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我国首次发布中医药发展白皮书《中国的中医药》

http://www.xinhuanet.com/health/2016-12/06/c_1120063254.htm
2016年12月06日 12:21:51 来源: 新华网
    新华网北京12月6日电(刘映)12月6日,国务院新闻办发布《中国的中医药》白皮书,这也是我国首次发布中医药发展状况的白皮书。据了解,白皮书从中医药的历史发展脉络及其特点、中国发展中医药的国家政策和主要措施、中医药的传承与发展、中医药国际交流与合作等方面对我国中医药的发展情况进行了概述。全文约9000余字,由前言、正文、结束语三部分组成,以中、英、法、俄、德、西、日、阿等语种发表,中文版和英文版已分别由人民出版社和外文出版社出版。

    国家卫生计生委副主任、国家中医药管理局局长王国强表示,在推进“健康中国”建设过程中,中医药在普及健康生活方式,在“治未病”、重大疾病防治、康复以及完善健康保障方面都能发挥重要作用,在建设健康环境方面,中医药也具有优势。

    中医药“整体化、个体化、治未病”等理念意蕴深远

国务院新闻办新闻发言人袭艳春表示,中医药作为中华文明的杰出代表,是中国各族人民在几千年生产生活实践和与疾病做斗争中逐步形成并不断丰富发展的医学科学,不仅为中华民族繁衍昌盛做出了卓越贡献,也对世界文明进步产生了积极影响。

白皮书显示,中医药在历史发展进程中,兼容并蓄、创新开放,形成了独特的生命观、健康观、疾病观、防治观,实现了自然科学与人文科学的融合和统一,蕴含了中华民族深邃的哲学思想。随着健康观念变化和医学模式转变,中医药越来越显示出独特价值,并形成了鲜明的特点,包括重视整体,注重“平”与“和”,强调个体化,突出“治未病”,使用简便等。

从历史上看,中华民族屡经天灾、战乱和瘟疫,却能一次次转危为安,人口不断增加、文明得以传承,中医药做出了重大贡献。近些年来,抗疟药物“青蒿素”的发明,拯救了全球特别是发展中国家数百万人的生命。2015年,中国中医科学院研究员屠呦呦因“青蒿素的发现”而获得诺贝尔生理学或医学奖,更是让世界见证了传统中医药的魅力。

    中医药传承与发展提速,中医医疗服务体系覆盖城乡

中国历来高度重视中医药事业发展,近年来,更是出台了一系列推动中医药发展的政策文件。比如2003年,国务院发布实施《中华人民共和国中医药条例》,2009年,国务院颁布实施了《关于扶持和促进中医药事业发展的若干意见》,逐步形成了相对完善的中医药政策体系。2015年国务院常务会议通过《中医药法(草案)》,并将提请全国人大常委会审议,将为中医药事业发展提供良好的政策环境和制度保障。2016年,国务院印发了《中医药发展战略规划纲要(2016-2030年)》,这是把中医药发展上升为国家战略的具体体现,是新时期推进我国中医药事业发展的纲领性文件。

近期举行的全国卫生与健康大会强调,要“着力推动中医药振兴发展”。

在中医药的传承与发展方面,王国强表示,目前,我国已基本建立起覆盖城乡的中医医疗服务体系。在城市,形成了以中医(民族医、中西医结合)医院、中医类门诊部和诊所以及综合医院中医类临床科室、社区卫生服务机构为主的城市中医医疗服务网络。在农村,形成了由县级中医医院、综合医院(专科医院、妇幼保健院)中医临床科室、乡镇卫生院中医科和村卫生室为主的农村中医医疗服务网络,提供基本中医医疗预防保健服务。截至2015年底,全国有中医类医院3966所,其中民族医医院253所,中西医结合医院446所。中医类别执业(助理)医师45.2万人(含民族医医师、中西医结合医师)。全国有中医类门诊部、诊所42528个,其中民族医门诊部、诊所550个,中西医结合门诊部、诊所7706个。2015年全国中医类医疗卫生机构总诊疗人次达9.1亿,全国中医类医疗卫生机构出院人数2691.5万人。

中医药除在常见病、多发病、疑难杂症的防治中贡献力量外,在重大疫情防治和突发事件医疗救治中也发挥重要作用。中医、中西医结合治疗传染性非典型肺炎,疗效得到世界卫生组织肯定;中医治疗甲型H1N1流感,取得良好效果,成果引起国际社会关注。同时,中医药在防治艾滋病、手足口病、人感染H7N9禽流感等传染病,以及四川汶川特大地震、甘肃舟曲特大泥石流、江苏昆山爆炸等突发事件医疗救治中,都发挥了独特作用。

此外,中医药在预防保健、文化建设等多个方面取得快速发展。白皮书显示,中国政府重视和保护中医药的文化价值,积极推进中医药传统文化传承体系建设,已有130个中医药类项目列入国家级非物质文化遗产代表性项目名录,“中医针灸”被列入联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录,《黄帝内经》和《本草纲目》入选世界记忆名录。

此外,中医药标准化工作也取得积极进展。制定实施了《中医药标准化中长期发展规划纲要(2011—2020年)》,中医药标准体系初步形成,标准数量达到649项,年平均增率29%。中医、针灸、中药、中西医结合、中药材种子种苗5个全国标准化技术委员会及广东、上海、甘肃等地方中医药标委会相继成立。

    中医药已成最具代表性的中国元素

从里约奥运会、G20杭州峰会,以及最近在上海举行的全球健康促进大会等国际重大活动和会议中,都“不约而同”地出现了中医药热现象。

对此,王国强表示,今年,中国外文局对外传播研究中心开展了第四次中国国家形象全球调查。此次调查引用LightSpeed Research全球样本库中覆盖G20中除欧盟外的19个成员国9500个样本,并严格执行Online在线调查的国际标准。调查结果显示,与2012年第一次调查相比,中医药首次被认为是最具代表性的中国元素,选择比例达50%,中国整体形象稳步提升,并呈现新特点。与中医密不可分的武术列居第二,远超书法、戏曲、饮食等元素。

白皮书显示,目前,中医药已传播到183个国家和地区。据世界卫生组织统计,目前103个会员国认可使用针灸,其中29个国家和地区设立了法律法规,18个国家和地区将针灸纳入医疗保险体系。中药逐步进入国际医药体系,已在新加坡、古巴、越南、阿联酋和俄罗斯等国以药品形式注册。有30多个国家和地区开办了数百所中医药院校,培养本土化中医药人才。总部设在中国的世界针灸学会联合会有53个国家和地区194个会员团体,世界中医药学会联合会有67个国家和地区251个会员团体。

王国强表示,中国政府一直致力于推动国际传统医药发展,与世界卫生组织保持密切合作关系,为全球传统医学发展做出贡献。目前,中国政府与相关国家和国际组织签订专门的中医药合作协议86个,中国政府已经支持在海外建立了10个中医药中心。

此外,为促进中医药在全球范围内的规范发展,保障安全、有效、合理应用,中国推动在国际标准化组织(ISO)成立中医药技术委员会(ISO/TC249),秘书处设在中国上海,目前已发布一批中医药国际标准。在中国推动下,世界卫生组织将以中医药为主体的传统医学纳入新版国际疾病分类(ICD-11)中。推动传统药监督管理国际合作,保障传统药安全有效。

    我国将建全国中药资源动态监测网,提升中药安全性

    一图读懂中国的中医药

【纠错】

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冬雪春雨4296952 [中国浙江省杭州市 ]2016年12月06日 19:04 发表

中国的传统中医医务工作者,中国的中药材质量,中国的中药产品的质量,中国新闻有关中国中医的报道质量,中国的医务工作者,中药材,中药产品检验质量到底怎么样?有多少真实性?有多少被污染了?

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悲欢离合4294282 [中国贵州省黔西南布依族苗族自治州 ]2016年12月06日 07:55 发表

中国药助中华民族人数众多,人材济济,繁荣昌盛、就是最明显的疗效。

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There are six papers in http://www.PubMed.gov, a NIH database for Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, Dr.Arthur Yin Fan involved in most of these studies, included in pre-clinical studies for safety evaluation and efficacy tests, mechanism explorations. This project was a NIH funded studies conducted in University of Maryland Harvard University.

Lao L, Fan AY, Zhang RX, Zhou A, Ma ZZ, Lee DY, Ren K, Berman B.

Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(5):833-44.

PMID:17080548 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations

Zhang RX, Fan AY, Zhou AN, Moudgil KD, Ma ZZ, Lee DY, Fong HH, Berman BM, Lao L.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):366-71. Epub 2008 Nov 28.

PMID: 19100323 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC ArticleRelated citations

Rajaiah R, Lee DY, Ma Z, Fan AY, Lao L, Fong HH, Berman BM, Moudgil KD.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4;123(1):40-4. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

PMID: 19429337 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC ArticleRelated citations

Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Zhou AN, Berman BM.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010 May;8(5):438-47.

PMID: 20456842 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free ArticleRelated citations

Yang YH, Rajaiah R, Lee DY, Ma Z, Yu H, Fong HH, Lao L, Berman BM, Moudgil KD.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:642027. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

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The best way to choose a TCM doctor is to ask questions.

First ask friends whether they have a herbalist, and if so, would they recommend him/her? Using Chinese medicine practitioner’s website is usually the best way to get detail information about TCM doctor and his / her personality, as well as practice.

There are also many online registries of Chinese medicine practitioners, such as NCCAOM— the national board for acupuncture and Chinese medicine in USA,  which handles national examinations and issues certificates which are required for licensing in most of States to practice of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, tuina – Chinese therapeutic massage in the USA. Currently, there are over 10,000 professionally qualified TCM practitioners registered with NCCAOM ,which provides Chinese medicine practitioners contact information by state.

You should ask the provider some questions to decide how helpful the TCM doctor is.

For example:

*Does this TCM doctor assure you that the body heals itself and that the Chinese medicine give opportunity to heal?

*Does this TCM doctor make you feel that you can trust him or her?

*Can this TCM doctor answer your questions to your satisfaction?

*Does this TCM doctor teach you why you might be ill in the first place?

*Does this TCM doctor listen to you or understand you ( Some Chinese may be  poor in spoken English)?

*Do you feel uncomfortable with your TCM doctor?

Remember–lack of trust can hinder the healing.

Remember–any healthcare professional, that offers a quick fix to all problems, is not offering healthcare. There are no magic bullets or miracle cures. Take care!

And if a provider’s fee schedule is very low (based on your common sense ), you should question the quality of his / her practice.

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A Chinese Doctor’s Office in Los Angeles ca. 1890

http://www.history.la.ca.us/hdphotos.htm[photo] – from the CHS/TICOR Collection (US)

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From: National Institute of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

NCCAM Clearinghouse

Acupuncture is one of the oldest, most commonly used medical procedures in the world. Originating in China moe than 2,000 years ago, acupuncture became widely known in the United States in 1971 when New York Times reporter James Reston wrote about how doctors in Beijing, China, used needles to ease his abdominal pain after surgery. Research shows that acupuncture is beneficial in treating a variety of health conditions.

In the past two decades, acupuncture has grown in popularity in the United States. In 1993, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated that Americans made 9 to 12 million visits per year to acupuncture practitioners and spent as much as $500 million on acupuncture treatments.1 In 1995, an estimated 10,000 nationally certified acupuncturists were practicing in the United States. By the year 2000, that number is expected to double. Currently, an estimated one-third of certified acupuncturists in the United States are medical doctors.2

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has funded a variety of research projects on acupuncture that have been awarded by its National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and National Institute on Drug Abuse.

This information and resource package provides general information about acupuncture, summaries of NIH research findings on acupuncture, information for the health consumer, a list of additional information resources, and a glossary that defines terms italicized in the text. It also lists books, journals, organizations, and Internet resources to help you learn more about acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine.

Acupuncture Theories

Traditional Chinese medicine theorizes that the more than 2,000 acupuncture points on the human body connect with 12 main and 8 secondary pathways, called meridians. Chinese medicine practitioners believe these meridians conduct energy, or qi, between the surface of the body and internal organs.

Qi regulates spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical balance. Qi is influenced by the opposing forces of yin and yang. According to traditional Chinese medicine when yin and yang are balanced they work together with the natural flow of qi to help the body achieve and maintain health. Acupuncture is believed to balance yin and yang, keep the normal flow of energy unblocked, and restore health to the body and mind.

Traditional Chinese medicine practices (including acupuncture, herbs, diet, massage, and meditative physical exercises) all are intended to improve the flow of qi.3

Western scientists have found meridians hard to identify because meridians do not directly correspond to nerve or blood circulation pathways. Some researchers believe that meridians are located throughout the body’s connective tissue;4 others do not believe that qi exists at all.5,6Such differences of opinion have made acupuncture a source of scientific controversy.

Preclinical Studies

Preclinical studies have documented acupuncture’s effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the Western system of medicine.7,8,9,10,11,12

Mechanisms of Action

Several processes have been proposed to explain acupuncture’s effects, primarily those on pain. Acupuncture points are believed to stimulate the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to release chemicals into the muscles, spinal cord, and brain. These chemicals either change the experience of pain or release other chemicals, such as hormones, that influence the body’s self-regulating systems. The biochemical changes may stimulate the body’s natural healing abilities and promote physical and emotional well-being.13 There are three main mechanisms:

  • Conduction of electromagnetic signals: Western scientists have found evidence that acupuncture points an strategic conductors of electromagnetic signals. Stimulating points along these pathways through acupuncture enables electromagnetic signals to be relayed at it greater rate than under normal conditions. These signals may start the flow of pain-killing biochemicals such as endorphins and of immune system cells to specific sites that are injured or vulnerable to disease.14,15
  • Activation of opioid systems: research has found that several types of opioids may be released into the central nervous system during acupuncture treatment, thereby reducing pain.16
  • Changes in brain chemistry sensation, and Involuntary body functions: studies have shown that acupuncture may alter brain chemistry by changing the release ofneurotransmitters and neurohormones in a good way. Acupuncture also has been documented to affect the parts of the central nervous system related to sensation and involuntary body functions, such as immune reactions and processes whereby a person’s blood pressure, blood flow, and body temperature are regulated.3,17,18
Conditions Appropriate for Acupuncture Therapy
Digestive
Abdominal pain
Constipation
Diarrhea
Hyperacidity
Indigestion
Emotional
Anxiety
Depression
Insomnia
Nervousness
Neurosis
Eye-Ear-Nose-Throat
Cataracts
Gingivitis
Poor vision
Tinnitis
Toothache
Gynecological
Infertility
Menopausal symptoms
Premenstrual syndrome
Miscellaneous
Addiction control
Athletic performance
Blood pressure regulation
Chronic fatigue
Immune system tonification
Stress reduction
Musculoskeletal
Arthritis
Back pain
Muscle cramping
Muscle pain/weakness
Neck pain
Sciatica
Neurological
Headaches
Migraines
Neurogenic
Bladder dysfunction
Parkinson’s disease
Postoperative pain
Stroke
Respiratory
Asthma
Bronchitis
Common cold
Sinusitis
Smoking cessation
Tonsilitis
Source: World Health Organization United Nations. “Viewpoint on Acupuncture.” 19 19 (revised).23

Clinical Studies

According to an NIH consensus panel of scientists, researchers, and practitioners who convened in November 1997, clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective treatment for nausea caused by surgical anesthesia and cancer as well as for dental pain experienced after surgery. The panel also found that acupuncture is useful by itself or combined with conventional therapies to treat addiction, headaches, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow,fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma; and to assist in stroke rehabilitation.19

Increasingly, acupuncture is complementing conventional therapies. For example, doctors may combine acupuncture and drugs to control surgery related pain in their patients.20 By providing both acupuncture and certain conventional anesthetic drugs, doctors have found it possible to achieve a state of complete pain relief for some patients.16 They also have found that using acupuncture lowers the need for conventional pain-killing drugs and thus reduces the risk of side effects for patients who take the drugs.21,22

Outside the United States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the health branch of the United Nations, lists more than 40 conditions for which acupuncture may be used.23 The table (above) lists these conditions.

Currently, one of the main reasons Americans seek acupuncture treatment is to relieve chronic pain, especially from conditions such as arthritis or lower back disorders.24,25 Some clinical studies show that acupuncture is effective in relieving both chronic (long-lasting) and acute or sudden pain,26 but other research indicates that it provides no relief from chronic pain.27Additional research is needed to provide definitive answers.

FDA’s Role

The FDA approved acupuncture needles for use by licensed practitioners in 1996. The FDA requires manufacturers of acupuncture needles to label them for single use only.28 Relatively few complications from the use of acupuncture have been reported to the FDA when one considers the millions of people treated each year and the number of acupuncture needles used. Still, complications have resulted from inadequate sterilization of needles and from improper delivery of treatments. When not delivered properly acupuncture can cause serious adverse effects, including infections and puncturing of organs.1

NCCAM-Sponsored Clinical Research

Originally founded in 1992 as the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM), the NCCAM facilitates the research and evaluation of unconventional medical practices and disseminates this information to the public. The NCCAM established in 1998, supports 13 Centers, where researchers conduct studies on complementary and alternative medicine for specific health conditions and diseases. Scientists at several Centers are investigating acupuncture therapy.

Researchers at the NCCAM Center at the University of Maryland in Baltimore conducted arandomized controlled clinical trial and found that patients treated with acupuncture after dental surgery had less intense pain than patients who received a placebo.20 Other scientists at the Center found that older people with osteoarthritis experienced significantly more pain relief after using conventional drugs and acupuncture together than those using conventional therapy alone.29

Researchers at the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation in Minnesota are studying the use of acupuncture to treat alcoholism and addiction to benzodiazepines, nicotine, and cocaine. Scientists at the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation in New Jersey are studying acupuncture to treat a strokerelated swallowing disorder and the pain associated with spinal cord injuries.

The OAM, now the NCCAM, also funded several individual researchers in 1993 and 1994 to conduct preliminary studies on acupuncture. In one small randomized controlled clinical trial, more than half of the I I women with a major depressive episode who were treated with acupuncture improved significantly.30

In another controlled clinical trial, nearly half of the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who underwent acupuncture treatment showed some improvement in their symptoms. Researchers concluded that acupuncture was a useful alternative to standard medication for some children with this condition.31

In a third small controlled study, eight pregnant women were given moxibustion to reduce the rate of breech births, in which tile fetus is positioned for birth feet-first instead of the normal position of head-first. Researchers found the treatment to be safe, but they were uncertain whether it was effective.32 Then, rescarchers reporting in the November 11, 1998, issue of theJournal of the American Medical Association conducted a larger randomized controlled clinical trial using moxibustion. They found that moxibustion applied to 130 pregnant women presenting breech significantly increased the number of normal head-first births.33

Acupuncture and You

The use of acupuncture, like many other complementary and alternative treatments, has produced a good deal of anecdotal evidence. Much of this evidence comes from people who report their own successful use of the treatment. If a treatment appears to be safe and patients report recovery from their illness or condition after using it, others may decide to use the treatment. However, scientific research may not substantiate the anecdotal reports.

Lifestyle, age, physiology, and other factors combine to make every person different. A treatment that works for one person in, y not work for another who has the very same condition. You, as a health care consumer (especially if you have a preexisting medical condition), should discuss acupuncture with your doctor. Do not rely on a diagnosis of disease by an acupuncturist who does not have substantial conventional medical training. If you have received a diagnosis from a doctor and have had little or no success using conventional medicine, you may wish to ask your doctor whether acupuncture might help.

Finding a Licensed Acupuncture Practitioner

Doctors are a good resource for referrals to acupuncturists. Increasingly, doctors are familiar with acupuncture and may know of a certified practitioner. In addition, more medical doctors, including neurologists, anesthesiologists, and specialists in physical medicine, are becoming trained in acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, and other alternative and complementary therapies. Friends and family members may be a source of referrals as well. In addition, national referral organizations provide the names of practitioners, although these organizations may be advocacy groups for the practitioners to whom they refer. See “Acupuncture Information Resources” for a list of these organizations.

Check a practitioner’s credentials.

A practitioner who is licensed and credentialed may provide better care than one who is not. About 30 states have established training standards for certification to practice acupuncture, but not all states require acupuncturists to obtain a license to practice. Although proper credentials do not ensure competency, they do indicate that the practitioner has met certain standards to treat patients with acupuncture.

The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture can give you a referral list of doctors who practice acupuncture. The National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance lists thousands of acupuncturists on its Web site and provides the list to callers to their information and referral line. The Alliance requires documentation of state license or national board certification from its listed acupuncturists. The American Association of Oriental Medicine can tell you the state licensing status of acupuncture practitioners across the United States as well. To contact these and other organizations, see “Acupuncture Information Resources.”

Check treatment cost and insurance coverage.

Reflecting public demand, an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the nation’s insurers covered some acupuncture treatments in 1996. An acupuncturist may provide information about the number of treatments needed and how much each will cost. Generally, treatment may take place over a few days or several weeks. The cost per treatment typically ranges between $30 and $100 but it may be more. Physician acupuncturists may charge more than nonphysician practitioners.13

Check treatment procedures.

Find out about the treatment procedures that will be used and their likelihood of success. You also should make certain that the practitioner uses 1 new set of disposable needles in a sealed package every time. The FDA requires the use of sterile, nontoxic needles that bear a labeling statement restricting their use to qualified practitioners. The practitioner also should swat, the puncture site with alcohol or another before inserting the needle.

Some practitioners may use electroacupuncture; others may use moxibustion. These approaches are part of traditional Chinese medicine, and Western researchers are beginning to study whether they enhance acupuncture’s effects.

During your first office visit, the practitioner may ask you at length about your health condition, lifestyle, and behavior The practitioner will want to obtain a complete picture of your treatment needs and behaviors that may contribute to the condition. This holistic approach is typical of traditional Chinese medicine and many other alternative and complementary therapies. Let the acupuncturist, or any doctor for that matter, know about all treatments or medications you are taking and whether you have a pacemaker, are pregnant, or have breast or other implants. Acupuncture may be risky to your health if you fail to tell the practitioner about any of these matters.

The Sensation of Acupuncture

Acupuncture needles arc metallic, solid, and hair-thin, unlike the thicker, hollow hypodermic needles used in Western medicine to administer treatments or take blood samples. People experience acupuncture differently, but most feel minimal pain as the needles are inserted. Some people are energized by treatment, while others feel relaxed. 34 Some patients may fear acupuncture because they are afraid of needles. Improper needle placement, movement of the patient, or a defect in the needle can cause soreness and pain during treatment.35 This is why it is important to seek treatment only from a qualified acupuncture practitioner.

As important research advances continue to be made on acupuncture worldwide, practitioners and doctors increasingly will work together to give you the best care available.

For More Information

For more information about acupuncture research sponsored by different parts of NIH contact the respective Information Office or Clearinghouse. Call the NIH operator for assistance at 301-490-4000.

For more information about research on acupuncture, contact the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM), which has published a bibliography of more than 2,000 citations to studies conducted on acupuncture. The bibliography is available on the Internet athttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/acupuncture.html or by writing the NLM, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda. MD 20894. The NLM also has a toll-free telephone number: 1-888-346-3056.

For a database of research on complementary and alternative medicine, including acupuncture access the CAM Citation Index on the NCCAM Web site at http://altmed.od.nih.gov/nccam.

 

Glossary of Terms

Acupuncture – An ancient Chinese health that involves puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular locations, called acupuncture points, oil the patient’s body. Acupuncture is believed to help reduce pa in or change a body function. Sometimes tile needles are twirled given a slight electric charge (see electroacupuncture) or warmed (see moxibustion).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – A syndrome primarily found in children and teenagers that is characterized by excessive physical movement, impulsiveness, and lack of attention.

Clinical studies (also clinical trials, clinical outcomes studies, controlled trials, case series, comparative trials, or practice audit evidence) – Tests of a treatment’s effects in humans. Treatments undergo clinical studies only after they have shown promise in laboratory studies of animals. Clinical studies help researchers find out whether a treatment is safe and effective for people. They also tell scientists which treatments are more effective than others.

Electroacupuncture – A variation of traditional acupuncture treatment in which acupuncture or needle points are stimulated electronically.

Electromagnetic signals – The minute electrical impulses that transmit information through and between nerve calls. For example, electromagnetic signals convey information about pain and other sensations within the body’s nervous system.

Fibromyalgia – A complex chronic condition having multiple symptoms, including muscle pain, weakness, and stiffness, fatigue; metabolic disorders, allergies and headaches.

Holistic – Describes therapies based on facts about the “whole person,” including spiritual and mental aspects, not only the specific part of the body being treated. Holistic practitioners may advise changes in diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors to help treat a patient’s condition.

Merldians – A traditional Chinese medicine term for the 14 pathways throughout the body for the flow of qi, or vital energy, accessed through acupuncture points.

Moxibustion – The use of dried herbs in acupuncture. The herbs are placed on top of acupuncture needles and burned. This method is believed to be more effective at treating some health conditions than using acupuncture needles alone.

Neurohorinones – Chemical substances made by tissue in the body’s nervous system that can change the structure or function or direct the activity of an organ or organs.

Neurological – A term referring to the body’s nervous system, which starts, oversees, and controls all body functions.

Neurotransmitters – Biochemical substances that stimulate or inhibit nerve impulses in the brain that relay information about external stimuli and sensations, such as pain.

Opioids – Synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that may reduce pain and induce sleep.

Placebo – An inactive substance given to a participant in a research study as part of a test of the effects of another substance or treatment. Scientists often compare the effects of active and inactive substances to learn more about how the active substance affects participants.

Preclinical studies – Tests performed after a treatment has been shown in laboratory studies to have a desirable effect. Preclinical studies provide information about a treatment’s harmful side effects and safety it different doses in animals.

Qi (pronounced “chee”) – The Chinese term for vital energy or life force.

Randomized controlled clinical trials – A type of clinical study that is designed to provide information about whether a treatment is safe and effective in humans. These trials generally use two groups of people, one group receives the treatment and the other does not. The participants being studied do not know which group receives the actual treatment.

Traditional Chinese medicine – An ancient system of medicine and health care that is based on the concept of balanced qi or vital energy that flows throughout the body. Components of traditional Chinese medicine include herbal and nutritional therapy restorative physical exercises, medication acupuncture, acupressure, and remedial massage.

Yang – The Chinese concept of positive energy and forces in the universe and human body Acupuncture is believed to remove yang imbalances and bring the body into to balance.

Yin – The Chinese concept of negative energy and forces in the universe and human body. Acupuncture is believed to remove yin imbalances and bring the body into balance.

References

  • Lytle, C.D. An Overview of Acupuncture. 1993, Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Health Sciences Branch, Division of Life Sciences, Office of Science and Technology, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration.
  • Culliton, RD. “Current Utilization of Acupuncture by United States Patients.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD, November 3-5,1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications Research. Bethesda, MD: National Instittites of Health, 1997.
  • Beinfield, H. and Korngold, E.L. Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1991.
  • Brown, D. “Three Generations of Alternative Medicine: Behavioral Medicine, Integrated Medicine and Energy Medicine.” Boston University School of Medicine Alumni Report, Fall 1996.
  • Senior, K. “Acupuncture: Can It Take the Pain Away?” Molecular Medicine Today. 1996. 2(4):150-3.
  • Raso. J. Alternative Health Care: A Comprehensive Guide. Buffalo, NY Prometheus Books, 1994.
  • Eskinazi, D. P. “National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Workshop on Alternative Medicine Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementaty Medicine. 1996. 2(1):1-253
  • Tang, N.M., Dong, H.W., Wang, X. M., Tsui, Z.C., and Han, J.S. “Cholecystokinin Antisense RNA Increases the Analgesic Effect Induced by Electroacupuncture or Low Dose Morphine: Conversion of Low Responder Rats into High Responders.” Pain. 1997. 71(1)-.71-80.
  • Cheng, X.D., Wu, G. C., He, Q. Z., and Cao, X. D. “Effect of Electroacuptuncture on the Activities ol Tyrosine Protein Kinasc in Subcellular Fractions of Activited T Lymphocytcs from the Traumatized Rao;.” Immunopharmacology. Forthcoming.
  • Chen, L.B. and Li, S.X. “The Effects of Electrical Acupuncture of Neiguan in the PO2 of the Border Zone Between Ischemic and Non-Ischemic Myocardium in Dogs.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1983, 3(2):8 1-8.
  • Lee, H.S. and Kim, J.Y. “Effects on Blood Pressure and Plasma Renin Activity in Two Kidney One Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats.” American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994. 22(3-4):215-9.
  • Okada, K_ Oshima, M., and 1 Kawakita, K. “Examination of the Afferentnt Fiber Responsible for the Suppression of Jaw-Open Reflex in Heat, Cold and Manual Acupuncture Stimulation in Anesthetized Rats.” Brain Research. 1996 740(1-2):201-7.
  • National Institutes of Health. Frequently. Asked Questions About Acupuncture. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.
  • Dale, R.A. “Demythologizing Acupuncture Part 1. The Scientific Mechanisms and the Clinical Uses.” Alternative & Complementary Therapies Journal. April 1997. 1(2)-.125-31.
  • Takeshige, C. “Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia Based on Animal Experiments.”Scientific Bases of Acupuncture. Berlin, Germany: Springere-Verlag, 1989.
  • Han, J.S. “Acupuncture Activates Endogenous Systems of Analgesia.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD. November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications of Research. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.
  • Wu, B., Zhou, R.X., and ZI M.S. “Effect of Acupuncture on Interleukin-2 Level and NK Cell Immunoactivity of Peripheral Blood of Malignant Tumor Patients.” Chung Kyo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chich. 1994.14(9):537-9.
  • Wit, B. “Effect Of Acupuncture on the Regulation of Cell-Mediated Immunity in Patients with Malignant Tumors.” Chen Tzu Yen Chiu. 1995, 20(3):67-71.
  • National Instituties of Health Consensus Panel. Acupuncture National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Statement November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternaive Medicine –ind Office of Medical Application., of Research Bethesda, MD: N ational Institutes of, Health, 1997.
  • Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenherg, P, Wong, R., and Berman, B. “Efficacy of Chinese Acupuncture on Postoperative Oral Surgery Pain,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1995.79(4):423-8.
  • Lewith, G.T. and Vincent, C. “On the Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Acupuncture: A Problem Reassessed and a Framework for Future Research.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996. 2(1):79-90.
  • TsibuIiak,VN., Alisov, A.P, and Shatrova,V.P. “Acupuncture Analgesia and Analgesic Transcutaneous Electroneurostimulation in the Early Postoperative Period,”Anesthesiology and Reanimatology 1995. 2:93-8,
  • World Health Organization. Viewpoint on Acupuncture. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1979.
  • Bullock, M.L., Pheley.A.M., Kiresuk.T.J., Lenz, S.K., and Culliton, PD. “Characteristies and Complaints of Patients Seeking Therapy at a Hospital-Based Alternative Medicine Clinic.” Journal of Alternative Medicine 1997-30):31-7.
  • Diehl, D.L., Kaplan, G., Coulter, I., Glik, D.,and Hurwitz, E.L.” Use of Acupuncture by American Physicians.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1997, 3(2):119-26.
  • Levine, J.D., Gormley, J., and Fields, H.J., “Observatins on the Analgesic Effects of Needle Puncture (Acupuncture).” Pain. 1976.2(2):149-59.
  • Ter Reit, G., Kleijnen, J., and Knipschild, P. “Acupuncture and Chronic Pain: A Criteria-Based Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Epidemiology 1990 43:1191-9.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Acupuncture Needles No Longer Investigational”FDA Consumer Magazine June 1996.30(5).
  • Berman, B., Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenberg, P, Wong, R., Loangenberg, P, and Hochberg, M. “Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1995. (3):139-42.
  • Allen, J.J.B. “An Acupuncture Treatment Study for Unipolar Depression.” Psychological Science. 1998. 9:397-401.
  • Sonenklar, N. Acupuncture and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant *R21 RR09463. 1993.
  • Milligan, R. Breech Version by Acumoxa. National Instituties of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant #R21 RR09327. 1993.
  • Cardini, F. and Weixin, H. “Moxibustion for Correction of Breech Presentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial..” Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998. 280:1580-4
  • American Academy of Medical Acupuncture “Doctor, What’s This Acupuncture All About? Brief Explanation for Patients.“Los Angeles. CA: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, 1996.
  • Lao, L. “Safety Issues in Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996, 2(1):27-9.

  • Go to NCCAM Resource List Go to NCCAM web site for more current information
  • www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

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Sometimes TCM doctors treat patients mainly according to his or her illness/disorder, in other words, treating each illness/disorder the same. But most of the time, the treatments are individualized, especially when it involves using herbology or dietary adjustment. The same disease or condition may be treated differently depending on the individual’s constitutions and/or the individual’s illness stage; such that acute, chronic, and recovery stages all receive different treatments. Some patients may also have additional conditions to their primary condition, which would alter the formula recipe for the herbal tea.

Because Chinese Medicine uses more than one way to treat conditions or illnesses, one patient may receive acupuncture and Herbology, some may only receive Herbology, while others may receive just acupuncture, or other therapies such as Tui-na, Chinese therapeutic massage or bone-setting. Treatment is also dependent upon a patient’s preference and the provider’s training. For example, some providers may have only received training in acupuncture or herbology alone, while others may have had more extensive training within the whole context of TCM therapies. Therefore, some providers may have additional choices in applying suitable therapies to achieve quick, satisfactory results.

Patients with the same condition may have varied recovery times. When receiving treatment through herbology, it is beneficial to acknowledge that every person has a different constitution. The concept of a constitution in Chinese Medicine infers that every person has different organ function, structure, metabolism, and diverse personalities. Based on one TCM perspective, there are five main types of constitutions: Yang/hot type, Yin/cold type, Phlegm/damp type, Dry type, Neutral Type. Note that an individual usually does not maintain just one constitution; in actuality, people may have mixed physical and mental constitutions.  With TCM doctors’ guidance, each patient is capable of choosing the correct diet for their type, along with prescribed herbal teas, to aim for a neutral constitution and maintain a balanced life.

However, just because two people have the same constitution or pattern, does not mean they will be treated the same. For example, two women may exhibit the same blood-deficiency type; also known was anemia in Western medical terms. Yet one of the two ladies is on her period, and one is not menstruating. The woman menstruating will receive a different herbal tea formula because her body is in a different state. In this sense Dr. Fan says that even if two people have the same illness, but one has a different pattern, you do not treat the two patients the same. Yet even though two people may have a different illness, if their pattern is the same, it is possible treat them both alike. However because many people have other issues in addition to their main illness, it is sensible to treat each individual differently; everything depends on a patient’s specific condition at that particular time.

Personality also plays a role in determining the correct treatment for an individual. Dr. Fan is excellent at noticing a patient’s personality type and then basing a treatment plan off that observation. For example, for those of us who have drunk the herbal tea, we know it doesn’t always taste delicious. Despite the many who do not mind, there are those that prefer not to. Dr. Fan finds alternative means to treat these sensitive patients by either informing them of diet restrictions/additions, or providing them with herbal pills, which are quite easy to swallow and do not bother the stomach like most Western pharmaceuticals. Also for many children, it may be difficult for them to drink the herbal tea because of the taste, so the herbal pills are very convenient for that reason. Sometimes Dr. Fan may use herbs with less bitter or pungent smell/taste to substitute the herbs used in the original formula to make the aroma and taste more acceptable.

Based on the cultural differences, Asian cultures such as China, Korea, and Japan consist of doctors and patients that use more herbology in their treatment plans. In Western countries such as America, doctors and patients are more hesitant to use herbology as a treatment, and lean toward more acupuncture treatment instead. It is beneficial for the doctor-patient relationship to be as open about this as possible to create a happy and positive experience for the patient. Some cultures or societies have specific habits or preferences which they do not wish to change. TCM doctors attempt to understand these cultural differences and respect. In doing so, their treatment or dietary guidance will cater to those who do convey different cultural or societal ideals.

Written and edited by Arthur Fan and Julia Rosenthal.

For more information, visit: www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.US,  www.VITCM.org

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Here I post a doctor’s suggestion to his patient. I feel he is correct.
“I was just thinking why you may not have
taken advantage of your consultation.

You’re probably like many others who
suffer from back pain, headache, neck pain,
soreness, or any type of physical ache or pain…
the pain comes and goes and now you’re feeling
pretty good…am I right?

Sometimes even our patients often feel
better after the first few treatments,
and although this may seem good, the opposite
can sometimes be true as well.

Patients often mistake this feeling for a total
cure of their condition. They simply do not
realize that a relief of the symptoms DOES
NOT indicate a correction of the condition.

The smart patients never discontinue treatment
before their actual complaint has been corrected,
and if they do so, further complications are
bound to develop.

Even if you feel better, get checked out.

Prevent future problems.

We’ll extend our offer for a consultation,
but you have to call our office .
We’re standing by to hear from you and hopefully
help you prevent future problems.”

My phone number: 703-499-4428;

website: www.ChineseMedicineDoctor.US

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