分体现出中西医结合的特色,被针灸界称为澄江学派。

(二)对针刺手法独具见解

承淡安对针刺操作,强调练习手法要狠下功夫,认为指下功夫深厚者,下针不痛,得气、行气操作自如,奏效迅速。因此,在教学中他把练习指力、手法规定为学生的必修课。

(三)重视针刺补泻手法

承淡安极重视补泻手法,他提出了多种不同的操作方法,区分各种不同的刺激量,以适应各种不同病症。

点击看大图

承淡安诊室治法准则

(四)对针灸器械力求革新

承淡安在30年代即应用电针灸,并试制皮内针、揿针、梅花针、艾条灸等,经临床试用肯定疗效后,才推广应用。目前这些针灸器具在国内外已广泛用于临床。

针灸专科教育 http://www.tcm-china.info/zjg/zjjyyjl/xxjy/71602.shtml

1929年,承淡安创办了无锡中国针灸学研究所,后来又创办了无锡中国针灸医学专门学校。自1933年11月起,承淡安首先在中国针灸学研究社内,附设了针灸实习科,招收各地学员,到学社内进行面授和针灸临床实习,实习时间五个月。开始了正规学校式专门教育的初步尝试。1935年承淡安从日本归来后,创办了中国近代针灸专业学校——“中国针灸讲习所”。明确规定学制,设有三月的速成班,六月的普通班和二年制的本科班。学员须有一定的医学知识和国文水平,经考试合格方可录取。讲习所开设了内经、经穴学、针科学、灸科学、针灸治疗学等系统的祖国医学方面的课程;为谋求中西之汇通,并保证能在当时国民教育中取得合法地位,特开设解剖、生理、病理、消毒及诊断学等西医课程。对二年制的本科生,还增设了难经、医论、伤寒、金匮等中医经典和经穴、点穴等专科,尚有国文、日文、体育诸课程,并实行严格的考试制度。到1937年2月,讲习所更名为“中国针灸医学专门学校”。

此外,华北人民政府卫生部所属华北卫生学校,于1948年冬天在河北平山县举办针灸班,普及针灸知识。

点击看大图中国针灸学研究社内外景 点击看大图中国针灸医学专门学校师生合影
点击看大图中国针灸学研究社实习生第一届毕业合影(1932年) 点击看大图承淡安诊所(实习基地)

Cheng Danan

http://www.gera.fr/modules.php?name=Downloads&d_op=viewdownload&cid=5296

Cheng Danan (1898-1957).

Cheng Dan’an:a famous acupuncturist (1899-1957), who set up a society of acupuncture research and then a special school for training acupuncturists. His chief writings include the Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Zhi Liao Xue  (Chinese Acupuncture-Moxibustion Therapy)the Zhen Jiu Jing Hua  (Quintessence of Acupuncture and Moxibustion),and the Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Xue (Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion).
“In the early 1930s, Cheng Danan, a Chinese scholar-physician, used Euroamerican anatomy to rehabilitate acupuncture as a respectable skill. In Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion Therapeutics, Cheng (1932) insisted that acupuncture must be an effective medical therapy, because its mechanism of action was the stimulation of the nerves described in European medical theory. Cheng insisted that the acupuncture points be redefined in light of this insight; in his book, he repositioned them away from blood vessels (where previously they might have been used for bloodletting) and toward the nerve pathways. He illustrated his revisions by painting the new acupuncture pathways onto the skin of volunteers and then photographing them, a technique that gave his book a greater air of modernity and reflected the increasingly common use of photographic illustrations in European medical books of the time. Cheng’s new scientific acupuncture was a great success in China. His book went through many editions from 1930 to 1960, and he set up his own college of acupuncture. Cheng achieved such prominence in the Chinese medical community that after the Communist takeover in 1949, he was asked to serve on several national committees in charge of medical policy and education. Chengs work helped acupuncture regain sufficient credibility to be reincorporated into the teaching and practice of the new Chinese medicine. In the 1950s, however, Cheng abandoned his own earlier insistence that acupuncture must work through the nerves alone. Instead, he attributed its efficacy to the power of qi and the doctor-patient relationship, in addition to the physical stimulation of the nerves”.
Acupuncture and the Reinvention of Chinese MedicineAndrews BJ. APS Bulletin. 1999;9(3).Cheng Danan. [Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion therapeutics] Zhongguo zhenjiu zhiliaoxue. Shanghai: Quanqingtang shuju. 1932.1935 : un premier écho chinois d’une acupuncture française. Franzini S. Revue Française d’Acupuncture. 1992;70:21-4.
L’auteur fait une traduction et un commentaire d’un article  chinois de 1935 de Cheng Danan, tiré du premier périodique chinois  d’acupuncture, où il apparaît que l’acupuncture était alors  menacée de disparition en Chine même, et que pour la défendre on  s’est appuyé sur l’intérêt européen pour la discipline, tout  particulièrement sur le travail de George Soulié de Morant.

Cheng Dan’an. Faguoren relie yanjiu Zhongguo zhi zhenjiu shu [engouement français pour l’acupuncture chinoise]. Zhenjiu zazhi [Revue d’acupuncture]. Wuxi; 1935;3(1):32-4.

Acupuncture & Moxibustion Formulas & Treatments by Dan'An Cheng (Translator), Cheng Dan-An (Editor), Wu Ming (Translator), Ming Wu, Bob Flaws Publisher: Blue Poppy Press; 1 edition (January 1, 1996) ISBN: 0936185686<br /><br />
            Cheng Dan-an was the single most important Chinese acupuncturist of the mid-20th century. He created the modern acupuncture college curriculum in China and rescued acupuncture and moxibustion from oblivion in its native land. As a teacher of many other famous teachers of acupuncture, such as the late Dr. James Tin Yau So, Cheng Dan-an is the father of modern Chinese acupuncture. This book is a collection of his formulas and treatments for a wide range of traditional Chinese diseases, such as cold damage, warm heat diseases, wind stroke, mania, diarrhea and dysentery, cough, phlegm rheum, panting & wheezing, the five accumulations, and more. This is a seminal book in the development of modern acupuncture which should not be overlooked by any Western practitioner. We chose to publish this book even though most Westerners have never heard of Cheng Dan-an because, if one does know a little something about the modern Chinese history of acupuncture, one has to know about the tremendous role Cheng played throughout the entire middle part of this century. This book can either be used as a stand alone treatment manual, or it can be read as a seminal transition text from premodern to modern Chinese acupuncture. In particular, students of Dr. James Tin Yao So in the early days of the New England School of Acupuncture will find this book extremely enlightening, since it is the source for many of their teacher's treatments and ideas.<br /><br />
Acupuncture & Moxibustion Formulas & Treatments by Dan’An Cheng (Translator), Cheng Dan-An (Editor), Wu Ming (Translator), Ming Wu, Bob Flaws Publisher: Blue Poppy Press; 1 edition (January 1, 1996) ISBN: 0936185686

Cheng Dan-an was the single most important Chinese acupuncturist of the mid-20th century. He created the modern acupuncture college curriculum in China and rescued acupuncture and moxibustion from oblivion in its native land. As a teacher of many other famous teachers of acupuncture, such as the late Dr. James Tin Yau So, Cheng Dan-an is the father of modern Chinese acupuncture. This book is a collection of his formulas and treatments for a wide range of traditional Chinese diseases, such as cold damage, warm heat diseases, wind stroke, mania, diarrhea and dysentery, cough, phlegm rheum, panting & wheezing, the five accumulations, and more. This is a seminal book in the development of modern acupuncture which should not be overlooked by any Western practitioner. We chose to publish this book even though most Westerners have never heard of Cheng Dan-an because, if one does know a little something about the modern Chinese history of acupuncture, one has to know about the tremendous role Cheng played throughout the entire middle part of this century. This book can either be used as a stand alone treatment manual, or it can be read as a seminal transition text from premodern to modern Chinese acupuncture. In particular, students of Dr. James Tin Yao So in the early days of the New England School of Acupuncture will find this book extremely enlightening, since it is the source for many of their teacher’s treatments and ideas.

Elèves de Cheng Danan
Gao Zhenwu
Shao Jingming
Xie Xiliang
Yang Jiasan
Zhao Erkang
Zheng Zhuoren
Zhong Yueqi
1- gera: 80046/di/ra
[CHENG DANAN (1898-1957) -A BRILLIANT PIONEER OF CHINA’S MODERN ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION. ZHAO ERKANG ET AL.chinese acupuncture and moxibustion.1989;9(5):46-8 (chi*).
2- gera: 65659/di/ra
[TALKING ABOUT QIGONG BY MR CHENG DAN-AN].LI JUN-LONG.qigong. 1991;12(8):357 (chi).
3- gera: 64631/di/ra
[ON FAMOUS ACUPUNCTURIST CHENG DANAN’S SCHOLARLY WORKS].LIN HUI ET AL.jiangsu journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;12(12):32 (chi).
4- gera: 152398/di/ra
[INTRODUCTION TO MR CHENG DAN-AN AND HIS WORKS].WANG Y, HUANG LX.acupuncture research. 2008;33(5):348-50 (chi).
Mr CHENG Dan-an is a famous educationist and acupuncturist in modern China. He established the earliest acupuncture correspondence institution named Chinese Research Society of Acu-moxibustion. Meanwhile he founded the earliest professional magazine, Journal of Acu-moxibustion which played an important role in promoting redevelopment of acu-moxibustion. Mr CHENG Dan-an wrote many famous works. Research on CHENG’sacademic thoughts and works will help a lot in knowing the development and evolution of modern acupuncturology in the period of the Republic of China. The present paper introduces it by the help of 7 books including Zhenjiu Zhiliao Xue (Chinese Acu-moxibustion Therapeutics).
 http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/index.php/astrology-with-needles/

Astrology with needles

Published by  under Acupuncture,History

 

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Now, Let Me Tell You About my Appendectomy in Peking…

An article triggered American Acupuncture Fever, published in July 1971, before the President Nixon’s journey to China.

James Reston

Many people have heard of the 1971 New York Times article by James Reston about his experience with acupuncture in his recovery from an emergency appendectomy. Reston was in China at the time, which was quite unusual in the first place. In 1971 China was in the grip of the Cultural Revolution, and very few foreigners were allowed into the country. He had an appendectomy the standard biomedical way, but for post-surgical pain was treated with acupuncture and moxibustion:

However, I was in considerable discomfort if not pain during the second night after the operation, and Li Chang-yuan, doctor of acupuncture at the hospital, with my approval, inserted three long thin needles into the outer part of my right elbow and below my knees and manipulated them in order to stimulate the intestine and relieve the pressure and distension of the stomach.

That sent ripples of pain racing through my limbs and, at least, had the effect of diverting my attention from the distress in my stomach. Meanwhile, Doctor Li lit two pieces of an herb called ai, which looked like the burning stumps of a broken cheap cigar, and held them close to my abdomen while occasionally twirling the needles into action.

All this took about 20 minutes, during which I remember thinking that it was a rather complicated way to get rid of gas in the stomach, but there was noticeable relaxation of the pressure and distension within an hour and no recurrence of the problem thereafter.

Reston’s article provoked great interest in acupuncture. In 1976 California became the first state (Dr.Fan notes: California actually was no.8 State to license the acupuncture, in 1975, see the official article of my last article posted) to license acupuncture, where just two years earlier pioneering acupuncturist Miriam Lee was arrested for practicing medicine without a license. My martial arts teacher Dr. Alex Feng was one of the first acupuncturists licensed in California (his license number is 297 – mine is 13299).

In 2006 a Chinese publication, the People’s Daily, wrote a follow-up which had an interview with some of the original doctors mentioned in Reston’s article.

Hope you enjoy this bit of acupuncture history: Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking… (full article)

This article was from online, written by Jonah Ewell L.Ac, Kang Dao Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine, 405 Kains Ave Suite 101.510-516-3478, jonah.ewell@gmail.com

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Of pins, needles and pain relief
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It is commonly believed that acupuncture went mainstream in the United States after President Richard Nixon’s visit to China in 1972.

However, after years of research, Dr Li Yongming, president of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Association in the United States, has overturned this general consensus and announced recently that the “acupuncture fever” in the United States got started a bit earlier.

The man who started it was journalist James Reston, with his 1971 New York Times story, said Dr Li, who is organizing a series of events to mark the 35th anniversary of this incident.

Unique experience

In June 1971, Reston, a columnist and editor of The New York Times and winner of two Pulitzer Prizes, received an invitation from the Chinese Government to visit China. He arrived in Guangzhou on July 8. However, his trip was delayed and he did not set foot in Beijing until July 12.

On July 15, Reston suddenly felt a stab of pain in his groin. The next day, he checked into the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, which was then named Anti-Imperialist Hospital.

In his story entitled “Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking,” Reston blamed Henry Kissinger for his pain.

As Nixon’s National Security Adviser at that time, Kissinger arrived in Beijing on July 9 to secretly negotiate with the Chinese Government the date of President Nixon’s visit to China, and left on July 11.

As an experienced journalist, Reston felt great regret and anger at having missed a golden chance to cover such breaking news.

Reston was diagnosed as suffering from acute appendicitis and had to undergo an appendectomy.

Though the operation went off well, Reston was in considerable discomfort during the second night after the surgery. Li Zhanyuan, a doctor of acupuncture at the hospital, with Reston’s approval, inserted three long thin needles into his right elbow and below his knees.

The needles sent twinges of pain through Reston’s limbs and diverted his attention from the distress in his stomach.

Meanwhile, Dr Li lit two pieces of a herb called ai (Chinese mugwort), which looked like the burning stumps of a broken cigar, and held them close to his abdomen, while occasionally twirling the needles into action. Reston later learned that this was the procedure called moxibustion.

“All this took about 20 minutes, during which I remember thinking that it was a rather complicated way to get rid of gas in the stomach, but there was noticeable relaxation of the pressure and distension within an hour and no recurrence of the problem thereafter,” he wrote in his article.

Reston’s story appeared on the front page of The New York Times along with the Apollo 15 lift-off, on July 26, 1971.

Dr Li Yongming calls the acupuncture treatment that Reston underwent “an oriental Apollo.”

Though acupuncture had been practised in North America ever since the first immigrants came to the continent from China, it never entered the mainstream before the early 1970s, according to Li.

Reston’s article was the first genuine American experience in acupuncture to appear in the mainstream Western media.

“Several years later, after Reston’s death, I got in contact with his three sons, who remembered that their father received a lot of letters from readers to inquire about acupuncture,” said Li. He graduated from the Liaoning Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute in 1982 and has been researching both Chinese and Western medicine as attending physician at the Warren Hospital in New Jersey.

Dr Li began tracking down the persons involved in Reston’s operation, and it took him more than five years to finally locate Dr Li Zhanyuan, who retired from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 1995. The delay was caused by Reston who used the old Western way to spell the Chinese names.

Li Zhanyuan, who is in his 70s, retains his love for acupuncture, training young practitioners in a vocational skills education centre in Beijing.

Interestingly, even while telling his students the story of acupuncture’s spread to the United States, he ignored the Reston story.

“I never expected Reston’s experience with the silver needles to evoke such a strong response in America,” he said.

Thousands of young acupuncturists like Dr Li Zhanyuan were trained after the founding of the People’s Republic of China to provide inexpensive medical care for the vast rural population. Owing to the strong support of the government, acupuncture enjoyed its strongest development in those years in China.

Viable alternative

“Research on acupuncture anaesthesia has played an important role in the spread of acupuncture in the US. It has attracted people’s attention to its pain-relieving effects,” said Dr Li Yongming.

Although the acupuncture fever cooled after the initial burst of enthusiasm, the treatment retained its influence in the United States. In the 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest, as more Americans began paying greater attention to alternative medicine.

“People started to get sick of the side-effects of Western medicine and turned to effective and safe non-medicinal therapies,” said Dr Li.

In 1997, the US National Institute of Health (NIH) concluded that acupuncture provided effective therapy for certain medical conditions, especially post-operative nausea and pain as well as vomiting. It said acupuncture was remarkably safe, with less side effects than many well-established therapies.

Cao Xiaoding, director of the Research Department of Acupuncture under the WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, has been studying acupuncture analgesia since 1964.

She was one of the three Chinese acupuncture experts invited to take part in the 1997 hearing on acupuncture conducted by the US NIH.

She said acupuncture was being applied widely in Western countries to alleviate pain. As acupuncture also helps regulate body functions, it can help conditions such as high blood pressure, arthritis, myasthenia and paralysis.

According to Dr Li Yongming, allocations of research funds for acupuncture from the USNIH have been increasing every year. It now accounts for nearly half of TCM research funds, which in turn account for a quarter of the total funds earmarked for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine.

Currently, the US has about 20,000 acupuncturists and 5,000 physician acupuncturists. More than 30 states have laws dealing with acupuncture.

“One can find acupuncture advertisements in the yellow pages in any hotel in the United States,” said Dr Li.

Reston himself might have never imagined that one day acupuncture would find such wide acceptance in his country while penning his article from a hospital bed 35 years ago.

Source: China Daily    http://english.people.com.cn/200602/16/eng20060216_243273.html

 

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